The Mānavadharmaśāstra - SARIT transcript
Compilation, data entry, proof correction by
Michio Yano and Yasuke Ikari, Kyoto University
Editing and conversion to TEI markup by
Richard Mahoney, Indica et Buddhica
SARIT: Search and Retrieval of Indic Texts
London
:
2009
 
Financial support by The British Association for South Asian Studies
Financial support by The British Association for South Asian Studies

Table of contents

1. Chapter 1

[Page J 1 ] [Note: [ O edn 383-402 :: O tr. 87-93]

1.1. 1.1. Prologue

[Note: [ O edn 383-384 :: O tr. 87]
M1.01a/ manum ekāgram āsīnam abhigamya maharṣayaḥ |
M1.01c/ pratipūjya yathānyāyam idaṁ vacanam abruvan || 1 ||
M1.02a/ bhagavan sarvavarṇānāṁ yathāvad anupūrvaśaḥ |
M1.02c/ antaraprabhavānāṁ ca dharmān no vaktum arhasi || 2 ||
M1.03a/ tvam eko hy asya sarvasya vidhānasya svayambhuvaḥ |
M1.03c/ acintyasya-aprameyasya kāryatattvārthavit prabho || 3 ||
M1.04a/ sa taiḥ pṛṣṭas tathā samyag amita.ojā mahātmabhiḥ |
M1.04c/ pratyuvāca-arcya tān sarvān maharṣīn-śrūyatām iti || 4 ||

1.2. 1.2. Creation

[Note: [ O edn 384-388 :: O tr. 87-88]
M1.05a/ āsīd idam tamobhūtam a.prajñātam a.lakṣaṇam |
M1.05c/ a.pratarkyam a.vijñeyaṁ prasuptam iva sarvataḥ || 5 ||
M1.06a/ tataḥ svayambhūr bhagavān avyakto vyañjayann idam |
M1.06c/ mahābhūtādi vṛtta.ojāḥ prādur āsīt tamonudaḥ || 6 ||
[Page J 2 ]
M1.07a/ yo 'sāv atīndriyagrāhyaḥ sūkṣmo 'vyaktaḥ sanātanaḥ |
M1.07c/ sarvabhūtamayo 'cintyaḥ sa eva svayam udbabhau || 7 || [Note: M1.07cv/ M: sa eṣa]
M1.08a/ so 'bhidhyāya śarīrāt svāt sisṛkṣur vividhāḥ prajāḥ |
M1.08c/ apa eva sasarja-ādau tāsu vīryam avāsṛjat || 8 ||
M1.09a/ tad aṇḍam abhavadd haimaṁ sahasrāṁśusama.prabham |
M1.09c/ tasmiñ jajñe svayaṁ brahmā sarvalokapitāmahaḥ || 9 ||
M1.10a/ āpo narā iti proktā āpo vai narasūnavaḥ |
M1.10c/ tā yad asyāyanaṁ pūrvaṁ tena nārāyaṇaḥ smṛtaḥ || 10 ||
M1.11a/ yat tat kāraṇam avyaktaṁ nityaṁ sad.asad.ātmakaṁ |
M1.11c/ tad.visṛṣṭaḥ sa puruṣo loke brahmā-iti kīrtyate || 11 ||
M1.12a/ tasminn aṇḍe sa bhagavān uṣitvā parivatsaram |
M1.12c/ svayam evātmano dhyānāt tad aṇḍam akarod dvidhā || 12 ||
M1.13a/ tābhyāṁ sa śakalābhyāṁ ca divaṁ bhūmiṁ ca nirmame |
M1.13c/ madhye vyoma diśaś ca-aṣṭāv apāṁ sthānaṁ ca śāśvataṁ || 13 ||
M1.14a/ udbabarha-ātmanaś ca-eva manaḥ sad.asad.ātmakam |
M1.14c/ manasaś ca-apy ahaṅkāram abhimantāram īśvaram || 14 || [Note: M1.14cv/ M: ahaṅkāram]
M1.15a/ mahāntam eva ca-ātmānaṁ sarvāṇi tri.guṇāni ca |
M1.15c/ viṣayāṇāṁ grahītṝṇi śanaiḥ pañca.indriyāṇi ca || 15 ||
M1.16a/ teṣāṁ tv avayavān sūkṣmān ṣaṇṇām apy amita.ojasām |
M1.16c/ sanniveśya-ātmamātrāsu sarvabhūtāni nirmame || 16 || [Note: M1.16cv/ M: sanniveśya]
[Page J 3 ]
M1.17a/ yan mūrti.avayavāḥ sūkṣmās tāni-imāny āśrayanti ṣaṭ |
M1.17c/ tasmāt-śarīram ity āhus tasya mūrtiṁ manīṣiṇaḥ || 17 ||
M1.18a/ tad āviśanti bhūtāni mahānti saha karmabhiḥ |
M1.18c/ manaś ca-avayavaiḥ sūkṣmaiḥ sarvabhūtakṛd avyayam || 18 ||
M1.19a/ teṣām idaṁ tu saptānāṁ puruṣāṇāṁ mahā.ojasām |
M1.19c/ sūkṣmābhyo mūrtimātrābhyaḥ sambhavaty avyayād vyayam || 19 ||
M1.20a/ ādyādyasya guṇaṁ tv eṣām avāpnoti paraḥ paraḥ |
M1.20c/ yo yo yāvatithaś ca-eṣāṁ sa sa tāvad guṇaḥ smṛtaḥ || 20 ||
M1.21a/ sarveṣāṁ tu sa nāmāni karmāṇi ca pṛthak pṛthak |
M1.21c/ vedaśabdebhya eva-ādau pṛthak saṁsthāś ca nirmame || 21 ||
M1.22a/ karmātmanāṁ ca devānāṁ so 'sṛjat prāṇināṁ prabhuḥ |
M1.22c/ sādhyānāṁ ca gaṇaṁ sūkṣmaṁ yajñaṁ ca-eva sanātanam || 22 ||
M1.23a/ agni.vāyu.ravibhyas tu trayaṁ brahma sanātanam |
M1.23c/ dudoha yajñasiddhi.artham ṛc.yajus.sāma.lakṣaṇam || 23 ||
M1.24a/ kālaṁ kālavibhaktīś ca nakṣatrāṇi grahāṁs tathā |
M1.24c/ saritaḥ sāgarān-śailān samāni viṣamāni ca || 24 ||
M1.25a/ tapo vācaṁ ratiṁ ca-eva kāmaṁ ca krodham eva ca |
M1.25c/ sṛṣṭiṁ sasarja ca-eva-imāṁ sraṣṭum icchann imāḥ prajāḥ || 25 ||
M1.26a/ karmaṇāṁ ca vivekārthaṁ dharma.adharmau vyavecayat | [Note: M1.26av/ K: vivekāya]
M1.26c/ dvandvair ayojayac ca-imāḥ sukha.duḥkhādibhiḥ prajāḥ || 26 ||
[Page J 4 ]
M1.27a/ aṇvyo mātrā vināśinyo daśārdhānāṁ tu yāḥ smṛtāḥ |
M1.27c/ tābhiḥ sārdham idaṁ sarvaṁ sambhavaty anupūrvaśaḥ || 27 ||
M1.28a/ yaṁ tu karmaṇi yasmin sa nyayuṅkta prathamaṁ prabhuḥ |
M1.28c/ sa tad eva svayaṁ bheje sṛjyamānaḥ punaḥ punaḥ || 28 ||
M1.29a/ hiṁsra.ahiṁsre mṛdu.krūre dharma.adharmāv ṛta.an.ṛte |
M1.29c/ yad yasya so 'dadhāt sarge tat tasya svayam āviśat || 29 ||
M1.30a/ yathā-ṛtu.liṅgāny ṛtavaḥ svayam eva-ṛtuparyaye |
M1.30c/ svāni svāny abhipadyante tathā karmāṇi dehinaḥ || 30 ||
M1.31a/ lokānāṁ tu vivṛddhi.arthaṁ mukha.bāhu.ūru.pādataḥ |
M1.31c/ brāhmaṇaṁ kṣatriyaṁ vaiśyaṁ śūdraṁ ca niravartayat || 31 ||

1.3. 1.3. Excursus: Second Account of Creation

[Note: [ O edn 388-390 :: O tr. 88-89]
M1.32a/ dvidhā kṛtvā-ātmano deham ardhena puruṣo 'bhavat |
M1.32c/ ardhena nārī tasyāṁ sa virājam asṛjat prabhuḥ || 32 ||
M1.33a/ tapas taptvā-asṛjad yaṁ tu sa svayaṁ puruṣo virāṭ |
M1.33c/ taṁ māṁ vitta-asya sarvasya sraṣṭāraṁ dvijasattamāḥ || 33 ||
M1.34a/ ahaṁ prajāḥ sisṛkṣus tu tapas taptvā su.duścaram |
M1.34c/ patīn prajānām asṛjaṁ maharṣīn ādito daśa || 34 ||
M1.35a/ marīcim atri.aṅgirasau pulastyaṁ pulahaṁ kratum |
M1.35c/ pracetasaṁ vasiṣṭhaṁ ca bhṛguṁ nāradam eva ca || 35 ||
M1.36a/ ete manūṁs tu saptān yān asṛjan bhūritejasaḥ |
M1.36c/ devān devanikāyāṁś ca maharṣīṁś ca-amita.ojasaḥ || 36 ||
[Page J 5 ]
M1.37a/ yakṣa.rakṣas.piśācāṁś ca gandharva.apsaraso 'surān |
M1.37c/ nāgān sarpān suparṇāṁś ca pitṝṇāṁś ca pṛthaggaṇam || 37 || [Note: M1.37cv/ M: pitṝṇāṁ]
M1.38a/ vidyuto 'śani.meghāṁś ca rohita.indradhanūṁṣi ca |
M1.38c/ ulkā.nirghāta.ketūṁś ca jyotīṁṣy uccāvacāni ca || 38 ||
M1.39a/ kinnarān vānarān matsyān vividhāṁś ca vihaṅgamān |
M1.39c/ paśūn mṛgān manuṣyāṁś ca vyālāṁś ca-ubhayatodataḥ || 39 ||
M1.40a/ kṛmi.kīṭa.pataṅgāṁś ca yūkā.makṣika.matkuṇam |
M1.40c/ sarvaṁ ca daṁśa.maśakaṁ sthāvaraṁ ca pṛthagvidham || 40 ||
M1.41a/ evam etair idaṁ sarvaṁ mad.niyogān mahātmabhiḥ |
M1.41c/ yathākarma tapoyogāt sṛṣṭaṁ sthāvara.jaṅgamam || 41 ||

1.4. 1.4. Excursus: Classification of Fauna and Flora

[Note: [ O edn 390-391 :: O tr. 89]
M1.42a/ yeṣāṁ tu yādṛṣaṁ karma bhūtānām iha kīrtitam |
M1.42c/ tat tathā vo 'bhidhāsyāmi kramayogaṁ ca janmani || 42 ||
M1.43a/ paśavaś ca mṛgāś ca-eva vyālāś ca-ubhayatodataḥ |
M1.43c/ rakṣāṁsi ca piśācāś ca manuṣyāś ca jarāyujāḥ || 43 || [Note: M1.43cv/ M: manuṣāś ca]
M1.44a/ aṇḍājāḥ pakṣiṇaḥ sarpā nakrā matsyāś ca kacchapāḥ |
M1.44c/ yāni ca-evaṁ.prakārāṇi sthalajāny audakāni ca || 44 ||
M1.45a/ svedajaṁ daṁśa.maśakaṁ yūkā.makṣika.matkuṇam |
M1.45c/ ūṣmaṇaś ca-upajāyante yac ca-anyat kiṁ cid īdṛṣam || 45 ||
M1.46a/ udbhijjāḥ sthāvarāḥ sarve bīja.kāṇḍaprarohiṇaḥ |
M1.46c/ oṣadhyaḥ phalapākāntā bahu.puṣpa.phala.upagāḥ || 46 ||
[Page J 6 ]
M1.47a/ apuṣpāḥ phalavanto ye te vanaspatayaḥ smṛtāḥ |
M1.47c/ puṣpiṇaḥ phalinaś ca-eva vṛkṣās tu-ubhayataḥ smṛtāḥ || 47 ||
M1.48a/ guccha.gulmaṁ tu vividhaṁ tathā-eva tṛṇajātayaḥ |
M1.48c/ bīja.kāṇḍaruhāṇy eva pratānā vallya eva ca || 48 ||
M1.49a/ tamasā bahu.rūpeṇa veṣṭitāḥ karmahetunā |
M1.49c/ antaḥ.sañjñā bhavanty ete sukha.duḥkha.samanvitāḥ || 49 ||
M1.50a/ etad.antās tu gatayo brahmādyāḥ samudāhṛtāḥ |
M1.50c/ ghore 'smin bhūtasaṁsāre nityaṁ satatayāyini || 50 ||

1.5. 1.5. Excursus: Cosmic Cycles

[Note: [ O edn 391-392 :: O tr. 89]
M1.51a/ evaṁ sarvaṁ sa sṛṣṭvā-idaṁ māṁ ca-acintya.parākramaḥ |
M1.51c/ ātmany antardadhe bhūyaḥ kālaṁ kālena pīḍayan || 51 ||
M1.52a/ yadā sa devo jāgarti tad evaṁ ceṣṭate jagat |
M1.52c/ yadā svapiti śānta.ātmā tadā sarvaṁ nimīlati || 52 ||
M1.53a/ tasmin svapiti tu svasthe karma.ātmānaḥ śarīriṇaḥ | [Note: M1.53av/ M: svapati]
M1.53c/ svakarmabhyo nivartante manaś ca glānim ṛcchati || 53 ||
M1.54a/ yugapat tu pralīyante yadā tasmin mahātmani |
M1.54c/ tadā-ayaṁ sarvabhūtātmā sukhaṁ svapiti nirvṛtaḥ || 54 ||
M1.55a/ tamo 'yaṁ tu samāśritya ciraṁ tiṣṭhati sa.indriyaḥ |
M1.55c/ na ca svaṁ kurute karma tadā-utkrāmati mūrtitaḥ || 55 ||
M1.56a/ yadā-aṇumātriko bhūtvā bījaṁ sthāsnu cariṣṇu ca |
M1.56c/ samāviśati saṁsṛṣṭas tadā mūrtiṁ vimuñcati || 56 ||
[Page J 7 ]
M1.57a/ evaṁ sa jāgrat.svapnābhyām idaṁ sarvaṁ cara.acaram |
M1.57c/ sañjīvayati ca-ajasraṁ pramāpayati ca-avyayaḥ || 57 ||

1.6. 1.6. Transmission of the Law

[Note: [ O edn 392-393 :: O tr. 89-90]
M1.58a/ idaṁ śāstraṁ tu kṛtvā-asau mām eva svayam āditaḥ |
M1.58c/ vidhivad grāhayām āsa marīci.ādīṁs tv ahaṁ munīn || 58 ||
M1.59a/ etad vo 'yaṁ bhṛguḥ śāstraṁ śrāvayiṣyaty aśesataḥ |
M1.59c/ etadd hi matto 'dhijage sarvam eṣo 'khilaṁ muniḥ || 59 ||
M1.60a/ tatas tathā sa tena-ukto maharṣi.manunā bhṛguḥ |
M1.60c/ tān abravīd ṛṣīn sarvān prītātmā śrūyatām iti || 60 ||

1.7. 1.7. Excursus: Time and Cosmology

[Note: [ O edn 393-397 :: O tr. 90-91]
M1.61a/ svāyambhuvasya-asya manoḥ ṣaḍvaṁśyā manavo 'pare |
M1.61c/ sṛṣṭavantaḥ prajāḥ svāḥ svā mahātmāno mahā.ojasaḥ || 61 ||
M1.62a/ svārociṣaś ca-uttamaś ca tāmaso raivatas tathā |
M1.62c/ cākṣuṣaś ca mahātejā vivasvat.suta eva ca || 62 ||
M1.63a/ svāyambhuva.ādyāḥ sapta-ete manavo bhūritejasaḥ |
M1.63c/ sve sve 'ntare sarvam idam utpādya-āpuś cara.acaram || 63 ||
M1.64a/ nimeṣā daśa ca-aṣṭau ca kāṣṭhā triṁśat tu tāḥ kalā |
M1.64c/ triṁśat kalā muhūrtaḥ syād ahorātraṁ tu tāvataḥ || 64 ||
M1.65a/ ahorātre vibhajate sūryo mānuṣa.daivike |
M1.65c/ rātriḥ svapnāya bhūtānāṁ ceṣṭāyai karmaṇām ahaḥ || 65 ||
M1.66a/ pitrye rātri.ahanī māsaḥ pravibhāgas tu pakṣayoḥ |
M1.66c/ karma.ceṣṭāsv ahaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ śuklaḥ svapnāya śarvarī || 66 ||
[Page J 8 ]
M1.67a/ daive rātri.ahanī varṣaṁ pravibhāgas tayoḥ punaḥ |
M1.67c/ ahas tatra-udagayanaṁ rātriḥ syād dakṣiṇāyanam || 67 ||
M1.68a/ brāhmasya tu kṣapāhasya yat pramāṇaṁ samāsataḥ |
M1.68c/ ekaikaśo yugānāṁ tu kramaśas tan nibodhata || 68 ||
M1.69a/ catvāry āhuḥ sahasrāṇi varsāṇāṁ tat kṛtaṁ yugam |
M1.69c/ tasya tāvat-śatī sandhyā sandhyāṁśaś ca tathāvidhaḥ || 69 ||
M1.70a/ itareṣu sa.sandhyeṣu sa.sandhyāṁśeṣu ca triṣu |
M1.70c/ ekāpāyena vartante sahasrāṇi śatāni ca || 70 ||
M1.71a/ yad etat parisaṅkhyātam ādāv eva caturyugam |
M1.71c/ etad dvādaśasāhasraṁ devānāṁ yugam ucyate || 71 ||
M1.72a/ daivikānāṁ yugānāṁ tu sahasraṁ parisaṅkhyayā |
M1.72c/ brāhmam ekam ahar jñeyaṁ tāvatīṁ rātrim eva ca || 72 || [Note: M1.72cv/ M: tāvatī rātrir eva ca]
M1.73a/ tad vai yugasahasrāntaṁ brāhmaṁ puṇyam ahar viduḥ |
M1.73c/ rātriṁ ca tāvatīm eva te 'horātravido janāḥ || 73 ||
M1.74a/ tasya so 'har.niśasya-ante prasuptaḥ pratibudhyate |
M1.74c/ pratibuddhaś ca sṛjati manaḥ sad.asad.ātmakam || 74 ||
M1.75a/ manaḥ sṛṣṭiṁ vikurute codyamānaṁ sisṛkṣayā |
M1.75c/ ākāśaṁ jāyate tasmāt tasya śabdaṁ guṇaṁ viduḥ || 75 ||
M1.76a/ ākāśāt tu vikurvāṇāt sarvagandhavahaḥ śuciḥ |
M1.76c/ balavāñ jāyate vāyuḥ sa vai sparśa.guṇo mataḥ || 76 ||
[Page J 9 ]
M1.77a/ vāyor api vikurvāṇād virociṣṇu tamonudam |
M1.77c/ jyotir utpadyate bhāsvat tad rūpa.guṇam ucyate || 77 ||
M1.78a/ jyotiṣaś ca vikurvāṇād āpo rasa.guṇāḥ smṛtāḥ |
M1.78c/ adbhyo gandha.guṇā bhūmir ity eṣā sṛṣṭir āditaḥ || 78 ||
M1.79a/ yad prāg dvādaśasāhasram uditaṁ daivikaṁ yugam |
M1.79c/ tad ekasaptati.guṇaṁ manvantaram iha-ucyate || 79 ||
M1.80a/ manvantarāṇy asaṅkhyāni sargaḥ saṁhāra eva ca |
M1.80c/ krīḍann iva-etat kurute parameṣṭhī punaḥ punaḥ || 80 ||
M1.81a/ catuṣpāt sakalo dharmaḥ satyaṁ ca-eva kṛte yuge |
M1.81c/ na-adharmeṇa-āgamaḥ kaś cin manuṣyān prati vartate || 81 || [Note: M1.81cv/ M: upavartate]
M1.82a/ itareṣv āgamād dharmaḥ pādaśas tv avaropitaḥ |
M1.82c/ caurika.anṛta.māyābhir dharmaś ca-apaiti pādaśaḥ || 82 ||
M1.83a/ a.rogāḥ sarvasiddhārthāś caturvarṣaśata.āyuṣaḥ |
M1.83c/ kṛte tretādiṣu hy eṣāṁ āyur hrasati pādaśaḥ || 83 || [Note: M1.83cv/ V: vayo hrasati]
M1.84a/ veda.uktam āyur martyānām āśiṣaś ca-eva karmaṇām |
M1.84c/ phalanty anuyugaṁ loke prabhāvaś ca śarīriṇām || 84 ||
M1.85a/ anye kṛtayuge dharmās tretāyāṁ dvāpare 'pare | [Note: M1.85av/ M: pare]
M1.85c/ anye kaliyuge nṝṇāṁ yugahrāsānurūpataḥ || 85 ||
M1.86a/ tapaḥ paraṁ kṛtayuge tretāyāṁ jñānam ucyate |
M1.86c/ dvāpare yajñam evāhur dānam ekaṁ kalau yuge || 86 ||

1.8. 1.8. Excursus: Occupations of Social Classes

[Page J 10 ] [Note: [ O edn 397 :: O tr. 91]
M1.87a/ sarvasya-asya tu sargasya gupti.arthaṁ sa mahā.dyutiḥ |
M1.87c/ mukha.bāhu.ūru.pajjānāṁ pṛthakkarmāṇy akalpayat || 87 ||
M1.88a/ adhyāpanam adhyayanaṁ yajanaṁ yājanaṁ tathā |
M1.88c/ dānaṁ pratigrahaṁ ca-eva brāhmaṇānām akalpayat || 88 ||
M1.89a/ prajānāṁ rakṣaṇaṁ dānam ijyā.adhyayanam eva ca |
M1.89c/ viṣayeṣv a.prasaktiś ca kṣatriyasya samāsataḥ || 89 || [Note: M1.89cv/ M: samādiśat]
M1.90a/ paśūnāṁ rakṣaṇaṁ dānam ijyā.adhyayanam eva ca |
M1.90c/ vaṇikpathaṁ kusīdaṁ ca vaiśyasya kṛṣim eva ca || 90 ||
M1.91a/ ekam eva tu śūdrasya prabhuḥ karma samādiśat |
M1.91c/ eteṣām eva varṇānāṁ śuśrūṣām anasūyayā || 91 ||

1.9. 1.9. Excursus: Excellence of the Brahmin

[Note: [ O edn 397-399 :: O tr. 91-92]
M1.92a/ ūrdhvaṁ nābher medhyataraḥ puruṣaḥ parikīrtitaḥ |
M1.92c/ tasmān medhyatamaṁ tv asya mukham uktaṁ svayambhuvā || 92 ||
M1.93a/ uttamāṅga.udbhavāj jyeṣṭhyād brahmaṇaś ca-eva dhāraṇāt | [Note: M1.93av/ M: jyaiṣṭhyād]
M1.93c/ sarvasya-eva-asya sargasya dharmato brāhmaṇaḥ prabhuḥ || 93 ||
M1.94a/ taṁ hi svayambhūḥ svād āsyāt tapas taptvā-ādito 'sṛjat |
M1.94c/ havya.kavyābhivāhyāya sarvasya-asya ca guptaye || 94 ||
M1.95a/ yasya-āsyena sadā-aśnanti havyāni tridiva.okasaḥ |
M1.95c/ kavyāni ca-eva pitaraḥ kiṁ bhūtam adhikaṁ tataḥ || 95 ||
M1.96a/ bhūtānāṁ prāṇinaḥ śreṣṭhāḥ prāṇināṁ buddhijīvinaḥ |
M1.96c/ buddhimatsu narāḥ śreṣṭhā nareṣu brāhmaṇāḥ smṛtāḥ || 96 ||
[Page J 11 ]
M1.97a/ brāhmaṇeṣu ca vidvāṁso vidvatsu kṛta.buddhayaḥ |
M1.97c/ kṛta.buddhiṣu kartāraḥ kartṛṣu brahmavedinaḥ || 97 ||
M1.98a/ utpattir eva viprasya mūrtir dharmasya śāśvatī |
M1.98c/ sa hi dharmārtham utpanno brahmabhūyāya kalpate || 98 ||
M1.99a/ brāhmaṇo jāyamāno hi pṛthivyām adhijāyate |
M1.99c/ īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ dharmakośasya guptaye || 99 ||
M1.100a/ sarvaṁ svaṁ brāhmaṇasya-idaṁ yat kiṁ cit-jagatīgataṁ |
M1.100c/ śraiṣṭhyena-abhijanena-idaṁ sarvaṁ vai brāhmaṇo 'rhati || 100 ||
M1.101a/ svam eva brāhmaṇo bhuṅkte svaṁ vaste svaṁ dadāti ca |
M1.101c/ ānṛśaṁsyād brāhmaṇasya bhuñjate hi-itare janāḥ || 101 ||

1.10. 1.10. Excursus: Treatise of Manu

[Note: [ O edn 399-401 :: O tr. 92]
M1.102a/ tasya karmaviveka.arthaṁ śeṣāṇām anupūrvaśaḥ |
M1.102c/ svāyambhuvo manur dhīmān idaṁ śāstram akalpayat || 102 ||
M1.103a/ viduṣā brāhmaṇena-idam adhyetavyaṁ prayatnataḥ |
M1.103c/ śiśyebhyaś ca pravaktavyaṁ samyaṅ na-anyena kena cit || 103 ||
M1.104a/ idaṁ śāstram adhīyāno brāhmaṇaḥ śaṁsita.vrataḥ |
M1.104c/ manas.vāc.dehajair nityaṁ karmadoṣair na lipyate || 104 ||
M1.105a/ punāti paṅktiṁ vaṁśyāṁś ca sapta.sapta para.avarān |
M1.105c/ pṛthivīm api ca-eva-imāṁ kṛtsnām eko 'pi so 'rhati || 105 ||
M1.106a/ idaṁ svastyayanaṁ śreṣṭham idaṁ buddhivivardhanam |
M1.106c/ idaṁ yaśasyam āyuṣyam idaṁ niḥśreyasaṁ param || 106 || [Note: M1.106cv/ M: idaṁ yaśasyaṁ satatam]
[Page J 12 ]
M1.107a/ asmin dharmo 'khilena-ukto guṇa.doṣau ca karmaṇām |
M1.107c/ caturṇām api varṇānām ācāraś ca-eva śāśvataḥ || 107 ||
M1.108a/ ācāraḥ paramo dharmaḥ śruti.uktaḥ smārta eva ca |
M1.108c/ tasmād asmin sadā yukto nityaṁ syād ātmavān dvijaḥ || 108 ||
M1.109a/ ācārād vicyuto vipro na vedaphalam aśnute |
M1.109c/ ācāreṇa tu saṁyuktaḥ sampūrṇaphalabhāj bhavet || 109 || [Note: M1.109cv/ M: sampūrṇaphalabhāk smṛtaḥ]
M1.110a/ evam ācārato dṛṣṭvā dharmasya munayo gatiṁ |
M1.110c/ sarvasya tapaso mūlam ācāraṁ jagṛhuḥ param || 110 ||

1.11. 1.11. Excursus: Synopsis

[Note: [ O edn 401-402 :: O tr. 92-93]
M1.111a/ jagataś ca samutpattiṁ saṁskāravidhim eva ca |
M1.111c/ vratacaryā.upacāraṁ ca snānasya ca paraṁ vidhim || 111 ||
M1.112a/ dārādhigamanaṁ ca-eva vivāhānāṁ ca lakṣaṇam |
M1.112c/ mahāyajñavidhānaṁ ca śrāddhakalpaṁ ca śāśvatam || 112 ||
M1.113a/ vṛttīnāṁ lakṣaṇaṁ ca-eva snātakasya vratāni ca |
M1.113c/ bhakṣya.abhakṣyaṁ ca śaucaṁ ca dravyāṇāṁ śuddhim eva ca || 113 ||
M1.114a/ strīdharma.yogaṁ tāpasyaṁ mokṣaṁ sannyāsam eva ca |
M1.114c/ rājñaś ca dharmam akhilaṁ kāryāṇāṁ ca vinirṇayam || 114 ||
M1.115a/ sākṣipraśna.vidhānaṁ ca dharmaṁ strī.puṁsayor api |
M1.115c/ vibhāgadharmaṁ dyūtaṁ ca kaṇṭakānāṁ ca śodhanam || 115 ||
M1.116a/ vaiśya.śūdra.upacāraṁ ca saṅkīrṇānāṁ ca sambhavam |
M1.116c/ āpad.dharmaṁ ca varṇānāṁ prāyaścitta.vidhiṁ tathā || 116 ||
[Page J 13 ]
M1.117a/ saṁsāragamanaṁ ca-eva trividhaṁ karma.sambhavam |
M1.117c/ niḥśreyasaṁ karmaṇāṁ ca guṇa.doṣaparīkṣaṇam || 117 ||
M1.118a/ deśadharmān-jātidharmān kuladharmāṁś ca śāśvatān |
M1.118c/ pāṣaṇḍa.gaṇadharmāṁś ca śāstre 'sminn uktavān manuḥ || 118 ||
M1.119a/ yathā-idam uktavān-śāstraṁ purā pṛṣṭo manur mayā |
M1.119c/ tathā-idaṁ yūyam apy adya mat.sakāśāt-nibodhata || 119 ||

2. Chapter 2

[Page J 14 ] [Note: [ O edn 403-446 :: O tr. 94-107]

2.1. 2.1. The Law

[Note: [ O edn 403-415 :: O tr. 94-98]
M2.01a/ vidvadbhiḥ sevitaḥ sadbhir nityam a.dveṣa.rāgibhiḥ |
M2.01c/ hṛdayena-abhyanujñāto yo dharmas taṁ nibodhata || 1 ||

2.1.1. 2.1.1. Excursus: Desire

[Note: [ O edn 403 :: O tr. 94]
M2.02a/ kāmātmatā na praśastā na ca-eva-iha-asty akāmatā |
M2.02c/ kāmyo hi vedādhigamaḥ karmayogaś ca vaidikaḥ || 2 ||
M2.03a/ saṅkalpa.mūlaḥ kāmo vai yajñāḥ saṅkalpa.sambhavāḥ |
M2.03c/ vratāni yamadharmāś ca sarve saṅkalpajāḥ smṛtāḥ || 3 ||
M2.04a/ a.kāmasya kriyā kā cid dṛśyate na-iha karhi cit |
M2.04c/ yad yadd hi kurute kiṁ cit tat tat kāmasya ceṣṭitam || 4 ||
M2.05a/ teṣu samyag vartamāno gacchaty amaralokatām |
M2.05c/ yathā saṅkalpitāṁś ca-iha sarvān kāmān samaśnute || 5 ||

2.1.2. 2.1.2. Sources of Law

[Note: [ O edn 404 :: O tr. 94]
M2.06a/ vedo 'khilo dharmamūlaṁ smṛti.śīle ca tadvidām |
M2.06c/ ācāraś ca-eva sādhūnām ātmanas tuṣṭir eva ca || 6 ||
M2.07a/ yaḥ kaś cit kasya cid dharmo manunā parikīrtitaḥ |
M2.07c/ sa sarvo 'bhihito vede sarvajñānamayo hi saḥ || 7 ||
[Page J 15 ]
M2.08a/ sarvaṁ tu samavekṣya-idaṁ nikhilaṁ jñānacakṣuṣā |
M2.08c/ śrutiprāmāṇyato vidvān svadharme niviśeta vai || 8 ||
M2.09a/ śruti.smṛti.uditaṁ dharmam anutiṣṭhan hi mānavaḥ |
M2.09c/ iha kīrtim avāpnoti pretya ca-anuttamaṁ sukham || 9 ||
M2.10a/ śrutis tu vedo vijñeyo dharmaśāstraṁ tu vai smṛtiḥ |
M2.10c/ te sarvārtheṣv a.mīmāṁsye tābhyāṁ dharmo hi nirbabhau || 10 ||
M2.11a/ yo 'vamanyeta te mūle hetuśāstrāśrayād dvijaḥ |
M2.11c/ sa sādhubhir bahiṣkāryo nāstiko vedanindakaḥ || 11 ||

2.1.3. 2.1.3. Knowledge of the Law

[Note: [ O edn 405 :: O tr. 94]
M2.12a/ vedaḥ smṛtiḥ sadācāraḥ svasya ca priyam ātmanaḥ |
M2.12c/ etac caturvidhaṁ prāhuḥ sākṣād dharmasya lakṣaṇam || 12 ||
M2.13a/ artha.kāmeṣv a.saktānāṁ dharmajñānaṁ vidhīyate |
M2.13c/ dharmaṁ jijñāsamānānāṁ pramāṇaṁ paramaṁ śrutiḥ || 13 ||

2.1.4. 2.1.4. Contradictions in Law

[Note: [ O edn 405 :: O tr. 95]
M2.14a/ śrutidvaidhaṁ tu yatra syāt tatra dharmāv ubhau smṛtau |
M2.14c/ ubhāv api hi tau dharmau samyag uktau manīṣibhiḥ || 14 ||
M2.15a/ udite 'nudite ca-eva samayādhyuṣite tathā |
M2.15c/ sarvathā vartate yajña iti-iyaṁ vaidikī śrutiḥ || 15 ||

2.1.5. 2.1.5. Competence to Study the Law

[Note: [ O edn 405-406 :: O tr. 95]
M2.16a/ niṣeka.ādi.śmaśāna.anto mantrair yasya-udito vidhiḥ |
M2.16c/ tasya śāstre 'dhikāro 'smiñ jñeyo na-anyasya kasya cit || 16 ||

2.1.6. 2.1.6. The Sacred Land

[Note: [ O edn 406-407 :: O tr. 95]
M2.17a/ sarasvatī.dṛśadvatyor devanadyor yad antaram |
M2.17c/ taṁ devanirmitaṁ deśaṁ brahmāvartaṁ pracakṣate || 17 ||
[Page J 16 ]
M2.18a/ tasmin deśe ya ācāraḥ pāramparyakramāgataḥ |
M2.18c/ varṇānāṁ sa.antarālānāṁ sa sadācāra ucyate || 18 ||
M2.19a/ kurukṣetraṁ ca matsyāś ca pañcālāḥ śūrasenakāḥ |
M2.19c/ eṣa brahmarṣideśo vai brahmāvartād anantaraḥ || 19 ||
M2.20a/ etad deśaprasūtasya sakāśād agrajanmanaḥ |
M2.20c/ svaṁ svaṁ caritraṁ śikṣeran pṛthivyāṁ sarvamānavāḥ || 20 ||
M2.21a/ himavad.vindhyayor madhyaṁ yat prāg vinaśanād api |
M2.21c/ pratyag eva prayāgāc ca madhyadeśaḥ prakīrtitaḥ || 21 ||
M2.22a/ ā samudrāt tu vai pūrvād ā samudrāc ca paścimāt |
M2.22c/ tayor eva-antaraṁ giryor āryāvartaṁ vidur budhāḥ || 22 ||
M2.23a/ kṛṣṇasāras tu carati mṛgo yatra svabhāvataḥ |
M2.23c/ sa jñeyo yajñiyo deśo mlecchadeśas tv ataḥ paraḥ || 23 ||
M2.24a/ etāṇ dvijātayo deśān saṁśrayeran prayatnataḥ |
M2.24c/ śūdras tu yasmin kasmin vā nivased vṛttikarśitaḥ || 24 || [Note: M2.24cv/ M: yasmiṁs tasmin vā]

2.1.7. 2.1.7. Consecratory Rites

[Note: [ O edn 407-408 :: O tr. 95]
M2.25a/ eṣā dharmasya vo yoniḥ samāsena prakīrtitā |
M2.25c/ sambhavaś ca-asya sarvasya varṇadharmān nibodhata || 25 ||
M2.26a/ vaidikaiḥ karmabhiḥ puṇyair niṣekādir dvijanmanām |
M2.26c/ kāryaḥ śarīrasaṁskāraḥ pāvanaḥ pretya ca-iha ca || 26 ||
M2.27a/ gārbhair homair jātakarma.cauḍa.mauñjī.nibandhanaiḥ |
M2.27c/ baijikaṁ gārbhikaṁ ca-eno dvijānām apamṛjyate || 27 ||
[Page J 17 ]
M2.28a/ svādhyāyena vratair homais traividyena-ijyayā sutaiḥ |
M2.28c/ mahāyajñaiś ca yajñaiś ca brāhmī-iyaṁ kriyate tanuḥ || 28 ||

2.1.8. 2.1.8. Childhood Rites

[Note: [ O edn 408-409 :: O tr. 96]
M2.29a/ prāṅ nābhivardhanāt puṁso jātakarma vidhīyate |
M2.29c/ mantravat prāśanaṁ ca-asya hiraṇya.madhu.sarpiṣām || 29 ||
M2.30a/ nāmadheyaṁ daśamyāṁ tu dvādaśyāṁ vā-asya kārayet |
M2.30c/ puṇye tithau muhūrte vā nakṣatre vā guṇānvite || 30 ||
M2.31a/ maṅgalyaṁ brāhmaṇasya syāt kṣatriyasya balānvitam |
M2.31c/ vaiśyasya dhanasaṁyuktaṁ śūdrasya tu jugupsitam || 31 ||
M2.32a/ śarmavad brāhmaṇasya syād rājño rakṣāsamanvitam | [Note: M2.32av/ M: rājñā ?]
M2.32c/ vaiśyasya puṣṭi.saṁyuktaṁ śūdrasya preṣyasaṁyutam || 32 ||
M2.33a/ strīṇāṁ sukha.udyam a.krūraṁ vispaṣṭa.arthaṁ manoharam |
M2.33c/ maṅgalyaṁ dīrghavarṇa.antam āśīrvāda.abhidhānavat || 33 ||
M2.34a/ caturthe māsi kartavyaṁ śiśor niṣkramaṇaṁ gṛhāt |
M2.34c/ ṣaṣṭhe 'nnaprāśanaṁ māsi yad vā-iṣṭaṁ maṅgalaṁ kule || 34 ||
M2.35a/ cūḍākarma dvijātīnāṁ sarveṣām eva dharmataḥ |
M2.35c/ prathame 'bde tṛtīye vā kartavyaṁ śruticodanāt || 35 || [Note: M2.35cv/ M: śrutinodanāt]

2.1.9. 2.1.9. Vedic Initiation

[Note: [ O edn 409-414 :: O tr. 96-97]
2.1.9.1. 2.1.9.1. Time for Initiation
[Note: [ O edn 409 :: O tr. 96]
M2.36a/ garbhāṣṭame 'bde kurvīta brāhmaṇasya-upanāyanam |
M2.36c/ garbhād ekādaśe rājño garbhāt tu dvādaśe viśaḥ || 36 ||
M2.37a/ brahmavarcasa.kāmasya kāryo viprasya pañcame |
M2.37c/ rājño bala.arthinaḥ ṣaṣṭhe vaiśyasya-iha-arthino 'ṣṭame || 37 ||
2.1.9.2. 2.1.9.2. Failure to be Initiated
[Page J 18 ] [Note: [ O edn 409-410 :: O tr. 96]
M2.38a/ ā ṣodaśād brāhmaṇasya sāvitrī na-ativartate |
M2.38c/ ā dvāviṁśāt kṣatrabandhor ā caturviṁśater viśaḥ || 38 ||
M2.39a/ ata ūrdhvaṁ trayo 'py ete yathākālam a.saṁskṛtāḥ |
M2.39c/ sāvitrīpatitā vrātyā bhavanty āryavigarhitāḥ || 39 ||
M2.40a/ na-etair a.pūtair vidhivad āpady api hi karhi cit |
M2.40c/ brāhmān yaunāṁś ca sambandhān na-ācared brāhmaṇaḥ saha || 40 || [Note: M2.40cv/ M: brāhmaṇaiḥ saha]
2.1.9.3. 2.1.9.3. Insignia-I
[Note: [ O edn 410-411 :: O tr. 96-97]
M2.41a/ kārṣṇa.raurava.bāstāni carmāṇi brahmacāriṇaḥ |
M2.41c/ vasīrann ānupūrvyeṇa śāṇa.kṣauma.āvikāni ca || 41 ||
M2.42a/ mauñjī trivṛt samā ślakṣṇā kāryā viprasya mekhalā |
M2.42c/ kṣatriyasya tu maurvī jyā vaiśyasya śaṇatāntavī || 42 ||
M2.43a/ muñjālābhe tu kartavyāḥ kuśa.aśmantaka.balvajaiḥ |
M2.43c/ trivṛtā granthinā-ekena tribhiḥ pañcabhir eva vā || 43 ||
M2.44a/ kārpāsam upavītaṁ syād viprasya-ūrdhvavṛtaṁ trivṛt |
M2.44c/ śaṇa.sūtramayaṁ rājño vaiśyasya-āvikasautrikam || 44 ||
M2.45a/ brāhmaṇo bailva.pālāśau kṣatriyo vāṭa.khādirau |
M2.45c/ pailava.audumbarau vaiśyo daṇḍān arhanti dharmataḥ || 45 ||
M2.46a/ keśāntiko brāhmaṇasya daṇḍaḥ kāryaḥ pramāṇataḥ |
M2.46c/ lalāṭasammito rājñaḥ syāt tu nāsāntiko viśaḥ || 46 ||
M2.47a/ ṛjavas te tu sarve syur a.vraṇāḥ saumya.darśanāḥ |
M2.47c/ an.udvegakarā nṝṇāṁ sa.tvaco 'nagnidūṣitāḥ || 47 ||
2.1.9.4. 2.1.9.4. Food
[Page J 19 ] [Note: [ O edn 411-413 :: O tr. 97]
M2.48a/ pratigṛhya-īpsitaṁ daṇḍam upasthāya ca bhāskaram |
M2.48c/ pradakṣiṇaṁ parītya-agniṁ cared bhaikṣaṁ yathāvidhi || 48 ||
M2.49a/ bhavat.pūrvaṁ cared bhaikṣam upanīto dvijottamaḥ |
M2.49c/ bhavan.madhyaṁ tu rājanyo vaiśyas tu bhavad.uttaram || 49 ||
M2.50a/ mātaraṁ vā svasāraṁ vā mātur vā bhaginīṁ nijām |
M2.50c/ bhikṣeta bhikṣām prathamaṁ yā ca-enaṁ na-avamānayet || 50 ||
M2.51a/ samāhṛtya tu tad bhaikṣaṁ yāvadannam a.māyayā | [Note: M2.51av/ M: yāvadartham]
M2.51c/ nivedya gurave 'śnīyād ācamya prāṅmukhaḥ śuciḥ || 51 ||
M2.52a/ āyuṣyaṁ prāṅ.mukho bhuṅkte yaśasyaṁ dakṣiṇā.mukhaḥ |
M2.52c/ śriyaṁ pratyaṅ.mukho bhuṅkte ṛtaṁ bhuṅkte hy udaṅ.mukhaḥ || 52 ||
M2.53a/ upaspṛśya dvijo nityam annam adyāt samāhitaḥ |
M2.53c/ bhuktvā ca-upaspṛśet samyag adbhiḥ khāni ca saṁspṛśet || 53 ||
M2.54a/ pūjayed aśanaṁ nityam adyāc ca-etad a.kutsayan |
M2.54c/ dṛṣṭvā hṛṣyet prasīdec ca pratinandec ca sarvaśaḥ || 54 ||
M2.55a/ pūjitaṁ hy aśanaṁ nityaṁ balam ūrjaṁ ca yacchati |
M2.55c/ a.pūjitaṁ tu tad bhuktam ubhayaṁ nāśayed idam || 55 ||
M2.56a/ na-ucchiṣṭaṁ kasya cid dadyān na-adyād etat tathā-antarā |
M2.56c/ na ca-eva-atyaśanaṁ kuryān na ca-ucchiṣṭaḥ kva cid vrajet || 56 ||
M2.57a/ an.ārogyam an.āyuṣyam a.svargyaṁ ca-atibhojanam |
M2.57c/ apuṇyaṁ lokavidviṣṭaṁ tasmāt tat parivarjayet || 57 ||
2.1.9.5. 2.1.9.5. Sipping
[Page J 20 ] [Note: [ O edn 413-414 :: O tr. 97]
M2.58a/ brāhmeṇa vipras tīrthena nityakālam upaspṛśet |
M2.58c/ kāya.traidaśikābhyāṁ vā na pitryeṇa kadā cana || 58 ||
M2.59a/ aṅguṣṭhamūlasya tale brāhmaṁ tīrthaṁ pracakṣate |
M2.59c/ kāyam aṅgulimūle 'gre devaṁ pitryaṁ tayor adhaḥ || 59 ||
M2.60a/ trir ācāmed apaḥ pūrvaṁ dviḥ pramṛjyāt tato mukham |
M2.60c/ khāni ca-eva spṛśed adbhir ātmānaṁ śira eva ca || 60 ||
M2.61a/ an.uṣṇābhir a.phenābhir adbhis tīrthena dharmavit |
M2.61c/ śauca.īpsuḥ sarvadā-ācāmed ekānte prāg.udaṅ.mukhaḥ || 61 ||
M2.62a/ hṛdgābhiḥ pūyate vipraḥ kaṇṭhagābhis tu bhūmipaḥ |
M2.62c/ vaiśyo 'dbhiḥ prāśitābhis tu śūdraḥ spṛṣṭābhir antataḥ || 62 ||
2.1.9.6. 2.1.9.6. Insignia-II
[Note: [ O edn 414 :: O tr. 97]
M2.63a/ uddhṛte dakṣine pāṇāv upavītī-ucyate dvijaḥ |
M2.63c/ savye prācīnāvītī nivītī kaṇṭhasajjane || 63 ||
M2.64a/ mekhalām ajinaṁ daṇḍam upavītaṁ kamaṇḍalum |
M2.64c/ apsu prāsya vinaṣṭāni gṛhṇīta-anyāni mantravat || 64 ||

2.1.10. 2.1.10. Shaving Ceremony

[Note: [ O edn 414 :: O tr. 98]
M2.65a/ keśāntaḥ ṣoḍaśe varṣe brāhmaṇasya vidhīyate |
M2.65c/ rājanyabandhor dvāviṁśe vaiśyasya dvyadhike mataḥ || 65 ||

2.1.11. 2.1.11. Consecratory Rites for Women

[Note: [ O edn 414-415 :: O tr. 98]
M2.66a/ a.mantrikā tu kāryā-iyaṁ strīṇām āvṛd aśeṣataḥ |
M2.66c/ saṁskārārthaṁ śarīrasya yathākālaṁ yathākramam || 66 ||
M2.67a/ vaivāhiko vidhiḥ strīṇāṁ saṁskāro vaidikaḥ smṛtaḥ |
M2.67c/ patisevā gurau vāso gṛhārtho 'gni.parikriyā || 67 ||
[Page J 21 ]
M2.68a/ eṣa prokto dvijātīnām aupanāyaniko vidhiḥ |
M2.68c/ utpatti.vyañjakaḥ puṇyaḥ karmayogaṁ nibodhata || 68 ||

2.2. 2.2. The Student

[Note: [ O edn 415-446 :: O tr. 98-107]

2.2.1. 2.2.1. Instruction

[Note: [ O edn 415-418 :: O tr. 98-99]
M2.69a/ upanīya guruḥ śiṣyaṁ śikṣayet-śaucam āditaḥ |
M2.69c/ ācāram agnikāryaṁ ca sandhyā.upāsanam eva ca || 69 ||
M2.70a/ adhyeṣyamāṇas tv ācānto yathāśāstram udaṅ.mukhaḥ |
M2.70c/ brahmāñjali.kṛto 'dhyāpyo laghu.vāsā jita.indriyaḥ || 70 ||
M2.71a/ brahmārambhe 'vasāne ca pādau grāhyau guroḥ sadā |
M2.71c/ saṁhatya hastāv adhyeyaṁ sa hi brahmāñjaliḥ smṛtaḥ || 71 ||
M2.72a/ vyatyasta.pāṇinā kāryam upasaṅgrahaṇaṁ guroḥ |
M2.72c/ savyena savyaḥ spraṣṭavyo dakṣiṇena ca dakṣiṇaḥ || 72 ||
M2.73a/ adhyeṣyamāṇaṁ tu gurur nityakālam a.tandritaḥ |
M2.73c/ adhīṣva bho iti brūyād virāmo 'stv iti ca-āramet || 73 ||
M2.74a/ brahmanaḥ praṇavaṁ kuryād ādāv ante ca sarvadā |
M2.74c/ sravaty an.oṅkṛtaṁ pūrvaṁ parastāc ca viśīryati || 74 ||
M2.75a/ prāk.kūlān paryupāsīnaḥ pavitraiś ca-eva pāvitaḥ |
M2.75c/ prāṇāyāmais tribhiḥ pūtas tata oṁ.kāram arhati || 75 ||
2.2.1.1. 2.2.1.1. The Syllable OM
[Note: [ O edn 416-418 :: O tr. 98-99]
M2.76a/ a.kāraṁ ca-apy u.kāraṁ ca ma.kāraṁ ca prajāpatiḥ |
M2.76c/ vedatrayāt-niraduhad bhūr bhuvaḥ svar iti-iti ca || 76 ||
M2.77a/ tribhya eva tu vedebhyaḥ pādaṁ pādam adūduhat |
M2.77c/ tad ity ṛco 'syāḥ sāvitryāḥ parameṣṭhī prajāpatiḥ || 77 ||
[Page J 22 ]
M2.78a/ etad akṣaram etāṁ ca japan vyāhṛti.pūrvikām |
M2.78c/ sandhyayor vedavid vipro vedapuṇyena yujyate || 78 ||
M2.79a/ sahasrakṛtvas tv abhyasya bahir etat trikaṁ dvijaḥ |
M2.79c/ mahato 'py enaso māsāt tvacā-iva-ahir vimucyate || 79 ||
M2.80a/ etayā-ṛcā visaṁyuktaḥ kāle ca kriyayā svayā |
M2.80c/ brahma.kṣatriya.viś.yonir garhaṇāṁ yāti sādhuṣu || 80 ||
M2.81a/ oṁ.kāra.pūrvikās tisro mahāvyāhṛtayo 'vyayāḥ | [Note: M2.81av/ M: oṅkāra.]
M2.81c/ tri.padā ca-eva sāvitrī vijñeyaṁ brahmaṇo mukham || 81 ||
M2.82a/ yo 'dhīte 'hany ahany etāṁ trīṇi varṣāṇy a.tandritaḥ |
M2.82c/ sa brahma param abhyeti vāyubhūtaḥ kha.mūrtimān || 82 ||
M2.83a/ ekākṣaraṁ paraṁ brahma prāṇāyāmaḥ paraṁ tapaḥ |
M2.83c/ sāvitryās tu paraṁ na-asti maunāt satyaṁ viśiṣyate || 83 ||
M2.84a/ kṣaranti sarvā vaidikyo juhoti.yajati.kriyāḥ |
M2.84c/ akṣaraṁ duṣkaraṁ jñeyaṁ brahma ca-eva prajāpatiḥ || 84 || [Note: M2.84cv/ M: akṣaraṁ tv akṣaraṁ jñeyaṁ]
2.2.1.2. 2.2.1.2. Soft Recitation
[Note: [ O edn 418 :: O tr. 99]
M2.85a/ vidhiyajñāj japayajño viśiṣṭo daśabhir guṇaiḥ |
M2.85c/ upāṁśuḥ syāt-śataguṇaḥ sāhasro mānasaḥ smṛtaḥ || 85 ||
M2.86a/ ye pākayajñās catvāro vidhiyajñasamanvitāḥ |
M2.86c/ sarve te japayajñasya kalāṁ na-arhanti ṣoḍaśīm || 86 ||
M2.87a/ japyena-eva tu saṁsidhyed brāhmaṇo na-atra saṁśayaḥ |
M2.87c/ kuryād anyan na vā kuryān maitro brāhmaṇa ucyate || 87 ||

2.2.2. 2.2.2. Excursus: Control of the Organs

[Page J 23 ] [Note: [ O edn 418-420 :: O tr. 99]
M2.88a/ indriyāṇāṁ vicaratāṁ viṣayeṣv apahāriṣu |
M2.88c/ saṁyame yatnam ātiṣṭhed vidvān yantā-iva vājinām || 88 ||
M2.89a/ ekādaśa-indriyāṇy āhur yāni pūrve manīṣiṇaḥ |
M2.89c/ tāni samyak pravakṣyāmi yathāvad anupūrvaśaḥ || 89 ||
M2.90a/ śrotraṁ tvak cakṣuṣī jihvā nāsikā ca-eva pañcamī |
M2.90c/ pāyu.upasthaṁ hasta.pādaṁ vāk ca-eva daśamī smṛtā || 90 ||
M2.91a/ buddhīndriyāṇi pañca-eṣāṁ śrotrādīny anupūrvaśaḥ |
M2.91c/ karma.indriyāṇi pañca-eṣāṁ pāyu.ādīni pracakṣate || 91 ||
M2.92a/ ekādaśaṁ mano jñeyaṁ svaguṇena-ubhaya.ātmakam |
M2.92c/ yasmin jite jitāv etau bhavataḥ pañcakau gaṇau || 92 ||
M2.93a/ indriyāṇāṁ prasaṅgena doṣam ṛcchaty a.saṁśayam |
M2.93c/ sanniyamya tu tāny eva tataḥ siddhiṁ nigacchati || 93 ||
M2.94a/ na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāmyati |
M2.94c/ haviṣā kṛṣṇavartmā-iva bhūya eva-abhivardhate || 94 ||
M2.95a/ yaś ca-etān prāpnuyāt sarvān yaś ca-etān kevalāṁs tyajet |
M2.95c/ prāpaṇāt sarvakāmānāṁ parityāgo viśiṣyate || 95 ||
M2.96a/ na tathā-etāni śakyante sanniyantum asevayā |
M2.96c/ viṣayeṣu prajuṣṭāni yathā jñānena nityaśaḥ || 96 ||
M2.97a/ vedās tyāgaś ca yajñāś ca niyamāś ca tapāṁsi ca |
M2.97c/ na vipraduṣṭa.bhāvasya siddhiṁ gacchati karhi cit || 97 ||
[Page J 24 ]
M2.98a/ śrutvā spṛṣṭvā ca dṛṣṭvā ca bhuktvā ghrātvā ca yo naraḥ |
M2.98c/ na hṛṣyati glāyati vā sa vijñeyo jita.indriyaḥ || 98 ||
M2.99a/ indriyāṇāṁ tu sarveṣāṁ yady ekaṁ kṣarati-indriyam |
M2.99c/ tena-asya kṣarati prajñā dṛteḥ pādād iva-udakam || 99 ||
M2.100a/ vaśe kṛtvā-indriyagrāmaṁ saṁyamya ca manas tathā |
M2.100c/ sarvān saṁsādhayed arthān a.kṣiṇvan yogatas tanum || 100 ||

2.2.3. 2.2.3. Twilight Worship

[Note: [ O edn 420-421 :: O tr. 100]
M2.101a/ pūrvāṁ sandhyāṁ japāṁs tiṣṭhet sāvitrīm ā.arkadarśanāt |
M2.101c/ paścimāṁ tu samāsīnaḥ samyag ṛkṣavibhāvanāt || 101 || [Note: M2.101cv/ M: paścimāṁ tu sadāsīta]
M2.102a/ pūrvāṁ sandhyāṁ japaṁs tiṣṭhan naiśam eno vyapohati |
M2.102c/ paścimām tu samāsīno malaṁ hanti divākṛtam || 102 ||
M2.103a/ na tiṣṭhati tu yaḥ pūrvāṁ na-upāste yaś ca paścimām |
M2.103c/ sa śūdravad bahiṣkāryaḥ sarvasmād dvijakarmaṇaḥ || 103 ||

2.2.4. 2.2.4. Vedic Recitation

[Note: [ O edn 421-422 :: O tr. 100]
M2.104a/ apāṁ samīpe niyato naityakaṁ vidhim āsthitaḥ |
M2.104c/ sāvitrīm apy adhīyīta gatvā-araṇyaṁ samāhitaḥ || 104 ||
M2.105a/ veda.upakaraṇe ca-eva svādhyāye ca-eva naityake |
M2.105c/ na-anurodho 'sty anadhyāye homamantreṣu ca-eva hi || 105 ||
M2.106a/ naityake na-asty anadhyāyo brahmasattraṁ hi tat smṛtam |
M2.106c/ brahmāhuti.hutaṁ puṇyam an.adhyāya.vaṣaṭkṛtam || 106 ||
M2.107a/ yaḥ svādhyāyam adhīte 'bdaṁ vidhinā niyataḥ śuciḥ |
M2.107c/ tasya nityaṁ kṣaraty eṣa payo dadhi ghṛtaṁ madhu || 107 ||

2.2.5. 2.2.5. Persons Competent to Receive Vedic Instruction

[Page J 25 ] [Note: [ O edn 422-423 :: O tr. 100-101]
M2.108a/ agnīndhanaṁ bhaikṣacaryām adhaḥśayyāṁ guror hitam |
M2.108c/ ā samāvartanāt kuryāt kṛta.upanayano dvijaḥ || 108 ||
M2.109a/ ācāryaputraḥ śuśrūṣur jñānado dhārmikaḥ śuciḥ |
M2.109c/ āptaḥ śakto 'rthadaḥ sādhuḥ svo 'dhyāpyā daśa dharmataḥ || 109 ||
M2.110a/ na-apṛṣṭaḥ kasya cid brūyān na ca-anyāyena pṛcchataḥ |
M2.110c/ jānann api hi medhāvī jaḍaval loka ācaret || 110 ||
M2.111a/ adharmeṇa ca yaḥ prāha yaś ca-adharmeṇa pṛcchati |
M2.111c/ tayor anyataraḥ praiti vidveṣaṁ vā-adhigacchati || 111 ||
M2.112a/ dharma.arthau yatra na syātāṁ śuśrūṣā vā-api tadvidhā |
M2.112c/ tatra vidyā na vaptavyā śubhaṁ bījam iva-ūṣare || 112 ||
M2.113a/ vidyayā-eva samaṁ kāmaṁ martavyaṁ brahmavādinā |
M2.113c/ āpady api hi ghorāyāṁ na tv enām iriṇe vapet || 113 ||
M2.114a/ vidyā brāhmaṇam etya-āha śevadhis te 'smi rakṣa mām | [Note: M2.114av/ M: śevadhiṣ ṭe]
M2.114c/ asūyakāya māṁ mādās tathā syāṁ vīryavattamā || 114 ||
M2.115a/ yam eva tu śuciṁ vidyān niyata.brahmacāriṇam | [Note: M2.115av/ M: vidyā niyataṁ brahmacāriṇam]
M2.115c/ tasmai māṁ brūhi viprāya nidhipāya-a.pramādine || 115 ||
M2.116a/ brahma yas tv ananujñātam adhīyānād avāpnuyāt |
M2.116c/ sa brahmasteyasaṁyukto narakaṁ pratipadyate || 116 ||

2.2.6. 2.2.6. Salutation

[Note: [ O edn 423-426 :: O tr. 101]
M2.117a/ laukikaṁ vaidikaṁ vā-api tathā-adhyātmikam eva vā |
M2.117c/ ādadīta yato jñānaṁ taṁ pūrvam abhivādayet || 117 ||
[Page J 26 ]
M2.118a/ sāvitrīmātra.sāro 'pi varaṁ vipraḥ suyantritaḥ |
M2.118c/ na-a.yantritas trivedo 'pi sarvāśī sarvavikrayī || 118 ||
M2.119a/ śayyā.āsane 'dhyācarite śreyasā na samāviśet |
M2.119c/ śayyā.āsanasthaś ca-eva-enaṁ pratyutthāya-abhivādayet || 119 ||
M2.120a/ ūrdhvaṁ prāṇā hy utkrāmanti yūnaḥ sthavira āyati |
M2.120c/ pratyutthāna.abhivādābhyāṁ punas tān pratipadyate || 120 ||
M2.121a/ abhivādana.śīlasya nityaṁ vṛddha.upasevinaḥ |
M2.121c/ catvāri tasya vardhante āyur dharmo yaśo balam || 121 || [Note: M2.121cv/ M: catvāri sampravardhante]
M2.122a/ abhivādāt paraṁ vipro jyāyāṁsam abhivādayan |
M2.122c/ asau nāma-aham asmi-iti svaṁ nāma parikīrtayet || 122 ||
M2.123a/ nāmadheyasya ye ke cid abhivādaṁ na jānate |
M2.123c/ tān prājño 'ham iti brūyāt striyaḥ sarvās tathā-eva ca || 123 ||
M2.124a/ bhoḥśabdaṁ kīrtayed ante svasya nāmno 'bhivādane |
M2.124c/ nāmnām svarūpa.bhāvo hi bho.bhāva ṛṣibhiḥ smṛtaḥ || 124 ||
M2.125a/ āyuṣmān bhava saumya-iti vācyo vipro 'bhivādane |
M2.125c/ a.kāraś ca-asya nāmno 'nte vācyaḥ pūrvākṣaraḥ plutaḥ || 125 ||
M2.126a/ yo na vetty abhivādasya vipraḥ pratyabhivādanam |
M2.126c/ na-abhivādyaḥ sa viduṣā yathā śūdras tathā-eva saḥ || 126 ||
M2.127a/ brāhmaṇaṁ kuśalaṁ pṛcchet kṣatrabandhum an.āmayam |
M2.127c/ vaiśyaṁ kṣemaṁ samāgamya śūdram ārogyam eva ca || 127 ||
[Page J 27 ]
M2.128a/ a.vācyo dīkṣito nāmnā yavīyān api yo bhavet |
M2.128c/ bho.bhavat.pūrvakaṁ tv enam abhibhāṣeta dharmavit || 128 ||
M2.129a/ parapatnī tu yā strī syād a.sambandhā ca yonitaḥ |
M2.129c/ tāṁ brūyād bhavati-ity evaṁ subhage bhagini-iti ca || 129 ||
M2.130a/ mātulāṁś ca pitṛvyāṁś ca śvaśurān ṛtvijo gurūn |
M2.130c/ asāv aham iti brūyāt pratyutthāya yavīyasaḥ || 130 ||
M2.131a/ mātṛśvasā mātulānī śvaśrūr atha pitṛśvasā |
M2.131c/ sampūjyā gurupatnīvat samās tā gurubhāryayā || 131 ||
M2.132a/ bhrātur bhāryā-upasaṅgrāhyā sa.varṇā-ahany ahany api |
M2.132c/ viproṣya tu-upasaṅgrāhyā jñāti.sambandhi.yoṣitaḥ || 132 ||
M2.133a/ pitur bhaginyāṁ mātuś ca jyāyasyāṁ ca svasary api |
M2.133c/ mātṛvad vṛttim ātiṣṭhen mātā tābhyo garīyasī || 133 ||

2.2.7. 2.2.7. Precedence

[Note: [ O edn 426-427 :: O tr. 101-102]
M2.134a/ daśābda.ākhyaṁ paurasakhyaṁ pañcābda.ākhyaṁ kalābhṛtām |
M2.134c/ tryabdapūrvaṁ śrotriyāṇāṁ svalpena-api svayoniṣu || 134 ||
M2.135a/ brāhmaṇaṁ daśavarṣaṁ tu śatavarṣaṁ tu bhūmipam |
M2.135c/ pitā.putrau vijānīyād brāhmaṇas tu tayoḥ pitā || 135 ||
M2.136a/ vittaṁ bandhur vayaḥ karma vidyā bhavati pañcamī |
M2.136c/ etāni mānyasthānāni garīyo yad yad uttaram || 136 || [Note: M2.136cv/ M: mānasthānāni]
M2.137a/ pañcānāṁ triṣu varṇeṣu bhūyāṁsi guṇavanti ca |
M2.137c/ yatra syuḥ so 'tra māna.arhaḥ śūdro 'pi daśamīṁ gataḥ || 137 ||
[Page J 28 ]
M2.138a/ cakriṇo daśamīsthasya rogiṇo bhāriṇaḥ striyāḥ |
M2.138c/ snātakasya ca rājñaś ca panthā deyo varasya ca || 138 ||
M2.139a/ teṣāṁ tu samāvetānāṁ mānyau snātaka.pārthivau |
M2.139c/ rāja.snātakayoś ca-eva snātako nṛpamānabhāk || 139 ||

2.2.8. 2.2.8. Teacher

[Note: [ O edn 427-431 :: O tr. 102-103]
M2.140a/ upanīya tu yaḥ śiṣyaṁ vedam adhyāpayed dvijaḥ |
M2.140c/ sa.kalpaṁ sa.rahasyaṁ ca tam ācāryaṁ pracakṣate || 140 ||
M2.141a/ ekadeśaṁ tu vedasya vedāṅgāny api vā punaḥ |
M2.141c/ yo 'dhyāpayati vṛttyartham upādhyāyaḥ sa ucyate || 141 ||
M2.142a/ niṣeka.ādīni karmāṇi yaḥ karoti yathāvidhi |
M2.142c/ sambhāvayati ca-annena sa vipro gurur ucyate || 142 ||
M2.143a/ agnyādheyaṁ pākayajñān agniṣṭoma.ādikān makhān |
M2.143c/ yaḥ karoti vṛto yasya sa tasya-ṛtvig iha-ucyate || 143 ||
M2.144a/ ya āvṛṇoty a.vitathaṁ brahmaṇā śravaṇāv ubhau |
M2.144c/ sa mātā sa pitā jñeyas taṁ na druhyet kadā cana || 144 ||
M2.145a/ upādhyāyān daśa-ācārya ācāryāṇāṁ śataṁ pitā |
M2.145c/ sahasraṁ tu pitṝn mātā gauraveṇa-atiricyate || 145 ||
M2.146a/ utpādaka.brahmadātror garīyān brahmadaḥ pitā |
M2.146c/ brahmajanma hi viprasya pretya ca-iha ca śāśvatam || 146 ||
M2.147a/ kāmān mātā pitā ca-enaṁ yad utpādayato mithaḥ |
M2.147c/ sambhūtiṁ tasya tāṁ vidyād yad yonāv abhijāyate || 147 ||
[Page J 29 ]
M2.148a/ ācāryas tv asya yāṁ jātiṁ vidhivad vedapāragaḥ |
M2.148c/ utpādayati sāvitryā sā satyā sā-ajarā-amarā || 148 ||
M2.149a/ alpaṁ vā bahu vā yasya śrutasya-upakaroti yaḥ |
M2.149c/ tam apīha guruṁ vidyāt-śruta.upakriyayā tayā || 149 ||
M2.150a/ brāhmasya janmanaḥ kartā svadharmasya ca śāsitā |
M2.150c/ bālo 'pi vipro vṛddhasya pitā bhavati dharmataḥ || 150 ||
M2.151a/ adhyāpayām āsa pitṝn śiśur āṅgirasaḥ kaviḥ |
M2.151c/ putrakā iti ha-uvāca jñānena parigṛhya tān || 151 ||
M2.152a/ te tam artham apṛcchanta devān āgata.manyavaḥ |
M2.152c/ devāś ca-etān sametya-ūcur nyāyyaṁ vaḥ śiśur uktavān || 152 ||
M2.153a/ ajño bhavati vai bālaḥ pitā bhavati mantradaḥ |
M2.153c/ ajñaṁ hi bālam ity āhuḥ pitā-ity eva tu mantradam || 153 ||
M2.154a/ na hāyanair na palitair na vittena na bandhubhiḥ |
M2.154c/ ṛṣayaś cakrire dharmaṁ yo 'nūcānaḥ sa no mahān || 154 ||
M2.155a/ viprāṇāṁ jñānato jyaiṣṭhyaṁ kṣatriyāṇāṁ tu vīryataḥ |
M2.155c/ vaiśyānāṁ dhānyadhanataḥ śūdrāṇām eva janmataḥ || 155 ||
M2.156a/ na tena vṛddho bhavati yenāsya palitaṁ śiraḥ |
M2.156c/ yo vai yuvā-apy adhīyānas taṁ devāḥ sthaviraṁ viduḥ || 156 ||
M2.157a/ yathā kāṣṭhamayo hastī yathā carmamayo mṛgaḥ |
M2.157c/ yaś ca vipro 'n.adhīyānas trayas te nāma bibhrati || 157 ||
[Page J 30 ]
M2.158a/ yathā ṣaṇḍho '.phalaḥ strīṣu yathā gaur gavi ca-a.phalā |
M2.158c/ yathā ca-ajñe '.phalaṁ dānaṁ tathā vipro 'n.ṛco '.phalaḥ || 158 ||
M2.159a/ ahiṁsayā-eva bhūtānāṁ kāryaṁ śreyo 'nuśāsanam |
M2.159c/ vāk ca-eva madhurā ślakṣṇā prayojyā dharmam icchatā || 159 ||
M2.160a/ yasya vāc.manasī śuddhe samyaggupte ca sarvadā |
M2.160c/ sa vai sarvam avāpnoti vedānta.upagataṁ phalam || 160 ||
M2.161a/ na-aruntudaḥ syād ārto 'pi na paradroha.karma.dhīḥ |
M2.161c/ yayā-asya-udvijate vācā na-alokyāṁ tām udīrayet || 161 ||
M2.162a/ sammānād brāhmaṇo nityam udvijeta viṣād iva |
M2.162c/ amṛtasya-iva ca-ākāṅkṣed avamānasya sarvadā || 162 ||
M2.163a/ sukhaṁ hy avamataḥ śete sukhaṁ ca pratibudhyate |
M2.163c/ sukhaṁ carati loke 'sminn avamantā vinaśyati || 163 ||

2.2.9. 2.2.9. Vedic Study

[Note: [ O edn 431-433 :: O tr. 103]
M2.164a/ anena kramayogena saṁskṛta.ātmā dvijaḥ śanaiḥ |
M2.164c/ gurau vasan sañcinuyād brahmādhigamikaṁ tapaḥ || 164 ||
M2.165a/ tapo.viśeṣair vividhair vrataiś ca vidhicoditaiḥ |
M2.165c/ vedaḥ kṛtsno 'dhigantavyaḥ sa.rahasyo dvijanmanā || 165 ||
M2.166a/ vedam eva sadā-abhyasyet tapas tapsyan dvijottamaḥ |
M2.166c/ vedābhyāso hi viprasya tapaḥ param iha-ucyate || 166 ||
M2.167a/ ā ha-eva sa nakhāgrebhyaḥ paramaṁ tapyate tapaḥ |
M2.167c/ yaḥ sragvy api dvijo 'dhīte svādhyāyaṁ śaktito 'nvaham || 167 ||
[Page J 31 ]
M2.168a/ yo 'n.adhītya dvijo vedam anyatra kurute śramam |
M2.168c/ sa jīvann eva śūdratvam āśu gacchati sa.anvayaḥ || 168 ||
M2.169a/ mātur agre 'dhijananaṁ dvitīyaṁ mauñjibandhane |
M2.169c/ tṛtīyaṁ yajñadīkṣāyāṁ dvijasya śruticodanāt || 169 ||
M2.170a/ tatra yad brahmajanma-asya mauñjībandhanacihnitam |
M2.170c/ tatra-asya mātā sāvitrī pitā tv ācārya ucyate || 170 ||
M2.171a/ vedapradānād ācāryaṁ pitaraṁ paricakṣate |
M2.171c/ na hy asmin yujyate karma kiñ cid ā mauñjibandhanāt || 171 ||
M2.172a/ na-abhivyāhārayed brahma svadhāninayanād ṛte |
M2.172c/ śūdreṇa hi samas tāvad yāvad vede na jāyate || 172 ||

2.2.10. 2.2.10. Observances

[Note: [ O edn 433-436 :: O tr. 103-104]
M2.173a/ kṛta.upanayanasya-asya vratādeśanam iṣyate |
M2.173c/ brahmaṇo grahaṇaṁ ca-eva krameṇa vidhi.pūrvakam || 173 ||
M2.174a/ yady asya vihitaṁ carma yat sūtraṁ yā ca mekhalā |
M2.174c/ yo daṇḍo yat-ca vasanaṁ tat tad asya vrateṣv api || 174 ||
M2.175a/ seveta-imāṁs tu niyamān brahmacārī gurau vasan |
M2.175c/ sanniyamya-indriyagrāmaṁ tapovṛddhi.artham ātmanaḥ || 175 ||
M2.176a/ nityaṁ snātvā śuciḥ kuryād deva.ṛṣi.pitṛtarpaṇam |
M2.176c/ devatābhyarcanaṁ ca-eva samidādhānam eva ca || 176 ||
M2.177a/ varjayen madhu māṁsaṁ ca gandhaṁ mālyaṁ rasān striyaḥ |
M2.177c/ śuktāni yāni sarvāṇi prāṇināṁ ca-eva hiṁsanam || 177 ||
[Page J 32 ]
M2.178a/ abhyaṅgam añjanaṁ cākṣṇor upānah.chatradhāraṇam |
M2.178c/ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ ca lobhaṁ ca nartanaṁ gītavādanam || 178 ||
M2.179a/ dyūtaṁ ca janavādaṁ ca parivādaṁ tathā-anṛtam |
M2.179c/ strīṇāṁ ca prekṣaṇālambham upaghātaṁ parasya ca || 179 || [Note: M2.179cv/ M: -ālambhāav]
M2.180a/ ekaḥ śayīta sarvatra na retaḥ skandayet kva cit |
M2.180c/ kāmādd hi skandayan reto hinasti vratam ātmanaḥ || 180 ||
M2.181a/ svapne siktvā brahmacārī dvijaḥ śukram a.kāmataḥ |
M2.181c/ snātvā-arkam arcayitvā triḥ punar mām ity ṛcaṁ japet || 181 ||
2.2.10.1. 2.2.10.1. Begging and Daily Duties
[Note: [ O edn 434-436 :: O tr. 104]
M2.182a/ udakumbhaṁ sumanaso gośakṛt.mṛttikā.kuśān |
M2.182c/ āhared yāvad arthāni bhaikṣaṁ ca-ahar.ahaś caret || 182 ||
M2.183a/ veda.yajñair ahīnānāṁ praśastānāṁ svakarmasu |
M2.183c/ brahmacāry āhared bhaikṣaṁ gṛhebhyaḥ prayato 'nvaham || 183 ||
M2.184a/ guroḥ kule na bhikṣeta na jñāti.kula.bandhuṣu |
M2.184c/ a.lābhe tv anyagehānāṁ pūrvaṁ pūrvaṁ vivarjayet || 184 ||
M2.185a/ sarvaṁ vāpi cared grāmaṁ pūrva.uktānām a.sambhave |
M2.185c/ niyamya prayato vācam abhiśastāṁs tu varjayet || 185 ||
M2.186a/ dūrād āhṛtya samidhaḥ sannidadhyād vihāyasi |
M2.186c/ sāyaṁ.prātaś ca juhuyāt tābhir agnim atandritaḥ || 186 ||
M2.187a/ a.kṛtvā bhaikṣacaraṇam a.samidhya ca pāvakaṁ |
M2.187c/ an.āturaḥ saptarātram avakīrṇivrataṁ caret || 187 ||
[Page J 33 ]
M2.188a/ bhaikṣeṇa vartayen nityaṁ na-ekānna.adī bhaved vratī |
M2.188c/ bhaikṣeṇa vratino vṛttir upavāsa.samā smṛtā || 188 ||
M2.189a/ vratavad deva.daivatye pitrye karmaṇy atha-ṛṣivat |
M2.189c/ kāmam abhyarthito 'śnīyād vratam asya na lupyate || 189 ||
M2.190a/ brāhmaṇasya-eva karma-etad upadiṣṭaṁ manīṣibhiḥ |
M2.190c/ rājanya.vaiśyayos tv evaṁ na-etat karma vidhīyate || 190 ||

2.2.11. 2.2.11. Conduct towards the Teacher

[Note: [ O edn 436-441 :: O tr. 104-106]
M2.191a/ codito guruṇā nityam a.pracodita eva vā |
M2.191c/ kuryād adhyayane yatnam ācāryasya hiteṣu ca || 191 || [Note: M2.191cv/ M: adhyayane yogam]
M2.192a/ śarīraṁ ca-eva vācaṁ ca buddhīndriya.manāṁsi ca |
M2.192c/ niyamya prāñjalis tiṣṭhed vīkṣamāṇo guror mukham || 192 ||
M2.193a/ nityam uddhṛta.pāṇiḥ syāt sādhu.ācāraḥ su.saṁvṛtaḥ |
M2.193c/ āsyatām iti ca-uktaḥ sann āsīta-abhimukhaṁ guroḥ || 193 ||
M2.194a/ hīna.anna.vastra.veṣaḥ syāt sarvadā gurusannidhau |
M2.194c/ uttiṣṭhet prathamaṁ cāsya caramaṁ ca-eva saṁviśet || 194 ||
M2.195a/ pratiśrāvaṇa.sambhāṣe śayāno na samācaret |
M2.195c/ na-āsīno na ca bhuñjāno na tiṣṭhan na parāṅ.mukhaḥ || 195 ||
M2.196a/ āsīnasya sthitaḥ kuryād abhigacchaṁs tu tiṣṭhataḥ |
M2.196c/ pratyudgamya tv āvrajataḥ paścād dhāvaṁs tu dhāvataḥ || 196 ||
M2.197a/ parāṅ.mukhasya-abhimukho dūrasthasya-etya ca.antikam |
M2.197c/ praṇamya tu śayānasya nideśe ca-eva tiṣṭhataḥ || 197 ||
[Page J 34 ]
M2.198a/ nīcaṁ śayyā.āsanaṁ ca.asya nityaṁ syād gurusannidhau |
M2.198c/ guros tu cakṣurviṣaye na yathā.iṣṭa.āsano bhavet || 198 ||
M2.199a/ na-udāhared asya nāma parokṣam api kevalam |
M2.199c/ na ca-eva-asya.anukurvīta gati.bhāṣita.ceṣṭitam || 199 ||
M2.200a/ guror yatra parivādo nindā vā.api pravartate |
M2.200c/ karṇau tatra pidhātavyau gantavyaṁ vā tato 'nyataḥ || 200 ||
M2.201a/ parīvādāt kharo bhavati śvā vai bhavati nindakaḥ |
M2.201c/ paribhoktā kṛmir bhavati kīṭo bhavati matsarī || 201 ||
M2.202a/ dūrastho na-arcayed enaṁ na kruddho na-antike striyāḥ |
M2.202c/ yāna.āsanasthaś ca-eva-enam avaruhya-abhivādayet || 202 ||
M2.203a/ prativāte 'nuvāte ca na-āsīta guruṇā saha | [Note: M2.203av/ M: prativātānuvāte]
M2.203c/ a.saṁśrave ca-eva guror na kiṁ cid api kīrtayet || 203 ||
M2.204a/ go.'śva.uṣṭra.yāna.prāsāda.prastareṣu kaṭeṣu ca |
M2.204c/ āsīta guruṇā sārdhaṁ śilā.phalaka.nauṣu ca || 204 ||
2.2.11.1. 2.2.11.1. Teacher's Teacher and other Instructors
[Note: [ O edn 439 :: O tr. 105]
M2.205a/ guror gurau sannihite guruvad vṛttim ācaret |
M2.205c/ na ca-a.nisṛṣṭo guruṇā svān gurūn abhivādayet || 205 ||
M2.206a/ vidyāguruṣv evam eva nityā vṛttiḥ svayoniṣu |
M2.206c/ pratiṣedhatsu ca-adharmādd hitaṁ ca-upadiśatsv api || 206 ||
2.2.11.2. 2.2.11.2. Members of Teacher's Family
[Note: [ O edn 439-441 :: O tr. 105-106]
M2.207a/ śreyaḥsu guruvad vṛttiṁ nityam eva samācaret |
M2.207c/ guruputreṣu ca-āryeṣu guroś ca-eva svabandhuṣu || 207 || [Note: M2.207cv/ M: guruputre tathācārye]
[Page J 35 ]
M2.208a/ bālaḥ samāna.janmā vā śiṣyo vā yajñakarmaṇi |
M2.208c/ adhyāpayan gurusuto guruvat-mānam arhati || 208 ||
M2.209a/ utsādanaṁ ca gātrāṇāṁ snāpana.ucchiṣṭabhojane |
M2.209c/ na kuryād guruputrasya pādayoś ca-avanejanam || 209 ||
M2.210a/ guruvat pratipūjyāḥ syuḥ sa.varṇā guruyoṣitaḥ |
M2.210c/ a.savarṇās tu sampūjyāḥ pratyutthāna.abhivādanaiḥ || 210 ||
M2.211a/ abhyañjanaṁ snāpanaṁ ca gātra.utsādanam eva ca |
M2.211c/ gurupatnyā na kāryāṇi keśānāṁ ca prasādhanam || 211 ||
M2.212a/ gurupatnī tu yuvatir na-abhivādyā-iha pādayoḥ |
M2.212c/ pūrṇaviṁśativarṣeṇa guṇa.doṣau vijānatā || 212 ||
M2.213a/ svabhāva eṣa nārīṇāṁ narāṇām iha dūṣaṇam |
M2.213c/ ato 'rthān na pramādyanti pramadāsu vipaścitaḥ || 213 ||
M2.214a/ a.vidvāṁsam alaṁ loke vidvāṁsam api vā punaḥ |
M2.214c/ pramadā hy utpathaṁ netuṁ kāma.krodhavaśānugam || 214 ||
M2.215a/ mātrā svasrā duhitrā vā na viviktāsano bhavet |
M2.215c/ balavān indriyagrāmo vidvāṁsam api karṣati || 215 ||
M2.216a/ kāmaṁ tu gurupatnīnāṁ yuvatīnāṁ yuvā bhuvi |
M2.216c/ vidhivad vandanaṁ kuryād asāv aham iti bruvan || 216 ||
M2.217a/ viproṣya pādagrahaṇam anvahaṁ ca-abhivādanam |
M2.217c/ gurudāreṣu kurvīta satāṁ dharmam anusmaran || 217 ||
[Page J 36 ]
M2.218a/ yathā khanan khanitreṇa naro vāry adhigacchati |
M2.218c/ tathā gurugatāṁ vidyāṁ śuśrūṣur adhigacchati || 218 ||

2.2.12. 2.2.12. Rules of Conduct

[Note: [ O edn 441-445 :: O tr. 106-107]
M2.219a/ muṇḍo vā jaṭilo vā syād atha vā syāt-śikhā.jaṭaḥ |
M2.219c/ na-enaṁ grāme 'bhinimlocet sūryo na-abhyudiyāt kva cit || 219 ||
M2.220a/ taṁ ced abhyudiyāt sūryaḥ śayānaṁ kāmacārataḥ |
M2.220c/ nimloced vā-apy a.vijñānāj japann upavased dinam || 220 ||
M2.221a/ sūryeṇa hy abhinirmuktaḥ śayāno 'bhyuditaś ca yaḥ | [Note: M2.221av/ M: abhinimluktaḥ]
M2.221c/ prāyaścittam a.kurvāṇo yuktaḥ syān mahatā-enasā || 221 ||
M2.222a/ ācamya prayato nityam ubhe sandhye samāhitaḥ |
M2.222c/ śucau deśe japañ japyam upāsīta yathāvidhi || 222 ||
M2.223a/ yadi strī yady avarajaḥ śreyaḥ kiṁ cit samācaret |
M2.223c/ tat sarvam ācared yukto yatra ca-asya ramen manaḥ || 223 ||
M2.224a/ dharma.arthāv ucyate śreyaḥ kāma.arthau dharma eva ca |
M2.224c/ artha eva-iha vā śreyas trivarga iti tu sthitiḥ || 224 ||
2.2.12.1. 2.2.12.1. Mother, Father, Teacher
[Note: [ O edn 442-444 :: O tr. 106-107]
M2.225a/ ācāryaś ca pitā ca-eva mātā bhrātā ca pūrvajaḥ |
M2.225c/ na-ārtena-apy avamantavyā brāhmaṇena viśeṣataḥ || 225 ||
M2.226a/ ācāryo brahmaṇo mūrtiḥ pitā mūrtiḥ prajāpateḥ |
M2.226c/ mātā pṛthivyā mūrtis tu bhrātā svo mūrtir ātmanaḥ || 226 ||
M2.227a/ yaṁ mātā.pitarau kleśaṁ sahete sambhave nṛṇām |
M2.227c/ na tasya niṣkṛtiḥ śakyā kartuṁ varṣaśatair api || 227 ||
[Page J 37 ]
M2.228a/ tayor nityaṁ priyaṁ kuryād ācāryasya ca sarvadā |
M2.228c/ teṣv eva triṣu tuṣṭeṣu tapaḥ sarvaṁ samāpyate || 228 ||
M2.229a/ teṣāṁ trayāṇāṁ śuśrūṣā paramaṁ tapa ucyate |
M2.229c/ na tair an.abhyanujñāto dharmam anyaṁ samācaret || 229 ||
M2.230a/ ta eva hi trayo lokās ta eva traya āśramāḥ |
M2.230c/ ta eva hi trayo vedās ta eva-uktās trayo 'gnayaḥ || 230 ||
M2.231a/ pitā vai gārhapatyo 'gnir mātā-agnir dakṣiṇaḥ smṛtaḥ |
M2.231c/ gurur āhavanīyas tu sā-agnitretā garīyasī || 231 ||
M2.232a/ triṣv a.pramādyann eteṣu trīn lokān vijayed gṛhī |
M2.232c/ dīpyamānaḥ svavapuṣā devavad divi modate || 232 ||
M2.233a/ imaṁ lokaṁ mātṛbhaktyā pitṛbhaktyā tu madhyamam |
M2.233c/ guruśuśrūṣayā tv evaṁ brahmalokaṁ samaśnute || 233 ||
M2.234a/ sarve tasya-ādṛtā dharmā yasya-ete traya ādṛtāḥ |
M2.234c/ an.ādṛtās tu yasya-ete sarvās tasya-a.phalāḥ kriyāḥ || 234 ||
M2.235a/ yāvat trayas te jīveyus tāvat-na-anyaṁ samācaret |
M2.235c/ teṣv eva nityaṁ śuśrūṣāṁ kuryāt priyahite rataḥ || 235 ||
M2.236a/ teṣām an.uparodhena pāratryaṁ yad yad ācaret |
M2.236c/ tat tan nivedayet tebhyo mano.vacana.karmabhiḥ || 236 ||
M2.237a/ triṣv eteṣv itikṛtyaṁ hi puruṣasya samāpyate |
M2.237c/ eṣa dharmaḥ paraḥ sākṣād upadharmo 'nya ucyate || 237 ||
2.2.12.2. 2.2.12.2. Non-Brahmin Teachers
[Page J 38 ] [Note: [ O edn 444-445 :: O tr. 107]
M2.238a/ śraddadhānaḥ śubhāṁ vidyām ādadīta-avarād api |
M2.238c/ anyād api paraṁ dharmaṁ strīratnaṁ duṣkulād api || 238 ||
M2.239a/ viṣād apy amṛtaṁ grāhyaṁ bālād api subhāṣitam |
M2.239c/ amitrād api sadvṛttam amedhyād api kāñcanam || 239 ||
M2.240a/ striyo ratnāny atho vidyā dharmaḥ śaucaṁ subhāṣitam |
M2.240c/ vividhāni ca śīlpāni samādeyāni sarvataḥ || 240 ||
M2.241a/ a.brāhmaṇād adhyāyanam āpatkāle vidhīyate |
M2.241c/ anuvrajyā ca śuśrūṣā yāvad adhyāyanaṁ guroḥ || 241 ||
M2.242a/ na-a.brāhmaṇe gurau śiṣyo vāsam ātyantikaṁ vaset |
M2.242c/ brāhmaṇe vā-an.anūcāne kāṅkṣan gatim an.uttamām || 242 ||

2.2.13. 2.2.13. Life-long Student-I

[Note: [ O edn 445 :: O tr. 107]
M2.243a/ yadi tv ātyantikaṁ vāsaṁ rocayeta guroḥ kule |
M2.243c/ yuktaḥ paricared enam ā śarīravimokṣaṇāt || 243 ||
M2.244a/ ā samāpteḥ śarīrasya yas tu śuśrūṣate gurum |
M2.244c/ sa gacchaty añjasā vipro brahmaṇaḥ sadma śāśvatam || 244 ||

2.2.14. 2.2.14. Conclusion of Study

[Note: [ O edn 445 :: O tr. 107]
M2.245a/ na pūrvaṁ gurave kiṁ cid upakurvīta dharmavit |
M2.245c/ snāsyaṁs tu guruṇā-ājñaptaḥ śaktyā guru.artham āharet || 245 ||
M2.246a/ kṣetraṁ hiraṇyaṁ gām aśvaṁ chatra.upānaham āsanam | [Note: M2.246av/ M: chatropānaham antataḥ]
M2.246c/ dhānyaṁ śākaṁ ca vāsāṁsi gurave prītim āvahet || 246 || [Note: M2.246cv/ M: dhānyaṁ vāsāṁsi śākaṁ vā gurave prītim āharan]

2.2.15. 2.2.15. Life-long Student-II

[Note: [ O edn 446 :: O tr. 107]
M2.247a/ ācārye tu khalu prete guruputre guṇānvite |
M2.247c/ gurudāre sapiṇḍe vā guruvad vṛttim ācaret || 247 ||
[Page J 39 ]
M2.248a/ eteṣv a.vidyamāneṣu sthāna.āsana.vihāravān |
M2.248c/ prayuñjāno 'gniśuśrūṣāṁ sādhayed deham ātmanaḥ || 248 ||
M2.249a/ evaṁ carati yo vipro brahmacaryam a.viplutaḥ |
M2.249c/ sa gacchaty uttamasthānaṁ na ca-iha jāyate punaḥ || 249 ||

3. Chapter 3

[Page J 40 ] [Note: [ O edn 447-503 :: O tr. 108-123]

3.1. 3.1. Marriage

[Note: [ O edn 447-450 :: O tr. 108-111]

3.1.1. 3.1.1. Conclusion of Study

[Note: [ O edn 447 :: O tr. 108]
M3.01a/ ṣaṭtriṁśad.ābdikaṁ caryaṁ gurau traivedikaṁ vratam |
M3.01c/ tadardhikaṁ pādikaṁ vā grahaṇāntikam eva vā || 1 ||
M3.02a/ vedān adhītya vedau vā vedaṁ vā-api yathākramam |
M3.02c/ a.vipluta.brahmacaryo gṛhasthāśramam āvaset || 2 ||
M3.03a/ taṁ pratītaṁ svadharmeṇa brahmadāyaharaṁ pituḥ |
M3.03c/ sragviṇaṁ talpa āsīnam arhayet prathamaṁ gavā || 3 ||

3.1.2. 3.1.2. Selection of a Bride

[Note: [ O edn 447-450 :: O tr. 108-109]
M3.04a/ guruṇānumataḥ snātvā samāvṛtto yathāvidhi |
M3.04c/ udvaheta dvijo bhāryāṁ sa.varṇāṁ lakṣaṇānvitām || 4 ||
M3.05a/ a.sapiṇḍā ca yā mātur a.sagotrā ca yā pituḥ |
M3.05c/ sā praśastā dvijātīnāṁ dārakarmaṇi maithune || 5 || [Note: M3.05cv/ M: a.maithinī]
M3.06a/ mahānty api samṛddhāni go.'ja.avi.dhana.dhānyataḥ |
M3.06c/ strīsambandhe daśa-etāni kulāni parivarjayet || 6 ||
[Page J 41 ]
M3.07a/ hīna.kriyaṁ niṣ.puruṣaṁ niś.chando romaśa.arśasam |
M3.07c/ kṣaya.āmayāvy.apasmāri.śvitri.kuṣṭhi.kulāni ca || 7 ||
M3.08a/ na-udvahet kapilāṁ kanyāṁ na-adhikāṅgīṁ na rogiṇīm |
M3.08c/ na-a.lomikāṁ na-ati.lomāṁ na vācāṭāṁ na piṅgalām || 8 || [Note: M3.08cv/ M: vācālāṁ]
M3.09a/ na-ṛkṣa.vṛkṣa.nadī.nāmnīṁ na-antya.parvata.nāmikām |
M3.09c/ na pakṣi.ahi.preṣya.nāmnīṁ na ca bhīṣana.nāmikām || 9 ||
M3.10a/ a.vyaṅga.aṅgīṁ saumya.nāmnīṁ haṁsa.vāraṇa.gāminīm |
M3.10c/ tanuloma.keśa.daśanāṁ mṛdv.aṅgīm udvahet striyam || 10 ||
M3.11a/ yasyās tu na bhaved bhrātā na vijñāyeta vā pitā | [Note: M3.11av/ M: vai(vā pitā]
M3.11c/ na-upayaccheta tāṁ prājñaḥ putrikā.adharmaśaṅkayā || 11 ||
M3.12a/ savarṇā-agre dvijātīnāṁ praśastā dārakarmaṇi |
M3.12c/ kāmatas tu pravṛttānām imāḥ syuḥ kramaśo 'varāḥ || 12 ||
M3.13a/ śūdrā-eva bhāryā śūdrasya sā ca svā ca viśaḥ smṛte |
M3.13c/ te ca svā ca-eva rājñaś ca tāś ca svā ca-agra.janmanaḥ || 13 ||
3.1.2.1. 3.1.2.1. Prohibition of a Śūdra Wife
[Note: [ O edn 449-450 :: O tr. 109]
M3.14a/ na brāhmaṇa.kṣatriyayor āpady api hi tiṣṭhatoḥ |
M3.14c/ kasmiṁś cid api vṛttānte śūdrā bhāryā-upadiśyate || 14 ||
M3.15a/ hīnajāti.striyaṁ mohād udvahanto dvijātayaḥ |
M3.15c/ kulāny eva nayanty āśu sa.santānāni śūdratām || 15 ||
M3.16a/ śūdrāvedī pataty atrer utathyatanayasya ca |
M3.16c/ śaunakasya suta.utpattyā tad.apatyatayā bhṛgoḥ || 16 ||
[Page J 42 ]
M3.17a/ śūdrāṁ śayanam āropya brāhmaṇo yāty adhogatim |
M3.17c/ janayitvā sutaṁ tasyāṁ brāhmaṇyād eva hīyate || 17 ||
M3.18a/ daiva.pitrya.ātitheyāni tat.pradhānāni yasya tu |
M3.18c/ na-aśnanti pitṛ.devās tan na ca svargaṁ sa gacchati || 18 ||
M3.19a/ vṛṣalīphena.pītasya niḥśvāsa.upahatasya ca |
M3.19c/ tasyāṁ ca-eva prasūtasya niṣkṛtir na vidhīyate || 19 ||

3.1.3. 3.1.3. Types of Marriage

[Note: [ O edn 450-455 :: O tr. 109-110]
M3.20a/ caturṇām api varṇānaṁ pretya ca-iha hita.ahitān |
M3.20c/ aṣṭāv imān samāsena strīvivāhān nibodhata || 20 ||
M3.21a/ brāhmo daivas tathā-eva-ārṣaḥ prājāpatyas tathā-asuraḥ |
M3.21c/ gāndharvo rākṣasaś ca-eva paiśācaś ca-aṣṭamo 'dhamaḥ || 21 ||
M3.22a/ yo yasya dharmyo varṇasya guṇa.doṣau ca yasya yau |
M3.22c/ tad vaḥ sarvaṁ pravakṣyāmi prasave ca guṇa.aguṇān || 22 ||
M3.23a/ ṣaḍ ānupūrvyā viprasya kṣatrasya caturo 'varān |
M3.23c/ viś.śūdrayos tu tān eva vidyād dharmyān a.rākṣasān || 23 || [Note: M3.23cv/ M: dharmyān na rākṣasān]
M3.24a/ caturo brāhmaṇasya-ādyān praśastān kavayo viduḥ |
M3.24c/ rākṣasaṁ kṣatriyasya-ekam āsuraṁ vaiśya.śūdrayoḥ || 24 ||
M3.25a/ pañcānāṁ tu trayo dharmyā dvāv adharmyau smṛtāv iha |
M3.25c/ paiśācaś ca-asuraś ca-eva na kartavyau kadā cana || 25 ||
M3.26a/ pṛthak pṛthag vā miśrau vā vivāhau pūrvacoditau |
M3.26c/ gāndharvo rākṣasaś ca-eva dharmyau kṣatrasya tau smṛtau || 26 ||
[Page J 43 ]
M3.27a/ ācchādya ca-arcayitvā ca śruta.śīlavate svayam |
M3.27c/ āhūya dānaṁ kanyāyā brāhmo dharmaḥ prakīrtitaḥ || 27 ||
M3.28a/ yajñe tu vitate samyag ṛtvije karma kurvate |
M3.28c/ alaṅkṛtya sutādānaṁ daivaṁ dharmaṁ pracakṣate || 28 ||
M3.29a/ ekaṁ gomithunaṁ dve vā varād ādāya dharmataḥ |
M3.29c/ kanyāpradānaṁ vidhivad ārṣo dharmaḥ sa ucyate || 29 ||
M3.30a/ saha-ubhau caratāṁ dharmam iti vācā-anubhāṣya ca |
M3.30c/ kanyāpradānam abhyarcya prājāpatyo vidhiḥ smṛtaḥ || 30 ||
M3.31a/ jñātibhyo draviṇaṁ dattvā kanyāyai ca-eva śaktitaḥ |
M3.31c/ kanyāpradānaṁ svācchandyād āsuro dharma ucyate || 31 ||
M3.32a/ icchayā-anyonyasaṁyogaḥ kanyāyāś ca varasya ca |
M3.32c/ gāndharvaḥ sa tu vijñeyo maithunyaḥ kāma.sambhavaḥ || 32 ||
M3.33a/ hatvā chittvā ca bhittvā ca krośantīṁ rudantīṁ gṛhāt |
M3.33c/ prasahya kanyāharaṇaṁ rākṣaso vidhir ucyate || 33 ||
M3.34a/ suptāṁ mattāṁ pramattāṁ vā raho yatra-upagacchati |
M3.34c/ sa pāpiṣṭho vivāhānāṁ paiśācaś ca-aṣṭamo 'dhamaḥ || 34 || [Note: M3.34cv/ M: paiśācaḥ prathito 'dhamaḥ]
M3.35a/ adbhir eva dvija.agryāṇāṁ kanyādānaṁ viśiṣyate |
M3.35c/ itareṣāṁ tu varṇānām itaretarakāmyayā || 35 ||
3.1.3.1. 3.1.3.1. Sons from Different Types of Marriage
[Note: [ O edn 453-455 :: O tr. 110]
M3.36a/ yo yasya-eṣāṁ vivāhānāṁ manunā kīrtito guṇaḥ |
M3.36c/ sarvaṁ śṛṇuta taṁ viprāḥ sarvaṁ kīrtayato mama || 36 || [Note: M3.36cv/ M: samyak kīrtayato]
[Page J 44 ]
M3.37a/ daśa pūrvān parān vaṁśyān ātmānaṁ ca-ekaviṁśakam |
M3.37c/ brāhmīputraḥ sukṛtakṛt-mocayaty enasaḥ pitṝn || 37 ||
M3.38a/ daiva.ūḍhājaḥ sutaś ca-eva sapta sapta para.avarān |
M3.38c/ ārṣa.ūḍhājaḥ sutas trīṁs trīn ṣaṭ ṣaṭ kāya.ūḍhajaḥ sutaḥ || 38 ||
M3.39a/ brāhma.ādiṣu vivāheṣu caturṣv eva-anupūrvaśaḥ |
M3.39c/ brahmavarcasvinaḥ putrā jāyante śiṣṭasammatāḥ || 39 || [Note: M3.39cv/ M: brahmavarcasinaḥ]
M3.40a/ rūpa.sattva.guṇa.upetā dhanavanto yaśasvinaḥ |
M3.40c/ paryāpta.bhogā dharmiṣṭhā jīvanti ca śataṁ samāḥ || 40 ||
M3.41a/ itareṣu tu śiṣṭeṣu nṛśaṁsā.anṛtavādinaḥ |
M3.41c/ jāyante durvivāheṣu brahma.dharma.dviṣaḥ sutāḥ || 41 ||
M3.42a/ aninditaiḥ strīvivāhair anindyā bhavati prajā |
M3.42c/ ninditair ninditā nṝṇāṁ tasmān nindyān vivarjayet || 42 ||
3.1.3.2. 3.1.3.2. Marriage Rite
[Note: [ O edn 455 :: O tr. 110]
M3.43a/ pāṇigrahaṇasaṁskāraḥ sa.varṇāsu-upadiśyate |
M3.43c/ a.savarṇāsv ayaṁ jñeyo vidhir udvāhakarmaṇi || 43 ||
M3.44a/ śaraḥ kṣatriyayā grāhyaḥ pratodo vaiśyakanyayā |
M3.44c/ vasanasya daśā grāhyā śūdrayā-utkṛṣṭavedane || 44 ||

3.1.4. 3.1.4. Sexual Union

[Note: [ O edn 455-456 :: O tr. 110]
M3.45a/ ṛtukālābhigāmī syāt svadāranirataḥ sadā |
M3.45c/ parvavarjaṁ vrajec ca-enāṁ tad.vrato ratikāmyayā || 45 ||
M3.46a/ ṛtuḥ svābhāvikaḥ strīṇāṁ rātrayaḥ ṣoḍaśa smṛtāḥ |
M3.46c/ caturbhir itaraiḥ sārdham ahobhiḥ sadvigarhitaiḥ || 46 ||
[Page J 45 ]
M3.47a/ tāsām ādyāś catasras tu ninditā-ekādaśī ca yā |
M3.47c/ trayodaśī ca śeṣās tu praśastā daśarātrayaḥ || 47 ||
M3.48a/ yugmāsu putrā jāyante striyo 'yugmāsu rātriṣu |
M3.48c/ tasmād yugmāsu putrārthī saṁviśed ārtave striyam || 48 ||
M3.49a/ pumān puṁso 'dhike śukre strī bhavaty adhike striyāḥ |
M3.49c/ same 'pumān puṁ.striyau vā kṣīṇe 'lpe ca viparyayaḥ || 49 ||
M3.50a/ nindyāsv aṣṭāsu ca-anyāsu striyo rātriṣu varjayan |
M3.50c/ brahmacāry eva bhavati yatra tatra-āśrame vasan || 50 ||

3.1.5. 3.1.5. Purchasing a Wife

[Note: [ O edn 456-457 :: O tr. 111]
M3.51a/ na kanyāyāḥ pitā vidvān gṛhṇīyāt-śulkam aṇu-api |
M3.51c/ gṛhṇan-śulkaṁ hi lobhena syān naro 'patyavikrayī || 51 ||
M3.52a/ strīdhanāni tu ye mohād upajīvanti bāndhavāḥ |
M3.52c/ nārī yānāni vastraṁ vā te pāpā yānty adhogatim || 52 ||
M3.53a/ ārṣe gomithunaṁ śulkaṁ ke cid āhur mṛṣā-eva tat |
M3.53c/ alpo 'py evaṁ mahān vā-api vikrayas tāvad eva saḥ || 53 || [Note: M3.53cv/ M: tāvān eva sa vikrayaḥ]
M3.54a/ yāsāṁ na-ādadate śulkaṁ jñātayo na sa vikrayaḥ |
M3.54c/ arhaṇaṁ tat kumārīṇām ānṛśaṁsyaṁ ca kevalam || 54 || [Note: M3.54cv/ M: na kevalam]

3.1.6. 3.1.6. Honouring Women

[Note: [ O edn 457-458 :: O tr. 111]
M3.55a/ pitṛbhir bhrātṛbhiś ca-etāḥ patibhir devarais tathā |
M3.55c/ pūjyā bhūṣayitavyāś ca bahukalyāṇam īpsubhiḥ || 55 ||
M3.56a/ yatra nāryas tu pūjyante ramante tatra devatāḥ |
M3.56c/ yatra-etās tu na pūjyante sarvās tatra-a.phalāḥ kriyāḥ || 56 ||
[Page J 46 ]
M3.57a/ śocanti jāmayo yatra vinaśyaty āśu tat kulam | [Note: M3.57av/ not in M]
M3.57c/ na śocanti tu yatra-etā vardhate tadd hi sarvadā || 57 || [Note: M3.57cv/ not in M]
M3.58a/ jāmayo yāni gehāni śapanty a.pratipūjitāḥ | [Note: M3.58av/ not in M]
M3.58c/ tāni kṛtyāhatāni-iva vinaśyanti samantataḥ || 58 || [Note: M3.58cv/ not in M]
M3.59a/ tasmād etāḥ sadā pūjyā bhūṣaṇa.ācchādana.aśanaiḥ | [Note: M3.59av/ not in M]
M3.59c/ bhūti.kāmair narair nityaṁ satkareṣu-utsaveṣu ca || 59 || [Note: M3.59cv/ not in M]

3.1.7. 3.1.7. Marital Harmony

[Note: [ O edn 458 :: O tr. 111]
M3.60a/ santuṣṭo bhāryayā bhartā bhartrā bhāryā tatha-eva ca | [Note: M3.60av/ not in M]
M3.60c/ yasminn eva kule nityaṁ kalyāṇaṁ tatra vai dhruvam || 60 || [Note: M3.60cv/ not in M]
M3.61a/ yadi hi strī na roceta pumāṁsaṁ na pramodayet | [Note: M3.61av/ not in M]
M3.61c/ apramodāt punaḥ puṁsaḥ prajanaṁ na pravartate || 61 || [Note: M3.61cv/ not in M]
M3.62a/ striyāṁ tu rocamānāyāṁ sarvaṁ tad rocate kulaṁ | [Note: M3.62av/ not in M]
M3.62c/ tasyāṁ tv arocamānāyāṁ sarvam eva na rocate || 62 || [Note: M3.62cv/ not in M]

3.1.8. 3.1.8. Degredation of Families

[Note: [ O edn 458-459 :: O tr. 111]
M3.63a/ ku.vivāhaiḥ kriyā.lopair vedānadhyayanena ca | [Note: M3.63av/ not in M]
M3.63c/ kulāny akulatāṁ yānti brāhmaṇātikrameṇa ca || 63 || [Note: M3.63cv/ not in M]
M3.64a/ śilpena vyavahāreṇa śūdrāpatyaiś ca kevalaiḥ | [Note: M3.64av/ not in M]
M3.64c/ gobhir aśvaiś ca yānaiś ca kṛṣyā rāja.upasevayā || 64 || [Note: M3.64cv/ not in M]
M3.65a/ ayājyayājanaiś ca-eva nāstikyena ca karmaṇām | [Note: M3.65av/ not in M]
M3.65c/ kulāny āśu vinaśyanti yāni hīnāni mantrataḥ || 65 || [Note: M3.65cv/ not in M]
M3.66a/ mantratas tu samṛddhāni kulāny alpa.dhanāny api | [Note: M3.66av/ not in M]
M3.66c/ kulasaṅkhyāṁ ca gacchanti karṣanti ca mahad yaśaḥ || 66 || [Note: M3.66cv/ not in M]

3.2. 3.2. The Householder

[Page J 47 ] [Note: [ O edn 459-503 :: O tr. 111-123]
M3.67a[57Ma]/ vaivāhike 'gnau kurvīta gṛhyaṁ karma yathāvidhi |
M3.67c[57Mc]/ pañcayajñavidhānaṁ ca paktiṁ ca-anvāhikīṁ gṛhī || 67 ||

3.2.1. 3.2.1. Great Sacrifices

[Note: [ O edn 459-470 :: O tr. 112]
M3.68a[58Ma]/ pañca sūnā gṛhasthasya cullī peṣaṇy upaskaraḥ |
M3.68c[58Mc]/ kaṇḍanī ca-udakumbhaś ca badhyate yās tu vāhayan || 68 || [Note: M3.68c[58Mc]v/ M: vadhyate]
M3.69a[59Ma]/ tāsāṁ krameṇa sarvāsāṁ niṣkṛtyarthaṁ maharṣibhiḥ |
M3.69c[59Mc]/ pañca kḷptā mahāyajñāḥ pratyahaṁ gṛhamedhinām || 69 ||
M3.70a[60Ma]/ adhyāpanaṁ brahmayajñaḥ pitṛyajñas tu tarpaṇam |
M3.70c[60Mc]/ homo daivo balir bhauto nṛyajño 'tithipūjanam || 70 ||
M3.71a[61Ma]/ pañca-etān yo mahāayajñān na hāpayati śaktitaḥ |
M3.71c[61Mc]/ sa gṛhe 'pi vasan nityaṁ sūnādoṣair na lipyate || 71 ||
M3.72a[62Ma]/ devatā.atithi.bhṛtyānāṁ pitṝṇām ātmanaś ca yaḥ |
M3.72c[62Mc]/ na nirvapati pañcānām ucchvasan na sa jīvati || 72 ||
M3.73a[63Ma]/ a.hutaṁ ca hutaṁ ca-eva tathā prahutam eva ca |
M3.73c[63Mc]/ brāhmyaṁ hutaṁ prāśitaṁ ca pañcayajñān pracakṣate || 73 ||
M3.74a[64Ma]/ japo 'huto huto homaḥ prahuto bhautiko baliḥ |
M3.74c[64Mc]/ brāhmyaṁ hutaṁ dvijāgryārcā prāśitaṁ pitṛtarpaṇam || 74 ||
M3.75a[65Ma]/ svādhyāye nityayuktaḥ syād daive ca-eva-iha karmaṇi |
M3.75c[65Mc]/ daivakarmaṇi yukto hi bibharti-idaṁ cara.acaram || 75 ||
M3.76a[66Ma]/ agnau prāstā-āhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
M3.76c[66Mc]/ ādityāj jāyate vṛṣtir vṛṣter annaṁ tataḥ prajāḥ || 76 ||
[Page J 48 ]
M3.77a[67Ma]/ yathā vāyuṁ samāśritya vartante sarvajantavaḥ | [Note: M3.77a[67Ma]v/ M: sarve jīvanti jantavaḥ]
M3.77c[67Mc]/ tathā gṛhastham āśritya vartante sarva āśramāḥ || 77 || [Note: M3.77c[67Mc]v/ M: vartanta itarāśramaḥ]
M3.78a[68Ma]/ yasmāt trayo 'py āśramiṇo jñānena-annena ca-anvaham |
M3.78c[68Mc]/ gṛhasthena-eva dhāryante tasmāj jyeṣṭhāśramo gṛhī || 78 || [Note: M3.78c[68Mc]v/ K: gṛham]
M3.79a[69Ma]/ sa sandhāryaḥ prayatnena svargam akṣayam icchatā |
M3.79c[69Mc]/ sukhaṁ ca-iha-icchatā-atyantaṁ yo 'dhāryo durbala.indriyaiḥ || 79 ||
M3.80a[70Ma]/ ṛṣayaḥ pitaro devā bhūtāny atithayas tathā |
M3.80c[70Mc]/ āśāsate kuṭumbibhyas tebhyaḥ kāryaṁ vijānatā || 80 ||
M3.81a[71Ma]/ svādhyāyena-arcayeta-ṛṣīn homair devān yathāvidhi |
M3.81c[71Mc]/ pitṝn-śrāddhaiś ca nṝn annair bhūtāni balikarmaṇā || 81 ||
3.2.1.1. 3.2.1.1. Ancestral Offerings
[Note: [ O edn 462 :: O tr. 112]
M3.82a[72Ma]/ kuryād ahar.ahaḥ śrāddham annādyena-udakena vā | [Note: M3.82a[72Ma]v/ M: dadyād ahar.ahaḥ]
M3.82c[72Mc]/ payo.mūla.phalair vā-api pitṛbhyaḥ prītim āvahan || 82 ||
M3.83a[73Ma]/ ekam apy āśayed vipraṁ pitṛ.arthe pāñcayajñike | [Note: M3.83a[73Ma]v/ M: pitṛ.arthaṁ]
M3.83c[73Mc]/ na ca-eva-atra-āśayet kiṁ cid vaiśvadevaṁ prati dvijam || 83 ||
3.2.1.2. 3.2.1.2. Divine Offerings
[Note: [ O edn 463 :: O tr. 112]
M3.84a[74Ma]/ vaiśvadevasya siddhasya gṛhye 'gnau vidhipūrvakam |
M3.84c[74Mc]/ ābhyaḥ kuryād devatābhyo brāhmaṇo homam anvaham || 84 ||
M3.85a[75Ma]/ agneḥ somasya ca-eva-ādau tayoś ca-eva samastayoḥ |
M3.85c[75Mc]/ viśvebhyaś ca-eva devebhyo dhanvantaraya eva ca || 85 ||
M3.86a[76Ma]/ kuhvai ca-eva-anumatyai ca prajāpataya eva ca |
M3.86c[76Mc]/ saha dyāvāpṛthivyoś ca tathā sviṣṭakṛte 'ntataḥ || 86 ||
3.2.1.3. 3.2.1.3. Bali Offerings
[Page J 49 ] [Note: [ O edn 463-464 :: O tr. 113]
M3.87a[77Ma]/ evaṁ samyagg havir hutvā sarvadikṣu pradakṣiṇam |
M3.87c[77Mc]/ indra.antaka.appati.indubhyaḥ sa.anugebhyo baliṁ haret || 87 ||
M3.88a[78Ma]/ marudbhya iti tu dvāri kṣiped apsv adbhya ity api |
M3.88c[78Mc]/ vanaspatibhya ity evaṁ musala.ulūkhale haret || 88 ||
M3.89a[79Ma]/ ucchīrṣake śriyai kuryād bhadrakālyai ca pādataḥ |
M3.89c[79Mc]/ brahma.vāstoṣpatibhyāṁ tu vāstumadhye baliṁ haret || 89 ||
M3.90a[80Ma]/ viśvebhyaś ca-eva devebhyo balim ākāśa utkṣipet |
M3.90c[80Mc]/ divācarebhyo bhūtebhyo naktañcāribhya eva ca || 90 ||
M3.91a[81Ma]/ pṛṣṭhavāstuni kurvīta baliṁ sarvātmabhūtaye | [Note: M3.91a[81Ma]v/ M: sarvānnabhūtaye]
M3.91c[81Mc]/ pitṛbhyo baliśeṣaṁ tu sarvaṁ dakṣiṇato haret || 91 ||
M3.92a[82Ma]/ śūnāṁ ca patitānāṁ ca śvapacāṁ pāpa.rogiṇām |
M3.92c[82Mc]/ vayasānāṁ kṛmīṇāṁ ca śanakair nirvaped bhuvi || 92 || [Note: M3.92c[82Mc]v/ M: vayasāṁ ca]
M3.93a[83Ma]/ evaṁ yaḥ sarvabhūtāni brāhmaṇo nityam arcati |
M3.93c[83Mc]/ sa gacchati paraṁ sthānaṁ tejomūrtiḥ pathā-ṛjunā || 93 ||
3.2.1.4. 3.2.1.4. Honouring Guests
[Note: [ O edn 464-470 :: O tr. 113-114]
M3.94a[84Ma]/ kṛtvā-etad balikarma-evam atithiṁ pūrvam āśayet |
M3.94c[84Mc]/ bhikṣāṁ ca bhikṣave dadyād vidhivad brahmacāriṇe || 94 ||
M3.95a[85Ma]/ yat puṇyaphalam āpnoti gāṁ dattvā vidhivad guroḥ |
M3.95c[85Mc]/ tat puṇyaphalam āpnoti bhikṣāṁ dattvā dvijo gṛhī || 95 ||
M3.96a[86Ma]/ bhikṣām apy udapātraṁ vā satkṛtya vidhipūrvakam |
M3.96c[86Mc]/ vedatattvārthaviduṣe brāhmaṇāya-upapādayet || 96 ||
[Page J 50 ]
M3.97a[87Ma]/ naśyanti havya.kavyāni narāṇām a.vijānatām |
M3.97c[87Mc]/ bhasmībhūteṣu vipreṣu mohād dattāni dātṛbhiḥ || 97 || [Note: M3.97c[87Mc]v/ M: bhasmabhūteṣu]
M3.98a[88Ma]/ vidyā.tapaḥ.samṛddheṣu hutaṁ vipramukhāgniṣu |
M3.98c[88Mc]/ nistārayati durgāc ca mahataś ca-eva kilbiṣāt || 98 ||
M3.99a[89Ma]/ samprāptāya tv atithaye pradadyād āsana.udake |
M3.99c[89Mc]/ annaṁ ca-eva yathāśakti satkṛtya vidhipūrvakam || 99 || [Note: M3.99c[89Mc]v/ K: saṁskṛtya]
M3.100a[90Ma]/ śilān apy uñchato nityaṁ pañcāgnīn api juhvataḥ |
M3.100c[90Mc]/ sarvaṁ sukṛtam ādatte brāhmaṇo 'narcito vasan || 100 ||
M3.101a[91Ma]/ tṛṇāni bhūmir udakaṁ vāk caturthī ca sūnṛtā |
M3.101c[91Mc]/ etāny api satāṁ gehe na-ucchidyante kadā cana || 101 ||
M3.102a[92Ma]/ ekarātraṁ tu nivasann atithir brāhmaṇaḥ smṛtaḥ |
M3.102c[92Mc]/ anityaṁ hi sthito yasmāt tasmād atithir ucyate || 102 ||
M3.103a[93Ma]/ na-ekagrāmīṇam atithiṁ vipraṁ sāṅgatikaṁ tathā |
M3.103c[93Mc]/ upasthitaṁ gṛhe vidyād bhāryā yatra-agnayo 'pi vā || 103 ||
M3.104a[94Ma]/ upāsate ye gṛhasthāḥ parapākam a.buddhayaḥ |
M3.104c[94Mc]/ tena te pretya paśutāṁ vrajanty annādidāyinaḥ || 104 ||
M3.105a[95Ma]/ a.praṇodyo 'tithiḥ sāyaṁ sūrya.ūḍho gṛhamedhinā |
M3.105c[95Mc]/ kāle prāptas tv akāle vā na-asya-an.aśnan gṛhe vaset || 105 ||
M3.106a[96Ma]/ na vai svayaṁ tad aśnīyād atithiṁ yan na bhojayet |
M3.106c[96Mc]/ dhanyaṁ yaśasyam āyuṣyaṁ svargyaṁ vā-atithipūjanam || 106 ||
[Page J 51 ]
M3.107a[97Ma]/ āsana.āvasathau śayyām anuvrajyām upāsanām |
M3.107c[97Mc]/ uttameṣu-uttamaṁ kuryādd hīine hīnaṁ same samam || 107 ||
M3.108a[98Ma]/ vaiśvadeve tu nirvṛtte yady anyo 'tithir āvrajet |
M3.108c[98Mc]/ tasya-apy annaṁ yathāśakti pradadyān na baliṁ haret || 108 ||
M3.109a[99Ma]/ na bhojanārthaṁ sve vipraḥ kula.gotre nivedayet |
M3.109c[99Mc]/ bhojanārthaṁ hi te śaṁsan vāntāśī-ity ucyate budhaiḥ || 109 ||
M3.110a[100Ma]/ na brāhmaṇasya tv atithir gṛhe rājanya ucyate |
M3.110c[100Mc]/ vaiśya.śūdrau sakhā ca-eva jñātayo gurur eva ca || 110 ||
M3.111a[101Ma]/ yadi tv atithidharmeṇa kṣatriyo gṛham āvrajet |
M3.111c[101Mc]/ bhuktavatsu ca vipreṣu kāmaṁ tam api bhojayet || 111 ||
M3.112a[102Ma]/ vaiśya.śūdrāv api prāptau kuṭumbe 'tithi.dharmiṇau |
M3.112c[102Mc]/ bhojayet saha bhṛtyais tāv ānṛśaṁsyaṁ prayojayan || 112 ||
M3.113a[103Ma]/ itarān api sakhi.ādīn samprītyā gṛham āgatān |
M3.113c[103Mc]/ prakṛtya-annaṁ yathāśakti bhojayet saha bhāryayā || 113 ||
M3.114a[104Ma]/ suvāsinīḥ kumārīś ca rogiṇo garbhiṇīḥ striyaḥ |
M3.114c[104Mc]/ atithibhyo 'gra eva-etān bhojayed avicārayan || 114 || [Note: M3.114c[104Mc]v/ M: atithibhyo 'nvag eva-etān]
M3.115a[105Ma]/ a.dattvā tu ya etebhyaḥ pūrvaṁ bhuṅkte '.vicakṣaṇaḥ |
M3.115c[105Mc]/ sa bhuñjāno na jānāti śva.gṛdhrair jagdhim ātmanaḥ || 115 ||
M3.116a[106Ma]/ bhuktavatsv atha vipreṣu sveṣu bhṛtyeṣu ca-eva hi |
M3.116c[106Mc]/ bhuñjīyātāṁ tataḥ paścād avaśiṣṭaṁ tu dampatī || 116 ||
[Page J 52 ]
M3.117a[107Ma]/ devān ṛṣīn manuṣyāṁś ca pitṝn gṛhyāś ca devatāḥ |
M3.117c[107Mc]/ pūjayitvā tataḥ paścād gṛhasthaḥ śeṣabhug bhavet || 117 ||
M3.118a[108Ma]/ aghaṁ sa kevalaṁ bhuṅkte yaḥ pacaty ātmakāraṇāt |
M3.118c[108Mc]/ yajñaśiṣṭāśanaṁ hy etat satām annaṁ vidhīyate || 118 ||
M3.119a[109Ma]/ rāja.ṛtvij.snātaka.gurūn priya.śvaśura.mātulān |
M3.119c[109Mc]/ arhayen madhuparkeṇa parisaṁvatsarāt punaḥ || 119 ||
M3.120a[110Ma]/ rājā ca śrotriyaś ca-eva yajñakarmaṇy upasthitau | [Note: M3.120a[110Ma]v/ M: upasthite]
M3.120c[110Mc]/ madhuparkeṇa sampūjyau na tv ayajña iti sthitiḥ || 120 ||
M3.121a[111Ma]/ sāyaṁ tv annasya siddhasya patny a.mantraṁ baliṁ haret |
M3.121c[111Mc]/ vaiśvadevaṁ hi nāma-etat sāyaṁ prātar vidhīyate || 121 ||

3.2.2. 3.2.2. Ancestral Offerings

[Note: [ O edn 470-502 :: O tr. 114-123]
M3.122a[112Ma]/ pitṛyajñaṁ tu nirvartya vipraś candrakṣaye 'gnimān | [Note: M3.122a[112Ma]v/ K: ca-indukṣaye]
M3.122c[112Mc]/ piṇḍānvāhāryakaṁ śrāddhaṁ kuryān māsa.anumāsikam || 122 ||
M3.123a[113Ma]/ pitṝṇāṁ māsikaṁ śrāddham anvāhāryaṁ vidur budhāḥ |
M3.123c[113Mc]/ tac ca-āmiṣeṇā kartavyaṁ praśastena prayatnataḥ || 123 ||
M3.124a[114Ma]/ tatra ye bhojanīyāḥ syur ye ca varjyā dvijottamāḥ |
M3.124c[114Mc]/ yāvantaś ca-eva yaiś ca-annais tān pravakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ || 124 ||
3.2.2.1. 3.2.2.1. Number of Invitees
[Note: [ O edn 471 :: O tr. 114-115]
M3.125a[115Ma]/ dvau daive pitṛkārye trīn ekaikam ubhayatra vā | [Note: M3.125a[115Ma]v/ M: pitṛkṛtye]
M3.125c[115Mc]/ bhojayet su.samṛddho 'pi na prasajjeta vistare || 125 || [Note: M3.125c[115Mc]v/ M: na pravarteta]
M3.126a[116Ma]/ satkriyāṁ deśa.kālau ca śaucaṁ brāhmaṇasampadaḥ |
M3.126c[116Mc]/ pañca-etān vistaro hanti tasmān na-īheta vistaram || 126 ||
3.2.2.2. 3.2.2.2. Quality of Invitees
[Page J 53 ] [Note: [ O edn 471-475 :: O tr. 115-116]
M3.127a[117Ma]/ prathitā pretakṛtyā-eṣā pitryaṁ nāma vidhukṣaye |
M3.127c[117Mc]/ tasmin yuktasya-eti nityaṁ pretakṛtyā-eva laukikī || 127 ||
M3.128a[118Ma]/ śrotriyāya-eva deyāni havya.kavyāni dātṛbhiḥ |
M3.128c[118Mc]/ arhattamāya viprāya tasmai dattaṁ mahāphalam || 128 ||
M3.129a[119Ma]/ ekaikam api vidvāṁsaṁ daive pitrye ca bhojayet | [Note: M3.129a[119Ma]v/ M: bhojayan]
M3.129c[119Mc]/ puṣkalaṁ phalam āpnoti na-amantrajñān bahūn api || 129 ||
M3.130a[120Ma]/ dūrād eva parīkṣeta brāhmaṇaṁ vedapāragam |
M3.130c[120Mc]/ tīrthaṁ tadd havya.kavyānāṁ pradāne so 'tithiḥ smṛtaḥ || 130 ||
M3.131a[121Ma]/ sahasraṁ hi sahasrāṇām an.ṛcāṁ yatra bhuñjate |
M3.131c[121Mc]/ ekas tān mantravit prītaḥ sarvān arhati dharmataḥ || 131 ||
M3.132a[122Ma]/ jñāna.utkṛṣṭāya deyāni kavyāni ca havīṁṣi ca |
M3.132c[122Mc]/ na hi hastāv asṛgdigdhau rudhireṇa-eva śudhyataḥ || 132 ||
M3.133a[123Ma]/ yāvato grasate grāsān havya.kavyeṣv a.mantravit |
M3.133c[123Mc]/ tāvato grasate preto dīptaśūla.ṛṣṭi.ayoguḍān || 133 ||
M3.134a[124Ma]/ jñānaniṣṭhā dvijāḥ ke cit taponiṣṭhās tathā-apare |
M3.134c[124Mc]/ tapaḥ.svādhyāyaniṣṭhāś ca karmaniṣṭhās tathā-apare || 134 ||
M3.135a[125Ma]/ jñānaniṣṭheṣu kavyāni pratiṣṭhāpyāni yatnataḥ |
M3.135c[125Mc]/ havyāni tu yathānyāyaṁ sarveṣv eva caturṣv api || 135 ||
M3.136a[126Ma]/ aśrotriyaḥ pitā yasya putraḥ syād vedapāragaḥ |
M3.136c[126Mc]/ aśrotriyo vā putraḥ syāt pitā syād vedapāragaḥ || 136 ||
[Page J 54 ]
M3.137a[127Ma]/ jyāyāṁsam anayor vidyād yasya syāt-śrotriyaḥ pitā |
M3.137c[127Mc]/ mantrasampūjanārthaṁ tu satkāram itaro 'rhati || 137 ||
M3.138a[128Ma]/ na śrāddhe bhojayen mitraṁ dhanaiḥ kāryo 'sya saṅgrahaḥ |
M3.138c[128Mc]/ nāriṁ na mitraṁ yaṁ vidyāt taṁ śrāddhe bhojayed dvijam || 138 ||
M3.139a[129Ma]/ yasya mitra.pradhānāni śrāddhāni ca havīṁṣi ca |
M3.139c[129Mc]/ tasya pretya phalaṁ na-asti śrāddheṣu ca haviḥṣu ca || 139 ||
M3.140a[130Ma]/ yaḥ saṅgatāni kurute mohāt-śrāddhena mānavaḥ |
M3.140c[130Mc]/ sa svargāc cyavate lokāt-śrāddha.mitro dvijādhamaḥ || 140 ||
M3.141a[131Ma]/ sambhojāni sā-abhihitā paiśācī dakṣiṇā dvijaiḥ |
M3.141c[131Mc]/ iha-eva-āste tu sā loke gaur andhā-iva-ekaveśmani || 141 ||
M3.142a[132Ma]/ yathā-iriṇe bījam uptvā na vaptā labhate phalam |
M3.142c[132Mc]/ tathā-an.ṛce havir dattvā na dātā labhate phalam || 142 ||
M3.143a[133Ma]/ dātṝn pratigrahītṝṁś ca kurute phalabhāginaḥ |
M3.143c[133Mc]/ viduṣe dakṣiṇāṁ dattvā vidhivat pretya ca-iha ca || 143 ||
M3.144a[134Ma]/ kāmaṁ śrāddhe 'rcayen mitraṁ na-abhirūpam api tv arim |
M3.144c[134Mc]/ dviṣatā hi havir bhuktaṁ bhavati pretya niṣ.phalam || 144 ||
M3.145a[135Ma]/ yatnena bhojayet-śrāddhe bahvṛcaṁ vedapāragam |
M3.145c[135Mc]/ śākhāntagam atha-adhvaryuṁ chandogaṁ tu samāptikam || 145 ||
M3.146a[136Ma]/ eṣām anyatamo yasya bhuñjīta śrāddham arcitaḥ |
M3.146c[136Mc]/ pitṝṇāṁ tasya tṛptiḥ syāt-śāśvatī sāptapauruṣī || 146 ||
[Page J 55 ]
M3.147a[137Ma]/ eṣa vai prathamaḥ kalpaḥ pradāne havya.kavyayoḥ |
M3.147c[137Mc]/ anukalpas tv ayaṁ jñeyaḥ sadā sadbhir anuṣṭhitaḥ || 147 ||
M3.148a[138Ma]/ mātāmahaṁ mātulaṁ ca svasrīyaṁ śvaśuraṁ gurum |
M3.148c[138Mc]/ dauhitraṁ viṭpatiṁ bandhum ṛtvig yājyau ca bhojayet || 148 ||
M3.149a[139Ma]/ na brāhmaṇaṁ parīkṣeta daive karmaṇi dharmavit |
M3.149c[139Mc]/ pitrye karmaṇi tu prāpte parīkṣeta prayatnataḥ || 149 ||
3.2.2.3. 3.2.2.3. Unfit Invitees
[Note: [ O edn 475-482 :: O tr. 116-117]
M3.150a[140Ma]/ ye stena.patita.klībā ye ca nāstikavṛttayaḥ |
M3.150c[140Mc]/ tān havya.kavyayor viprān anarhān manur abravīt || 150 ||
M3.151a[141Ma]/ jaṭilaṁ ca-anadhīyānaṁ durbālaṁ kitavaṁ tathā |
M3.151c[141Mc]/ yājayanti ca ye pūgāṁs tāṁś ca śrāddhe na bhojayet || 151 ||
M3.152a[142Ma]/ cikitsakān devalakān māṁsavikrayiṇas tathā | [Note: M3.152a[142Ma]v/ M: cikitsakādevalakāmāṁsavikrayiṇas tathā]
M3.152c[142Mc]/ vipaṇena ca jīvanto varjyāḥ syur havya.kavyayoḥ || 152 ||
M3.153a[143Ma]/ preṣyo grāmasya rājñaś ca kunakhī śyāvadantakaḥ |
M3.153c[143Mc]/ pratiroddhā guroś ca-eva tyakta.agnir vārdhuṣis tathā || 153 ||
M3.154a[144Ma]/ yakṣmī ca paśupālaś ca parivettā nirākṛtiḥ |
M3.154c[144Mc]/ brahmadviṣ-parivittiś ca gaṇābhyantara eva ca || 154 ||
M3.155a[145Ma]/ kuśīlavo 'vakīrṇī ca vṛṣalīpatir eva ca |
M3.155c[145Mc]/ paunarbhavaś ca kāṇaś ca yasya ca-upapatir gṛhe || 155 ||
M3.156a[146Ma]/ bhṛtakādhyāpako yaś ca bhṛtakādhyāpitas tathā |
M3.156c[146Mc]/ śūdra.śiṣyo guruś ca-eva vāgduṣṭaḥ kuṇḍa.golakau || 156 ||
[Page J 56 ]
M3.157a[147Ma]/ akāraṇe parityaktā mātā.pitror guros tathā | [Note: M3.157a[147Ma]v/ K: akāraṇaparityaktā]
M3.157c[147Mc]/ brāhmair yaunaiś ca sambandhaiḥ saṁyogaṁ patitair gataḥ || 157 ||
M3.158a[148Ma]/ agāradāhī garadaḥ kuṇḍāśī somavikrayī |
M3.158c[148Mc]/ samudrayāyī bandī ca tailikaḥ kūṭakārakaḥ || 158 ||
M3.159a[149Ma]/ pitrā vivadamānaś ca kitavo madyapas tathā |
M3.159c[149Mc]/ pāparogy abhiśastaś ca dāmbhiko rasavikrayī || 159 ||
M3.160a[150Ma]/ dhanuḥ.śarāṇāṁ kartā ca yaś ca-agredidhiṣūpatiḥ |
M3.160c[150Mc]/ mitradhrug dyūta.vṛttiś ca putra.ācāryas tathā-eva ca || 160 ||
M3.161a[151Ma]/ bhrāmarī ganḍamālī ca śvitry atho piśunas tathā |
M3.161c[151Mc]/ unmatto 'ndhaś ca varjyāḥ syur vedanindaka eva ca || 161 ||
M3.162a[152Ma]/ hasti.go.'śva.uṣṭradamako nakṣatrair yaś ca jīvati |
M3.162c[152Mc]/ pakṣiṇāṁ poṣako yaś ca yuddhācāryas tathā-eva ca || 162 ||
M3.163a[153Ma]/ srotasāṁ bhedako yaś ca teṣāṁ ca-āvaraṇe rataḥ |
M3.163c[153Mc]/ gṛhasaṁveśako dūto vṛkṣāropaka eva ca || 163 ||
M3.164a[154Ma]/ śvakrīḍī śyenajīvī ca kanyādūṣaka eva ca |
M3.164c[154Mc]/ hiṁsro vṛṣala.vṛttiś ca gaṇānāṁ ca-eva yājakaḥ || 164 ||
M3.165a[155Ma]/ ācāra.hīnaḥ klībaś ca nityaṁ yācanakas tathā |
M3.165c[155Mc]/ kṛṣijīvī ślīpadī ca sadbhir nindita eva ca || 165 ||
M3.166a[156Ma]/ aurabhriko māhiṣikaḥ parapūrvāpatis tathā |
M3.166c[156Mc]/ pretaniryāpakaś ca-eva varjanīyāḥ prayatnataḥ || 166 ||
[Page J 57 ]
M3.167a[157Ma]/ etān vigarhita.ācārān apāṅkteyān dvijādhamān |
M3.167c[157Mc]/ dvijātipravaro vidvān ubhayatra vivarjayet || 167 ||
M3.168a[158Ma]/ brāhmaṇo tv an.adhīyānas tṛṇāgnir iva śāmyati | [Note: M3.168a[158Ma]v/ M: brāhmaṇas hy an.adhīyānas]
M3.168c[158Mc]/ tasmai havyaṁ na dātavyaṁ na hi bhasmani hūyate || 168 ||
M3.169a[159Ma]/ apāṅktadāne yo dātur bhavaty ūrdhvaṁ phala.udayaḥ | [Note: M3.169a[159Ma]v/ M: apaṅktyadāne]
M3.169c[159Mc]/ daive haviṣi pitrye vā taṁ pravaksyāmy aśeṣataḥ || 169 || [Note: M3.169c[159Mc]v/ M: daive karmaṇi]
M3.170a[160Ma]/ a.vratair yad dvijair bhuktaṁ parivetṛ.ādibhis tathā |
M3.170c[160Mc]/ apāṅkteyair yad anyaiś ca tad vai rakṣāṁsi bhuñjate || 170 ||
M3.171a[161Ma]/ dārāgnihotrasaṁyogaṁ kurute yo 'graje sthite |
M3.171c[161Mc]/ parivettā sa vijñeyaḥ parivittis tu pūrvajaḥ || 171 ||
M3.172a[162Ma]/ parivittiḥ parivettā yayā ca parividyate |
M3.172c[162Mc]/ sarve te narakaṁ yānti dātṛyājaka.pañcamāḥ || 172 ||
M3.173a[163Ma]/ bhrātur mṛtasya bhāryāyāṁ yo 'nurajyeta kāmataḥ |
M3.173c[163Mc]/ dharmeṇa-api niyuktāyāṁ sa jñeyo didhiṣūpatiḥ || 173 ||
M3.174a[164Ma]/ paradāreṣu jāyete dvau sutau kuṇḍa.golakau |
M3.174c[164Mc]/ patyau jīvati kuṇḍaḥ syān mṛte bhartari golakaḥ || 174 ||
M3.175a[165Ma]/ tau tu jātau parakṣetre prāṇinau pretya ca-iha ca | [Note: M3.175a[165Ma]v/ M: te tu jātāḥ parakṣetre prāṇinaḥ]
M3.175c[165Mc]/ dattāni havya.kavyāni nāśayanti pradāyinām || 175 ||
M3.176a[166Ma]/ apāṅktyo yāvataḥ paṅktyān bhuñjānān anupaśyati | [Note: M3.176a[166Ma]v/ M: a.paṅktyo yāvataḥ]
M3.176c[166Mc]/ tāvatāṁ na phalaṁ tatra dātā prāpnoti bāliśaḥ || 176 ||
[Page J 58 ]
M3.177a[167Ma]/ vīkṣya-andho navateḥ kāṇaḥ ṣaṣṭeḥ śvitrī śatasya tu | [Note: M3.177a[167Ma]v/ M: śatasya ca]
M3.177c[167Mc]/ pāparogī sahasrasya dātur nāśayate phalam || 177 ||
M3.178a[168Ma]/ yāvataḥ saṁspṛśed aṅgair brāhmaṇān-śūdrayājakaḥ |
M3.178c[168Mc]/ tāvatāṁ na bhaved dātuḥ phalaṁ dānasya paurtikam || 178 ||
M3.179a[169Ma]/ vedavid-ca-api vipro 'sya lobhāt kṛtvā pratigraham |
M3.179c[169Mc]/ vināśaṁ vrajati kṣipram āmapātram iva-ambhasi || 179 ||
M3.180a[170Ma]/ somavikrayiṇe viṣṭhā bhiṣaje pūya.śoṇitam |
M3.180c[170Mc]/ naṣṭaṁ devalake dattam a.pratiṣṭhaṁ tu vārdhuṣau || 180 ||
M3.181a[171Ma]/ yat tu vāṇijake dattaṁ na-iha na-amutra tad bhavet |
M3.181c[171Mc]/ bhasmani-iva hutaṁ dravyaṁ tathā paunarbhave dvije || 181 ||
M3.182a[172Ma]/ itareṣu tv apāṅktyeṣu yathā.uddiṣṭeṣv a.sādhuṣu |
M3.182c[172Mc]/ medo.'sṛṅ.māṁsa.majjā.asthi vadanty annaṁ manīṣiṇaḥ || 182 ||
3.2.2.4. 3.2.2.4. Persons Who Purify Those Alongside Whom They Eat
[Note: [ O edn 482 :: O tr. 118]
M3.183a[173Ma]/ apāṅktya.upahatā paṅktiḥ pāvyate yair dvijottamaiḥ | [Note: M3.183a[173Ma]v/ M: a.paṅktya.upahatā paṅktiḥ]
M3.183c[173Mc]/ tān nibodhata kārtsnyena dvijāgryān paṅktipāvanān || 183 ||
M3.184a[174Ma]/ agryāḥ sarveṣu vedeṣu sarvapravacaneṣu ca |
M3.184c[174Mc]/ śrotriyānvayajāś ca-eva vijñeyāḥ paṅktipāvanāḥ || 184 ||
M3.185a[175Ma]/ triṇāciketaḥ pañca.agnis trisuparṇaḥ ṣaḍaṅgavit |
M3.185c[175Mc]/ brahmadeyātmasantāno jyeṣṭhasāmaga eva ca || 185 || [Note: M3.185c[175Mc]v/ M: brahmadeyānusantāno]
M3.186a[176Ma]/ vedārtha.vit pravaktā ca brahmacārī sahasradaḥ |
M3.186c[176Mc]/ śatāyuś ca-eva vijñeyā brāhmaṇāḥ paṅktipāvanāḥ || 186 ||
3.2.2.5. 3.2.2.5. Invitations
[Page J 59 ] [Note: [ O edn 482-483 :: O tr. 118]
M3.187a[177Ma]/ pūrvedyur aparedyur vā śrāddhakarmaṇy upasthite |
M3.187c[177Mc]/ nimantrayeta try.avarān samyag viprān yathā.uditān || 187 || [Note: M3.187c[177Mc]v/ M: nimantrayīta]
M3.188a[178Ma]/ nimantrito dvijaḥ pitrye niyatātmā bhavet sadā |
M3.188c[178Mc]/ na ca chandāṁsy adhīyīta yasya śrāddhaṁ ca tad bhavet || 188 ||
M3.189a[179Ma]/ nimantritān hi pitara upatiṣṭhanti tān dvijān |
M3.189c[179Mc]/ vāyuvat-ca-anugacchanti tathā-āsīnān upāsate || 189 ||
M3.190a[180Ma]/ ketitas tu yathānyāyaṁ havye kavye dvijottamaḥ |
M3.190c[180Mc]/ kathaṁ cid apy atikrāman pāpaḥ sūkaratāṁ vrajet || 190 ||
M3.191a[181Ma]/ āmantritas tu yaḥ śrāddhe vṛśalyā saha modate |
M3.191c[181Mc]/ dātur yad duṣkṛtaṁ kiṁ cit tat sarvaṁ pratipadyate || 191 ||
3.2.2.6. 3.2.2.6. Classes of Ancestors
[Note: [ O edn 483-485 :: O tr. 118-119]
M3.192a[182Ma]/ a.krodhanāḥ śauca.parāḥ satataṁ brahmacāriṇaḥ |
M3.192c[182Mc]/ nyasta.śastrā mahā.bhāgāḥ pitaraḥ pūrvadevatāḥ || 192 ||
M3.193a[183Ma]/ yasmād utpattir eteṣāṁ sarveṣām apy aśeṣataḥ |
M3.193c[183Mc]/ ye ca yair upacaryāḥ syur niyamais tān nibodhata || 193 ||
M3.194a[184Ma]/ manor hairaṇyagarbhasya ye marīci.ādayaḥ sutāḥ |
M3.194c[184Mc]/ teṣām ṛṣīṇāṁ sarveṣāṁ putrāḥ pitṛgaṇāḥ smṛtāḥ || 194 ||
M3.195a[185Ma]/ virāj.sutāḥ somasadaḥ sādhyānāṁ pitaraḥ smṛtāḥ |
M3.195c[185Mc]/ agniṣvāttāś ca devānāṁ mārīcā lokaviśrutāḥ || 195 ||
M3.196a[186Ma]/ daitya.dānava.yakṣāṇāṁ gandharva.uraga.rakṣasām |
M3.196c[186Mc]/ suparṇa.kinnarāṇāṁ ca smṛtā barhiṣado 'trijāḥ || 196 ||
[Page J 60 ]
M3.197a[187Ma]/ somapā nāma viprāṇāṁ kṣatriyāṇāṁ havirbhujaḥ |
M3.197c[187Mc]/ vaiśyānām ājyapā nāma śūdrāṇāṁ tu sukālinaḥ || 197 ||
M3.198a[188Ma]/ somapās tu kaveḥ putrā haviṣmanto 'ṅgiraḥsutāḥ |
M3.198c[188Mc]/ pulastyasya-ājyapāḥ putrā vasiṣṭhasya sukālinaḥ || 198 ||
M3.199a[189Ma]/ agnidagdha.anagnidagdhān kāvyān barhiṣadas tathā | [Note: M3.199a[189Ma]v/ M: an.agnidagdha.an.agnidagdhān]
M3.199c[189Mc]/ agniṣvāttāṁś ca saumyāṁś ca viprāṇām eva nirdiśet || 199 ||
M3.200a[190Ma]/ ya ete tu gaṇā mukhyāḥ pitṝṇāṁ parikīrtitāḥ |
M3.200c[190Mc]/ teṣām api-iha vijñeyaṁ putra.pautram an.antakam || 200 ||
M3.201a[191Ma]/ ṛṣibhyaḥ pitaro jātāḥ pitṛbhyo deva.mānavāḥ |
M3.201c[191Mc]/ devebhyas tu jagat sarvaṁ caraṁ sthāṇv anupūrvaśaḥ || 201 ||
M3.202a[192Ma]/ rājatair bhājanair eṣām atho vā rajatānvitaiḥ |
M3.202c[192Mc]/ vāry api śraddhayā dattam akṣayāya-upakalpate || 202 ||
3.2.2.7. 3.2.2.7. Preparatory Rites
[Note: [ O edn 485-487 :: O tr. 119]
M3.203a[193Ma]/ daivakāryād dvijātīnāṁ pitṛkāryaṁ viśiṣyate |
M3.203c[193Mc]/ daivaṁ hi pitṛkāryasya pūrvam āpyāyanaṁ smṛtam || 203 ||
M3.204a[194Ma]/ teṣām ārakṣabhūtaṁ tu pūrvaṁ daivaṁ niyojayet |
M3.204c[194Mc]/ raksāṁsi vipralumpanti śrāddham ārakṣavarjitam || 204 ||
M3.205a[195Ma]/ daiva.ādyantaṁ tad īheta pitṛ.ādyantaṁ na tad bhavet |
M3.205c[195Mc]/ pitṛ.ādyantaṁ tv īhamānaḥ kṣipraṁ naśyati sa.anvayaḥ || 205 ||
M3.206a[196Ma]/ śuciṁ deśaṁ viviktaṁ ca gomayena-upalepayet |
M3.206c[196Mc]/ dakṣinā.pravaṇaṁ ca-eva prayatnena-upapādayet || 206 ||
[Page J 61 ]
M3.207a[197Ma]/ avakāśeṣu cokṣeṣu jalatīreṣu ca-eva hi |
M3.207c[197Mc]/ vivikteṣu ca tuṣyanti dattena pitaraḥ sadā || 207 ||
M3.208a[198Ma]/ āsaneṣu-upakḷpteṣu barhiṣmatsu pṛthak.pṛthak |
M3.208c[198Mc]/ upaspṛṣṭa.udakān samyag viprāṁs tān upaveśayet || 208 ||
M3.209a[199Ma]/ upaveśya tu tān viprān āsaneṣv ajugupsitān |
M3.209c[199Mc]/ gandha.mālyaiḥ surabhibhir arcayed daivapūrvakam || 209 ||
M3.210a[200Ma]/ teṣām udakam ānīya sa.pavitrāṁs tilān api |
M3.210c[200Mc]/ agnau kuryād anujñāto brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇaiḥ saha || 210 ||
M3.211a[201Ma]/ agneḥ soma.yamābhyāṁ ca kṛtvā-āpyāyanam āditaḥ |
M3.211c[201Mc]/ havirdānena vidhivat paścāt santarpayet pitṝn || 211 ||
M3.212a[202Ma]/ agni.abhāve tu viprasya pāṇāv eva-upapādayet |
M3.212c[202Mc]/ yo hy agniḥ sa dvijo viprair mantradarśibhir ucyate || 212 ||
M3.213a[203Ma]/ a.krodhanān su.prasādān vadanty etān purātanān |
M3.213c[203Mc]/ lokasya-āpyāyane yuktān śrāddha.devān dvijottamān || 213 || [Note: M3.213c[203Mc]v/ M: śrāddhe devān dvijottamān]
3.2.2.8. 3.2.2.8. Principal Offerings
[Note: [ O edn 487-489 :: O tr. 119-120]
M3.214a[204Ma]/ apasavyam agnau kṛtvā sarvam āvṛtya vikramam | [Note: M3.214a[204Ma]v/ M: āvṛt.parikramam]
M3.214c[204Mc]/ apasavyena hastena nirvaped udakaṁ bhuvi || 214 ||
M3.215a[205Ma]/ trīṁs tu tasmādd haviḥśeṣāt piṇḍān kṛtvā samāhitaḥ |
M3.215c[205Mc]/ audakena-eva vidhinā nirvaped dakṣiṇā.mukhaḥ || 215 ||
M3.216a[206Ma]/ nyupya piṇḍāṁs tatas tāṁs tu prayato vidhipūrvakam |
M3.216c[206Mc]/ teṣu darbheṣu taṁ hastaṁ nirmṛjyāt-lepabhāginām || 216 ||
[Page J 62 ]
M3.217a[207Ma]/ ācamya-udakparāvṛtya trir āyamya śanair asūn |
M3.217c[207Mc]/ ṣaḍ ṛtūṁś ca namaskuryāt pitṝn eva ca mantravat || 217 ||
M3.218a[208Ma]/ udakaṁ ninayet-śeṣaṁ śanaiḥ piṇḍāntike punaḥ |
M3.218c[208Mc]/ avajighrec ca tān piṇḍān yathānyuptān samāhitaḥ || 218 ||
M3.219a[209Ma]/ piṇḍebhyas tv alpikāṁ mātrāṁ samādāya-anupūrvaśaḥ | [Note: M3.219a[209Ma]v/ M: piṇḍebhyaḥ svalpikāṁ]
M3.219c[209Mc]/ tān eva viprān āsīnān vidhivat pūrvam āśayet || 219 ||
M3.220a[210Ma]/ dhriyamāṇe tu pitari pūrveṣām eva nirvapet |
M3.220c[210Mc]/ vipravad vā-api taṁ śrāddhe svakaṁ pitaram āśayet || 220 || [Note: M3.220c[210Mc]v/ M: śrāddhaṁ]
M3.221a[211Ma]/ pitā yasya nivṛttaḥ syāj jīvec ca-api pitāmahaḥ | [Note: M3.221a[211Ma]v/ M: pitā yasya tu vṛttaḥ syāj]
M3.221c[211Mc]/ pituḥ sa nāma saṅkīrtya kīrtayet prapitāmaham || 221 ||
M3.222a[212Ma]/ pitāmaho vā tat.śrāddhaṁ bhuñjīta-ity abravīn manuḥ |
M3.222c[212Mc]/ kāmaṁ vā samanujñātaḥ svayam eva samācaret || 222 ||
M3.223a[213Ma]/ teṣāṁ dattvā tu hasteṣu sa.pavitraṁ tila.udakam |
M3.223c[213Mc]/ tatpiṇḍāgraṁ prayaccheta svadhā-eṣām astv iti bruvan || 223 || [Note: M3.223c[213Mc]v/ M: prayacchet tu]
3.2.2.9. 3.2.2.9. Feeding the Brahmins
[Note: [ O edn 489-494 :: O tr. 120-121]
M3.224a[214Ma]/ pāṇibhyāṁ tu-upasaṅgṛhya svayam annasya vardhitam | [Note: M3.224a[214Ma]v/ M: varddhitam]
M3.224c[214Mc]/ viprāntike pitṝn dhyāyan śanakair upanikṣipet || 224 ||
M3.225a[215Ma]/ ubhayor hastayor muktaṁ yad annam upanīyate |
M3.225c[215Mc]/ tad vipralumpanty asurāḥ sahasā duṣṭa.cetasaḥ || 225 ||
M3.226a[216Ma]/ guṇāṁś ca sūpa.śākādyān payo dadhi ghṛtaṁ madhu |
M3.226c[216Mc]/ vinyaset prayataḥ pūrvaṁ bhūmāv eva samāhitaḥ || 226 ||
[Page J 63 ]
M3.227a[217Ma]/ bhakṣyaṁ bhojyaṁ ca vividhaṁ mūlāni ca phalāni ca |
M3.227c[217Mc]/ hṛdyāni ca-eva māṁsāni pānāni su.rabhīṇi ca || 227 ||
M3.228a[218Ma]/ upanīya tu tat sarvaṁ śanakaiḥ susamāhitaḥ |
M3.228c[218Mc]/ pariveṣayeta prayato guṇān sarvān pracodayan || 228 ||
M3.229a[219Ma]/ na-asram āpātayej jātu na kupyen na-anṛtaṁ vadet |
M3.229c[219Mc]/ na pādena spṛśed annaṁ na ca-etad avadhūnayet || 229 ||
M3.230a[220Ma]/ asraṁ gamayati pretān kopo 'rīn anṛtaṁ śunaḥ |
M3.230c[220Mc]/ pādasparśas tu rakṣāṁsi duṣkṛtīn avadhūnanam || 230 ||
M3.231a[221Ma]/ yad yad roceta viprebhyas tat tad dadyād a.matsaraḥ |
M3.231c[221Mc]/ brahmodyāś ca kathāḥ kuryāt pitṝṇām etad īpsitam || 231 ||
M3.232a[222Ma]/ svādhyāyaṁ śrāvayet pitrye dharmaśāstrāṇi ca-eva hi |
M3.232c[222Mc]/ ākhyānāni-itihāsāṁś ca purāṇāni khilāni ca || 232 ||
M3.233a[223Ma]/ harṣayed brāhmaṇāṁs tuṣṭo bhojayec ca śanaiḥ.śanaiḥ |
M3.233c[223Mc]/ annādyena-asakṛc ca-etān guṇaiś ca paricodayet || 233 ||
M3.234a[224Ma]/ vratastham api dauhitraṁ śrāddhe yatnena bhojayet |
M3.234c[224Mc]/ kutapaṁ ca.āsanaṁ dadyāt tilaiś ca vikiren mahīm || 234 ||
M3.235a[225Ma]/ trīṇi śrāddhe pavitrāṇi dauhitraḥ kutapas tilāḥ |
M3.235c[225Mc]/ trīṇi ca-atra praśaṁsanti śaucam a.krodham a.tvarām || 235 ||
M3.236a[226Ma]/ atyuṣṇaṁ sarvam annaṁ syād bhuñjīraṁs te ca vāgyatāḥ |
M3.236c[226Mc]/ na ca dvijātayo brūyur dātrā pṛṣṭā havirguṇān || 236 ||
[Page J 64 ]
M3.237a[227Ma]/ yāvad uṣmā bhavaty annaṁ yāvad aśnanti vāgyatāḥ |
M3.237c[227Mc]/ pitaras tāvad aśnanti yāvat-na-uktā havirguṇāḥ || 237 ||
M3.238a[228Ma]/ yad veṣṭita.śirā bhuṅkte yad bhuṅkte dakṣiṇā.mukhaḥ |
M3.238c[228Mc]/ sa.upānatkaś ca yad bhuṅkte tad vai rakṣāṁsi bhuñjate || 238 ||
M3.239a[229Ma]/ cāṇḍālaś ca varāhaś ca kukkuṭaḥ śvā tathā-eva ca |
M3.239c[229Mc]/ rajasvalā ca ṣaṇḍhaś ca na-īkṣerann aśnato dvijān || 239 ||
M3.240a[230Ma]/ home pradāne bhojye ca yad ebhir abhivīkṣyate |
M3.240c[230Mc]/ daive haviṣi pitrye vā tad gacchaty ayathātatham || 240 ||
M3.241a[231Ma]/ ghrāṇena sūkaro hanti pakṣavātena kukkuṭaḥ | [Note: M3.241a[231Ma]v/ M: śūkaro]
M3.241c[231Mc]/ śvā tu dṛṣṭinipātena sparśeṇa-avaravarṇajaḥ || 241 ||
M3.242a[232Ma]/ khañjo vā yadi vā kāṇo dātuḥ preṣyo 'pi vā bhavet |
M3.242c[232Mc]/ hīna.atirikta.gātro vā tam apy apanayet punaḥ || 242 ||
M3.243a[233Ma]/ brāhmaṇaṁ bhikṣukaṁ vā-api bhojanārtham upasthitam |
M3.243c[233Mc]/ brāhmaṇair abhyanujñātaḥ śaktitaḥ pratipūjayet || 243 ||
M3.244a[234Ma]/ sārvavarṇikam annādyaṁ sannīya-āplāvya vāriṇā |
M3.244c[234Mc]/ samutsṛjed bhuktavatām agrato vikiran bhuvi || 244 ||
M3.245a[235Ma]/ asaṁskṛta.pramītānāṁ tyāgināṁ kulayoṣitām |
M3.245c[235Mc]/ ucchiṣṭaṁ bhāgadheyaṁ syād darbheṣu vikiraś ca yaḥ || 245 ||
M3.246a[236Ma]/ uccheṣaṇāṁ bhūmigatam a.jihmasya-a.śaṭhasya ca |
M3.246c[236Mc]/ dāsavargasya tat pitrye bhāgadheyaṁ pracakṣate || 246 ||
3.2.2.10. 3.2.2.10. Rite for the Newly Deceased
[Page J 65 ] [Note: [ O edn 494 :: O tr. 121]
M3.247a[237Ma]/ ā.sapiṇḍakriyākarma dvijāteḥ saṁsthitasya tu |
M3.247c[237Mc]/ a.daivaṁ bhojayet-śrāddhaṁ piṇḍam ekaṁ ca nirvapet || 247 ||
M3.248a[238Ma]/ sahapiṇḍakriyāyāṁ tu kṛtāyām asya dharmataḥ |
M3.248c[238Mc]/ anayā-eva-āvṛtā kāryaṁ piṇḍanirvapanaṁ sutaiḥ || 248 ||
3.2.2.11. 3.2.2.11. Conclusion of the Meal
[Note: [ O edn 494-496 :: O tr. 121]
M3.249a[239Ma]/ śrāddhaṁ bhuktvā ya ucchiṣṭaṁ vṛṣalāya prayacchati |
M3.249c[239Mc]/ sa mūḍho narakaṁ yāti kālasūtram a.vākśirāḥ || 249 ||
M3.250a[240Ma]/ śrāddhabhug vṛṣalītalpaṁ tad ahar yo 'dhigacchati |
M3.250c[240Mc]/ tasyāḥ purīṣe taṁ māsaṁ pitaras tasya śerate || 250 ||
M3.251a[241Ma]/ pṛṣṭvā svaditam ity evaṁ tṛptān ācāmayet tataḥ |
M3.251c[241Mc]/ ācāntāṁś ca-anujānīyād abhito ramyatām iti || 251 ||
M3.252a[242Ma]/ svadhā-astv ity eva taṁ brūyur brāhmaṇās tadanantaram |
M3.252c[242Mc]/ svadhākāraḥ parā hy āṣīḥ sarveṣu pitṛkarmasu || 252 ||
M3.253a[243Ma]/ tato bhuktavatāṁ teṣām annaśeṣaṁ nivedayet |
M3.253c[243Mc]/ yathā brūyus tathā kuryād anujñātas tato dvijaiḥ || 253 ||
M3.254a[244Ma]/ pitrye svaditam ity eva vācyaṁ goṣṭhe tu suśṛtam |
M3.254c[244Mc]/ sampannam ity abhyudaye daive rucitam ity api || 254 || [Note: M3.254c[244Mc]v/ M: sampannam]
M3.255a[245Ma]/ aparāhṇas tathā darbhā vāstusampādanaṁ tilāḥ | [Note: M3.255a[245Ma]v/ M: sampādanaṁ]
M3.255c[245Mc]/ sṛṣṭir mṛṣṭir dvijāś ca-agryāḥ śrāddhakarmasu sampadaḥ || 255 ||
M3.256a[246Ma]/ darbhāḥ pavitraṁ pūrvāhṇo haviṣyāṇi ca sarvaśaḥ |
M3.256c[246Mc]/ pavitraṁ yac ca pūrva.uktaṁ vijñeyā havyasampadaḥ || 256 ||
[Page J 66 ]
M3.257a[247Ma]/ muni.annāni payaḥ somo māṁsaṁ yac ca-an.upaskṛtam |
M3.257c[247Mc]/ aksāra.lavaṇaṁ ca-eva prakṛtyā havir ucyate || 257 ||
3.2.2.12. 3.2.2.12. Concluding Rites
[Note: [ O edn 496-497 :: O tr. 121-122]
M3.258a[248Ma]/ visṛjya brāhmaṇāṁs tāṁs tu niyato vāgyataḥ śuciḥ | [Note: M3.258a[248Ma]v/ M: visarjya brāhmanāṁs tāṁs tu prayato vidhipūrvakam]
M3.258c[248Mc]/ dakṣiṇāṁ diśam ākāṅkṣan yāceta-imān varān pitṝn || 258 ||
M3.259a[249Ma]/ dātāro no 'bhivardhantāṁ vedāḥ santatir eva ca |
M3.259c[249Mc]/ śraddhā ca no mā vyagamad bahudeyaṁ ca no 'stv iti || 259 ||
M3.260a[250Ma]/ evaṁ nirvapaṇaṁ kṛtvā piṇḍāṁs tāṁs tadanantaram |
M3.260c[250Mc]/ gāṁ vipram ajam agniṁ vā prāśayed apsu vā kṣipet || 260 ||
M3.261a[251Ma]/ piṇḍanirvapaṇaṁ ke cit parastād eva kurvate |
M3.261c[251Mc]/ vayobhiḥ khādayanty anye prakṣipanty anale 'psu vā || 261 ||
M3.262a[252Ma]/ pati.vratā dharmapatnī pitṛpūjana.tatparā |
M3.262c[252Mc]/ madhyamaṁ tu tataḥ piṇḍam adyāt samyak sutārthinī || 262 ||
M3.263a[253Ma]/ āyuṣmantaṁ sutaṁ sūte yaśo.medhāsamanvitam |
M3.263c[253Mc]/ dhanavantaṁ prajāvantaṁ sāttvikaṁ dhārmikaṁ tathā || 263 ||
M3.264a[254Ma]/ praksālya hastāv ācāmya jñātiprāyaṁ prakalpayet |
M3.264c[254Mc]/ jñātibhyaḥ satkṛtaṁ dattvā bāndhavān api bhojayet || 264 || [Note: M3.264c[254Mc]v/ M: datvā]
M3.265a[255Ma]/ uccheṣaṇaṁ tu tat tiṣṭhed yāvad viprā visarjitāḥ | [Note: M3.265a[255Ma]v/ K: yat tiṣṭhed]
M3.265c[255Mc]/ tato gṛhabaliṁ kuryād iti dharmo vyavasthitaḥ || 265 ||
3.2.2.13. 3.2.2.13. Food at Ancestral Rites
[Note: [ O edn 497-499 :: O tr. 122]
M3.266a[256Ma]/ havir yac cirarātrāya yac ca-ānantyāya kalpate |
M3.266c[256Mc]/ pitṛbhyo vidhivad dattaṁ tat pravakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ || 266 ||
[Page J 67 ]
M3.267a[257Ma]/ tilair vrīhi.yavair māṣair adbhir mūla.phalena vā |
M3.267c[257Mc]/ dattena māsaṁ tṛpyanti vidhivat pitaro nṛnām || 267 ||
M3.268a[258Ma]/ dvau māsau matsyamāṁsena trīn māsān hāriṇena tu |
M3.268c[258Mc]/ aurabhreṇa-atha caturaḥ śākunena-atha pañca vai || 268 ||
M3.269a[259Ma]/ ṣaṇmāsāṁś chāgamāṁsena pārṣatena ca sapta vai |
M3.269c[259Mc]/ aṣṭāv enasya māṁsena rauraveṇa nava-eva tu || 269 || [Note: M3.269c[259Mc]v/ M: aiṇeyamāṁsena]
M3.270a[260Ma]/ daśamāsāṁs tu tṛpyanti varāha.mahiṣāmiṣaiḥ |
M3.270c[260Mc]/ śaśa.kūrmayos tu māṁsena māsān ekādaśa-eva tu || 270 ||
M3.271a[261Ma]/ saṁvatsaraṁ tu gavyena payasā pāyasena ca | [Note: M3.271a[261Ma]v/ M: saṁvatsare]
M3.271c[261Mc]/ vārdhrīṇasasya māṁsena tṛptir dvādaśavārṣikī || 271 ||
M3.272a[262Ma]/ kālaśākaṁ mahāśalkāḥ khaṅga.lohāmiṣaṁ madhu |
M3.272c[262Mc]/ ānantyāya-eva kalpyante muni.annāni ca sarvaśaḥ || 272 ||
3.2.2.14. 3.2.2.14. Times for Ancestral Rites
[Note: [ O edn 499-502 :: O tr. 122-123]
M3.273a[263Ma]/ yat kiṁ cin madhunā miśraṁ pradadyāt tu trayodaśīm |
M3.273c[263Mc]/ tad apy akṣayam eva syād varṣāsu ca maghāsu ca || 273 ||
M3.274a[264Ma]/ api naḥ sa kule bhūyād yo no dadyāt trayodaśīm |
M3.274c[264Mc]/ pāyasaṁ madhu.sarpirbhyāṁ prāk chāye kuñjarasya ca || 274 ||
M3.275a[265Ma]/ yad yad dadāti vidhivat samyak śraddhāsamanvitaḥ |
M3.275c[265Mc]/ tat tat pitṝṇāṁ bhavati paratra-anantam akṣayam || 275 ||
[Page J 68 ]
M3.276a[266Ma]/ kṛṣṇapakṣe daśamyādau varjayitvā caturdaśīm |
M3.276c[266Mc]/ śrāddhe praśastās tithayo yathā-etā na tathā-itarāḥ || 276 ||
M3.277a[267Ma]/ yukṣu kurvan dina.ṛkṣeṣu sarvān kāmān samaśnute |
M3.277c[267Mc]/ ayukṣu tu pitṝn sarvān prajāṁ prāpnoti puṣkalām || 277 ||
M3.278a[268Ma]/ yathā ca-eva-aparaḥ pakṣaḥ pūrvapakṣād viśiṣyate |
M3.278c[268Mc]/ tathā śrāddhasya pūrvāhṇād aparāhṇo viśiṣyate || 278 ||
M3.279a[269Ma]/ prācīnāvītinā samyag apasavyam a.tandriṇā |
M3.279c[269Mc]/ pitryam ā nidhanāt kāryaṁ vidhivad darbha.pāṇinā || 279 ||
M3.280a[270Ma]/ rātrau śrāddhaṁ na kurvīta rākṣasī kīrtitā hi sā |
M3.280c[270Mc]/ sandhyayor ubhayoś ca-eva sūrye ca-eva-acira.udite || 280 ||
M3.281a[271Ma]/ anena vidhinā śrāddhaṁ trir abdasya-iha nirvapet |
M3.281c[271Mc]/ hemanta.grīṣma.varṣāsu pāñcayajñikam anvaham || 281 ||
M3.282a[272Ma]/ na paitṛyajñiyo homo laukike 'gnau vidhīyate |
M3.282c[272Mc]/ na darśena vinā śrāddham āhita.agner dvijanmanaḥ || 282 ||
M3.283a[273Ma]/ yad eva tarpayaty adbhiḥ pitṝn snātvā dvijottamaḥ |
M3.283c[273Mc]/ tena-eva kṛtsnam āpnoti pitṛyajñakriyāphalam || 283 ||
M3.284a[274Ma]/ vasūn vadanti tu pitṝn rudrāṁś ca-eva pitāmahān |
M3.284c[274Mc]/ prapitāmahāṁs tathā-ādityān śrutir eṣā sanātanī || 284 ||

3.2.3. 3.2.3. Conclusion

[Page J 69 ] [Note: [ O edn 503 :: O tr. 123]
M3.285a[275Ma]/ vighasāśī bhaven nityaṁ nityaṁ vā-amṛta.bhojanaḥ |
M3.285c[275Mc]/ vighaso bhuktaśeṣaṁ tu yajñaśeṣaṁ tathā-amṛtam || 285 ||
M3.286a[276Ma]/ etad vo 'bhihitaṁ sarvaṁ vidhānaṁ pāñcayajñikam |
M3.286c[276Mc]/ dvijātimukhyavṛttīnāṁ vidhānaṁ śrūyatām iti || 286 ||

4. Chapter 4

[Page J 70 ] [Note: [ O edn 504-557 :: O tr. 124-137]

4.1. 4.1. The Bath-Graduate

[Note: [ O edn 504-557 :: O tr. 124-137]
M4.01a/ caturtham āyuṣo bhāgam uṣitvā-ādyaṁ gurau dvijāḥ |
M4.01c/ dvitīyam āyuṣo bhāgaṁ kṛta.dāro gṛhe vaset || 1 ||

4.1.1. 4.1.1. Right Livelihood

[Note: [ O edn 504-506 :: O tr. 124]
M4.02a/ adroheṇa-eva bhūtānām alpadroheṇa vā punaḥ |
M4.02c/ yā vṛttis tāṁ samāsthāya vipro jīved anāpadi || 2 ||
M4.03a/ yātrāmātraprasiddhi.arthaṁ svaiḥ karmabhir agarhitaiḥ |
M4.03c/ akleśena śarīrasya kurvīta dhanasañcayam || 3 ||
M4.04a/ ṛta.amṛtābhyāṁ jīvet tu mṛtena pramṛtena vā |
M4.04c/ satya.anṛtābhyām api vā na śvavṛttyā kadā cana || 4 ||
M4.05a/ ṛtam uñcha.śilaṁ jñeyam amṛtaṁ syād ayācitam |
M4.05c/ mṛtaṁ tu yācitaṁ bhaikṣaṁ pramṛtaṁ karṣaṇaṁ smṛtam || 5 ||
M4.06a/ satya.anṛtaṁ tu vāṇijyaṁ tena ca-eva-api jīvyate |
M4.06c/ sevā śvavṛttir ākhyātā tasmāt tāṁ parivarjayet || 6 ||
M4.07a/ kusūla.dhānyako vā syāt kumbhī.dhānyaka eva vā |
M4.07c/ tryaha.ehiko vā-api bhaved a.śvastanika eva vā || 7 ||
[Page J 71 ]
M4.08a/ caturṇām api ca-eteṣāṁ dvijānāṁ gṛhamedhinām |
M4.08c/ jyāyān paraḥ paro jñeyo dharmato lokajittamaḥ || 8 ||
M4.09a/ ṣaṭ.karma-eko bhavaty eṣāṁ tribhir anyaḥ pravartate |
M4.09c/ dvābhyām ekaś caturthas tu brahmasattreṇa jīvati || 9 ||
M4.10a/ vartayaṁś ca śila.uñchābhyām agnihotra.parāyaṇaḥ |
M4.10c/ iṣṭīḥ pārvāyaṇāntīyāḥ kevalā nirvapet sadā || 10 ||
M4.11a/ na lokavṛttaṁ varteta vṛttihetoḥ kathaṁ cana |
M4.11c/ a.jihmām a.śathāṁ śuddhām jīved brāhmaṇajīvikām || 11 ||
M4.12a/ santoṣaṁ param āsthāya sukhārthī saṁyato bhavet |
M4.12c/ santoṣa.mūlaṁ hi sukhaṁ duḥkha.mūlaṁ viparyayaḥ || 12 ||

4.1.2. 4.1.2. Observances

[Note: [ O edn 506-507 :: O tr. 124-125]
M4.13a/ ato 'nyatamayā vṛttyā jīvaṁs tu snātako dvijaḥ |
M4.13c/ svarga.āyuṣya.yaśasyāni vratāṇi-imāni dhārayet || 13 || [Note: M4.13cv/ M: svargya.āyuṣya.]
M4.14a/ veda.uditaṁ svakaṁ karma nityaṁ kuryād atandritaḥ |
M4.14c/ tadd hi kurvan yathāśakti prāpnoti paramāṁ gatim || 14 ||
M4.15a/ na-īheta-arthān prasaṅgena na viruddhena karmaṇā |
M4.15c/ na vidyamāneṣv artheṣu na-ārtyām api yatas tataḥ || 15 || [Note: M4.15cv/ M: na kalpamāneṣv artheṣu]
M4.16a/ indriyārtheṣu sarveṣu na prasajyeta kāmataḥ |
M4.16c/ atiprasaktiṁ ca-eteṣāṁ manasā sannivartayet || 16 ||
M4.17a/ sarvān parityajed arthān svādhyāyasya virodhinaḥ |
M4.17c/ yathā tathā-adhyāpayaṁs tu sā hy asya kṛtakṛtyatā || 17 ||
[Page J 72 ]
M4.18a/ vayasaḥ karmaṇo 'rthasya śrutasya-abhijanasya ca |
M4.18c/ veṣa.vāc.buddhi.sārūpyam ācaran vicared iha || 18 ||

4.1.3. 4.1.3. Study

[Note: [ O edn 507 :: O tr. 125]
M4.19a/ buddhi.vṛddhi.karāṇy āśu dhanyāni ca hitāni ca |
M4.19c/ nityaṁ śāstrāṇy avekṣeta nigamāṁś ca-eva vaidikān || 19 ||
M4.20a/ yathā yathā hi puruṣaḥ śāstraṁ samadhigacchati |
M4.20c/ tathā tathā vijānāti vijñānaṁ ca-asya rocate || 20 ||

4.1.4. 4.1.4. Ritual Duties

[Note: [ O edn 507-509 :: O tr. 125]
M4.21a/ ṛṣiyajñaṁ devayajñaṁ bhūtayajñaṁ ca sarvadā |
M4.21c/ nṛyajñaṁ pitṛyajñaṁ ca yathāśakti na hāpayet || 21 ||
M4.22a/ etān eke mahāyajñān yajñaśāstravido janāḥ |
M4.22c/ an.īhamānāḥ satatam indriyeṣv eva juhvati || 22 ||
M4.23a/ vācy eke juhvati prāṇaṁ prāṇe vācaṁ ca sarvadā |
M4.23c/ vāci prāṇe ca paśyanto yajñanirvṛttim akṣayām || 23 ||
M4.24a/ jñānena-eva-apare viprā yajanty etair makhaiḥ sadā | [Note: M4.24av/ M: yajante tair makhaiḥ sadā]
M4.24c/ jñāna.mūlām kriyām eṣāṁ paśyanto jñānacakṣuṣā || 24 ||
M4.25a/ agnihotraṁ ca juhuyād ādi.ante dyu.niśoḥ sadā |
M4.25c/ darśena ca-ardhamāsānte paurṇāmāsena ca-eva hi || 25 ||
M4.26a/ sasyānte navasasya.iṣṭyā tathā-ṛtu.ante dvijo 'dhvaraiḥ |
M4.26c/ paśunā tv ayanasya-ādau samānte saumikair makhaiḥ || 26 || [Note: M4.26cv/ M: ayanānte tu samānte]
M4.27a/ na-an.iṣṭvā navasasya.iṣṭyā paśunā ca-agnimān dvijaḥ |
M4.27c/ navānnam adyāt-māṁsaṁ vā dīrgham āyur jijīviṣuḥ || 27 ||
[Page J 73 ]
M4.28a/ navena-an.arcitā hy asya paśuhavyena ca-agnayaḥ |
M4.28c/ prāṇān eva-attum icchanti navānna.āmiṣagardhinaḥ || 28 ||

4.1.5. 4.1.5. Reception of Guests

[Note: [ O edn 509 :: O tr. 125-126]
M4.29a/ āsana.aśana.śayyābhir adbhir mūla.phalena vā |
M4.29c/ na-asya kaś cid vased gehe śaktito 'n.arcito 'tithiḥ || 29 ||
M4.30a/ pāṣāṇḍino vikarmasthān baiḍāla.vratikān-śaṭhān |
M4.30c/ haitukān baka.vṛttīṁś ca vāc.mātreṇa-api na-arcayet || 30 ||
M4.31a/ vedavidyā.vrata.snātān-śrotriyān gṛhamedhinaḥ |
M4.31c/ pūjayedd havya.kavyena viparītāṁś ca varjayet || 31 ||
M4.32a/ śaktito '.pacamānebhyo dātavyaṁ gṛhamedhinā |
M4.32c/ saṁvibhāgaś ca bhūtebhyaḥ kartavyo 'n.uparodhataḥ || 32 ||

4.1.6. 4.1.6. Rules of Conduct-I

[Note: [ O edn 510-511 :: O tr. 126]
M4.33a/ rājato dhanam anvicchet saṁsīdan snātakaḥ kṣudhā |
M4.33c/ yājya.antevāsinor vā-api na tv anyata iti sthitiḥ || 33 ||
M4.34a/ na sīdet snātako vipraḥ kṣudhā śaktaḥ kathaṁ cana |
M4.34c/ na jīrṇa.malavad.vāsā bhavec ca vibhave sati || 34 ||
M4.35a/ kḷptakeśa.nakha.śmaśrur dāntaḥ śukla.ambaraḥ śuciḥ |
M4.35c/ svādhyāye ca-eva yuktaḥ syān nityam ātmahiteṣu ca || 35 ||
M4.36a/ vaiṇavīṁ dhārayed yaṣṭiṁ sa.udakaṁ ca kamaṇḍalum |
M4.36c/ yajñopavītaṁ vedaṁ ca śubhaṁ raukme ca kuṇḍale || 36 ||
M4.37a/ na-īkṣeta-udyantam ādityaṁ na-astaṁ yāntaṁ kadā cana |
M4.37c/ na-upasṛṣṭaṁ na vāristhaṁ na madhyaṁ nabhaso gatam || 37 ||
[Page J 74 ]
M4.38a/ na laṅghayed vatsatantrīṁ na pradhāvec ca varṣati |
M4.38c/ na ca-udake nirīkṣeta svarūpam iti dhāraṇā || 38 ||
M4.39a/ mṛdaṁ gāṁ daivataṁ vipraṁ ghṛtaṁ madhu catuṣpatham |
M4.39c/ pradakṣiṇāni kurvīta prajñātāṁś ca vanaspatīn || 39 ||

4.1.7. 4.1.7. Relationship with Women

[Note: [ O edn 511-512 :: O tr. 126]
M4.40a/ na-upagacchet pramatto 'pi striyam ārtavadarśane |
M4.40c/ samānaśayane ca-eva na śayīta tayā saha || 40 ||
M4.41a/ rajasā-abhiplutāṁ nārīṁ narasya hy upagacchataḥ |
M4.41c/ prajñā tejo balaṁ cakṣur āyuś ca-eva prahīyate || 41 ||
M4.42a/ tāṁ vivarjayatas tasya rajasā samabhiplutām |
M4.42c/ prajñā tejo balaṁ cakṣur āyuś ca-eva pravardhate || 42 ||
M4.43a/ na-aśnīyād bhāryayā sārdhaṁ na-enām īkṣeta ca-aśnatīm |
M4.43c/ kṣuvatīṁ jṛmbhamāṇāṁ vā na ca-āsīnāṁ yathāsukham || 43 ||
M4.44a/ na-añjayantīṁ svake netre na ca-abhyaktām anāvṛtām |
M4.44c/ na paśyet prasavantīṁ ca tejas.kāmo dvijottamaḥ || 44 ||

4.1.8. 4.1.8. Voiding Urine and Excrement

[Note: [ O edn 512-514 :: O tr. 126-127]
M4.45a/ na-annam adyād ekavāsā na nagnaḥ snānam ācaret |
M4.45c/ na mūtraṁ pathi kurvīta na bhasmani na govraje || 45 ||
M4.46a/ na phālakṛṣṭe na jale na cityāṁ na ca parvate |
M4.46c/ na jīrṇadevāyatane na valmīke kadā cana || 46 ||
M4.47a/ na sa.sattveṣu garteṣu na gacchann api na sthitaḥ |
M4.47c/ na nadītīram āsādya na ca parvatamastake || 47 ||
[Page J 75 ]
M4.48a/ vāyu.agni.vipram ādityam apaḥ paśyaṁs tathā-eva gāḥ |
M4.48c/ na kadā cana kurvīta viṣ.mūtrasya visarjanam || 48 ||
MK4.49a[50Ma]/ tiraskṛtya-uccaret kāṣṭha.loṣṭha.patra.tṛṇādinā | [Note: MK4.49a[50Ma]v/ M: tṛṇādi ca]
MK4.49c[50Mc]/ niyamya prayato vācaṁ saṁvītāṅgo 'vaguṇṭhitaḥ || 49 ||
MK4.50a[51Ma]/ mūtra.uccāra.samutsargaṁ divā kuryād udaṅ.mukhaḥ |
MK4.50c[51Mc]/ dakṣiṇā.abhimukho rātrau sandhyāyoś ca yathā divā || 50 ||
MK4.51a[52Ma]/ chāyāyām andhakāre vā rātrāv ahani vā dvijaḥ |
MK4.51c[52Mc]/ yathāsukha.mukhaḥ kuryāt prāṇabādha.bhayeṣu ca || 51 ||
MK4.52a[49Ma]/ prati.agniṁ prati.sūryaṁ ca prati.soma.udaka.dvijam |
MK4.52c[49Mc]/ prati.gu prati.vātaṁ ca prajñā naśyati mehataḥ || 52 || [Note: MK4.52c[49Mc]v/ K: prati.gāṁ prati.vātaṁ]

4.1.9. 4.1.9. Rules of Conduct-II

[Note: [ O edn 514-520 :: O tr. 127-128]
M4.53a/ na-agniṁ mukhena-upadhamen nagnāṁ na-īkṣeta ca striyam |
M4.53c/ na-amedhyaṁ prakṣiped agnau na ca pādau pratāpayet || 53 ||
M4.54a/ adhastān na-upadadhyāc ca na ca-enam abhilaṅghayet |
M4.54c/ na ca-enaṁ pādataḥ kuryān na prāṇa.ābādham ācaret || 54 ||
M4.55a/ na-aśnīyāt sandhivelāyāṁ na gacchen na-api saṁviśet |
M4.55c/ na ca-eva pralikhed bhūmiṁ na-ātmano 'paharet srajam || 55 ||
M4.56a/ na-apsu mūtraṁ purīṣaṁ vā ṣṭhīvanaṁ vā samutsṛjet |
M4.56c/ amedhyaliptam anyad vā lohitaṁ vā viṣāṇi vā || 56 ||
M4.57a/ na-ekaḥ supyāt-śūnyagehe na śreyāṁsaṁ prabodhayet | [Note: M4.57av/ śūnyagṛhe svapyān]
M4.57c/ na-udakyayā-abhibhāṣeta yajñaṁ gacchen na ca-avṛtaḥ || 57 ||
[Page J 76 ]
M4.58a/ agnyagāre gavāṁ goṣṭhe brāhmaṇānāṁ ca sannidhau |
M4.58c/ svādhyāye bhojane ca-eva dakṣinaṁ pāṇim uddharet || 58 ||
M4.59a/ na vārayed gāṁ dhayantīṁ na ca-ācakṣīta kasya cit |
M4.59c/ na divi-indrāyudhaṁ dṛṣṭvā kasya cid darśayed budhaḥ || 59 ||
M4.60a/ na-adharmike vased grāme na vyādhi.bahule bhṛśam |
M4.60c/ na-ekaḥ prapadyeta-adhvānaṁ na ciraṁ parvate vaset || 60 ||
M4.61a/ na śūdrarājye nivasen na-adhārmikajanāvṛte |
M4.61c/ na pāṣaṇḍigaṇākrānte na-upasṣṛṭe 'ntyajair nṛbhiḥ || 61 ||
M4.62a/ na bhuñjīta-uddhṛta.snehaṁ na-atisauhityam ācaret |
M4.62c/ na-atiprage na-atisāyaṁ na sāyaṁ prātar.āśitaḥ || 62 ||
M4.63a/ na kurvīta vṛthāceṣṭāṁ na vāry añjalinā pibet |
M4.63c/ na-utsaṅge bhakṣayed bhakṣyān na jātu syāt kutūhalī || 63 ||
M4.64a/ na nṛtyed atha vā gāyen na vāditrāṇi vādayet | [Note: M4.64av/ M: na nṛtyen na-eva gāyec ca na vāditrāṇi vādayet]
M4.64c/ na-āsphoṭayen na ca kṣveḍen na ca rakto virāvayet || 64 || [Note: M4.64cv/ M: na ca rakto virodhayet]
M4.65a/ na pādau dhāvayet kāṁsye kadā cid api bhājane |
M4.65c/ na bhinnabhāṇḍe bhuñjīta na bhāvapratidūṣite || 65 ||
M4.66a/ upānahau ca vāsaś ca dhṛtam anyair na dhārayet |
M4.66c/ upavītam alaṅkāraṁ srajaṁ karakam eva ca || 66 ||
M4.67a/ na-a.vinītair bhajed dhuryair na ca kṣudh.vyādhi.pīḍitaiḥ | [Note: M4.67av/ M: na-avinītair vrajed]
M4.67c/ na bhinna.śṛṅga.akṣi.khurair na vāladhivirūpitaiḥ || 67 ||
[Page J 77 ]
M4.68a/ vinītais tu vrajen nityam āśugair lakṣaṇānvitaiḥ |
M4.68c/ varṇa.rūpa.upasampannaiḥ pratodena-ātudan bhṛśam || 68 || [Note: M4.68cv/ M: pratodena-ākṣipan]
M4.69a/ bālātapaḥ pretadhūmo varjyaṁ bhinnaṁ tathā-āsanam |
M4.69c/ na chindyān nakha.romāṇi dantair na-utpāṭayen nakhān || 69 || [Note: M4.69cv/ M: na cchindyān]
M4.70a/ na mṛt.loṣṭhaṁ ca mṛdnīyān na chindyāt karajais tṛṇam | [Note: M4.70av/ M: cchindyāt]
M4.70c/ na karma niṣphalaṁ kuryān na-āyatyām a.sukha.udayam || 70 ||
M4.71a/ loṣṭhamardī tṛṇacchedī nakhakhādī ca yo naraḥ |
M4.71c/ sa vināśaṁ vrajaty āśu sūcakā-aśucir eva ca || 71 || [Note: M4.71cv/ M: sūcako 'śucir eva ca]
M4.72a/ na vigarhya kathāṁ kuryād bahir mālyaṁ na dhārayet | [Note: M4.72av/ M: na vigṛhya kathāṁ kuryād]
M4.72c/ gavāṁ ca yānaṁ pṛṣṭhena sarvathā-eva vigarhitam || 72 ||
M4.73a/ a.dvāreṇa ca na-atīyād grāmaṁ vā veśma vā-āvṛtam |
M4.73c/ rātrau ca vṛkṣamūlāni dūrataḥ parivarjayet || 73 ||
M4.74a/ na-akṣair dīvyet kadā cit tu svayaṁ na-upānahau haret |
M4.74c/ śayanastho na bhuñjīta na pāṇisthaṁ na ca-āsane || 74 ||
M4.75a/ sarvaṁ ca tilasambaddhaṁ na-adyād astam ite ravau |
M4.75c/ na ca nagnaḥ śayīta-iha na ca-ucchiṣṭaḥ kva cid vrajet || 75 ||
M4.76a/ ārdra.pādas tu bhuñjīta na-ārdra.pādas tu saṁviśet |
M4.76c/ ārdra.pādas tu bhuñjāno dīrgham āyur avāpnuyāt || 76 ||
M4.77a/ a.cakṣurviṣayaṁ durgaṁ na prapadyeta karhi cit |
M4.77c/ na viṣ.mūtram udīkṣeta na bāhubhyāṁ nadīṁ taret || 77 ||
[Page J 78 ]
M4.78a/ adhitiṣṭhen na keśāṁs tu na bhasma.asthi.kapālikāḥ |
M4.78c/ na kārpāsa.asthi na tuṣān dīrgham āyur jijīviṣuḥ || 78 ||
M4.79a/ na saṁvasec ca patitair na cāṇḍālair na pulkasaiḥ |
M4.79c/ na mūrkhair na-avaliptaiś ca na-antyair na-antyāvasāyibhiḥ || 79 ||
M4.80a/ na śūdrāya matiṁ dadyān na-ucchiṣṭaṁ na haviṣkṛtam |
M4.80c/ na ca-asya-upadiśed dharmaṁ na ca-asya vratam ādiśet || 80 ||
M4.81a/ yo hy asya dharmam ācaṣṭe yaś ca-eva-ādiśati vratam |
M4.81c/ so 'saṁvṛtaṁ nāma tamaḥ saha tena-eva majjati || 81 ||
M4.82a/ na saṁhatābhyāṁ pāṇibhyāṁ kaṇḍūyed ātmanaḥ śiraḥ |
M4.82c/ na spṛśec ca-etad ucchiṣṭo na ca snāyād vinā tataḥ || 82 ||
M4.83a/ keśagrahān prahārāṁś ca śirasy etān vivarjayet |
M4.83c/ śiraḥsnātaś ca tailena na-aṅgaṁ kiṁ cid api spṛśet || 83 ||

4.1.10. 4.1.10. People from Whom Gifts May Not Be Accepted

[Note: [ O edn 520-522 :: O tr. 128]
M4.84a/ na rājñaḥ pratigṛhṇīyād arājanyaprasūtitaḥ |
M4.84c/ sūnā.cakra.dhvajavatāṁ veśena-eva ca jīvatām || 84 ||
M4.85a/ daśasūnā.samaṁ cakraṁ daśacakra.samo dhvajaḥ |
M4.85c/ daśadhvaja.samo veśo daśaveśa.samo nṛpaḥ || 85 ||
M4.86a/ daśa sūṇāsahasrāṇi yo vāhayati saunikaḥ |
M4.86c/ tena tulyaḥ smṛto rājā ghoras tasya pratigrahaḥ || 86 ||
M4.87a/ yo rājñaḥ pratigṛhṇāti lubdhasya-ucchāstravartinaḥ |
M4.87c/ sa paryāyeṇa yāti-imān narakān ekaviṁśatim || 87 ||
[Page J 79 ]
M4.88a/ tāmisram andhatāmisraṁ mahāraurava.rauravau |
M4.88c/ narakaṁ kālasūtraṁ ca mahānarakam eva ca || 88 ||
M4.89a/ sañjīvanaṁ mahāvīciṁ tapanaṁ sampratāpanam |
M4.89c/ saṁhātaṁ ca sa.kākolaṁ kuḍmalaṁ pratimūrtikam || 89 || [Note: M4.89cv/ M: pūtimṛttikam]
M4.90a/ lohaśaṅkum ṛjīṣaṁ ca panthānaṁ śālmalīṁ nadīm |
M4.90c/ asipatravanaṁ ca-eva lohadārakam eva ca || 90 ||
M4.91a/ etad vidanto vidvāṁso brāhmaṇā brahmavādinaḥ |
M4.91c/ na rājñaḥ pratigṛhṇanti pretya śreyo 'bhikāṅkṣiṇaḥ || 91 ||

4.1.11. 4.1.11. Morning Duties

[Note: [ O edn 522-523 :: O tr. 128]
M4.92a/ brāhme muhūrte budhyeta dharma.arthau ca-anucintayet |
M4.92c/ kāyakleśāṁś ca tan.mūlān vedatattvārtham eva ca || 92 ||
M4.93a/ utthāya-āvaśyakaṁ kṛtvā kṛta.śaucaḥ samāhitaḥ |
M4.93c/ pūrvāṁ sandhyāṁ japaṁs tiṣṭhet svakāle ca-aparāṁ ciram || 93 ||
M4.94a/ ṛṣayo dīrghasandhyatvād dīrgham āyur avāpnuyuḥ |
M4.94c/ prajñāṁ yaśaś ca kīrtiṁ ca brahmavarcasam eva ca || 94 ||

4.1.12. 4.1.12. Vedic Study

[Note: [ O edn 523-524 :: O tr. 128-129]
M4.95a/ śrāvaṇyāṁ prauṣṭhapadyāṁ vā-apy upākṛtya yathāvidhi |
M4.95c/ yuktaś chandāṁsy adhīyīta māsān vipro 'rdhapañcamān || 95 ||
M4.96a/ puṣye tu chandasāṁ kuryād bahir utsarjanaṁ dvijaḥ |
M4.96c/ māghaśuklasya vā prāpte pūrvāhṇe prathame 'hani || 96 ||
M4.97a/ yathāśāstraṁ tu kṛtvā-evam utsargaṁ chandasāṁ bahiḥ |
M4.97c/ viramet pakṣiṇīṁ rātriṁ tad eva-ekam ahar.niśam || 97 ||
[Page J 80 ]
M4.98a/ ata ūrdhvaṁ tu chandāṁsi śukleṣu niyataḥ paṭhet |
M4.98c/ vedāṅgāni ca sarvāṇi kṛṣṇapakṣeṣu sampaṭhet || 98 ||
M4.99a/ na-avispaṣṭam adhīyīta na śūdrajanasannidhau |
M4.99c/ na niśānte pariśrānto brahma-adhītya punaḥ svapet || 99 ||
M4.100a/ yathā.uditena vidhinā nityaṁ chandaskṛtaṁ paṭhet |
M4.100c/ brahma chandaskṛtaṁ ca-eva dvijo yukto hy anāpadi || 100 ||

4.1.13. 4.1.13. Suspension of Vedic Recitation

[Note: [ O edn 524-529 :: O tr. 129-130]
M4.101a/ imān nityam anadhyāyān adhīyāno vivarjayet |
M4.101c/ adhyāpanaṁ ca kurvāṇaḥ śiṣyāṇāṁ vidhipūrvakam || 101 ||
M4.102a/ karṇaśrave 'nile rātrau divā pāṁsusamūhane |
M4.102c/ etau varṣāsv an.adhyāyāv adhyāyajñāḥ pracakṣate || 102 ||
M4.103a/ vidyut.stanita.varṣeṣu mahā.ulkānāṁ ca samplave |
M4.103c/ ākālikam anadhyāyam eteṣu manur abravīt || 103 ||
M4.104a/ etāṁs tv abhyuditān vidyād yadā prāduṣkṛtāgniṣu |
M4.104c/ tadā vidyād anadhyāyam an.ṛtau ca-abhradarśane || 104 ||
M4.105a/ nirghāte bhūmicalane jyotiṣāṁ ca-upasarjane |
M4.105c/ etān ākālikān vidyād anadhyāyān ṛtāv api || 105 ||
M4.106a/ prāduṣkṛteṣv agniṣu tu vidyut.stanita.niḥsvane |
M4.106c/ sa.jyotiḥ syād anadhyāyaḥ śeṣe rātrau yathā divā || 106 ||
M4.107a/ nitya.anadhyāya eva syād grāmeṣu nagareṣu ca |
M4.107c/ dharmanaipuṇya.kāmānāṁ pūtigandhe ca sarvadā || 107 || [Note: M4.107cv/ M: sarvaśaḥ]
[Page J 81 ]
M4.108a/ antargata.śave grāme vṛṣalasya ca sannidhau |
M4.108c/ anadhyāyo rudyamāne samavāye janasya ca || 108 ||
M4.109a/ udake madhyarātre ca viṣ.mūtrasya visarjane |
M4.109c/ ucchiṣṭaḥ śrāddhabhuk ca-eva manasā-api na cintayet || 109 ||
M4.110a/ pratigṛhya dvijo vidvān ekoddiṣṭasya ketanam | [Note: M4.110av/ M: ekoddiṣṭa.niketanam]
M4.110c/ tryahaṁ na kīrtayed brahma rājño rāhoś ca sūtake || 110 ||
M4.111a/ yāvad ekānudiṣṭasya gandho lepaś ca tiṣṭhati |
M4.111c/ viprasya viduṣo dehe tāvad brahma na kīrtayet || 111 ||
M4.112a/ śayānaḥ prauḍha.pādaś ca kṛtvā ca-eva-avasakthikām |
M4.112c/ na-adhīyīta-āmiṣaṁ jagdhvā sūtakānnādyam eva ca || 112 ||
M4.113a/ nīhāre bāṇaśabde ca sandhyayor eva ca-ubhayoḥ |
M4.113c/ amāvāsyā.caturdaśyoḥ paurṇamāsy.aṣṭakāsu ca || 113 ||
M4.114a/ amāvāsyā guruṁ hanti śiṣyaṁ hanti caturdaśī |
M4.114c/ brahma-aṣṭaka.paurṇamāsyau tasmāt tāḥ parivarjayet || 114 ||
M4.115a/ pāṁsuvarṣe diśāṁ dāhe gomāyuvirute tathā |
M4.115c/ śva.khara.uṣṭre ca ruvati paṅktau ca na paṭhed dvijaḥ || 115 ||
M4.116a/ na-adhīyīta śmaśānānte grāmānte govraje 'pi vā |
M4.116c/ vasitvā maithunaṁ vāsaḥ śrāddhikaṁ pratigṛhya ca || 116 ||
M4.117a/ prāṇi vā yadi vā-aprāṇi yat kiṁ cit-śrāddhikaṁ bhavet |
M4.117c/ tad ālabhya-apy anadhyāyaḥ pāṇy.āsyo hi dvijaḥ smṛtaḥ || 117 ||
[Page J 82 ]
M4.118a/ corair upadrute grāme sambhrame ca-agnikārite |] [Note: M4.118av/ M: caurair upaplute, sambhrame]
M4.118c/ ākālikam anadhyāyaṁ vidyāt sarvādbhuteṣu ca || 118 ||
M4.119a/ upākarmaṇi ca-utsarge trirātraṁ kṣepaṇaṁ smṛtam |
M4.119c/ aṣṭakāsu tv ahorātram ṛtvantāsu ca rātriṣu || 119 ||
M4.120a/ na-adhīyīta-aśvam ārūḍho na vṛkṣaṁ na ca hastinam |
M4.120c/ na nāvaṁ na kharaṁ na-uṣṭraṁ na-iriṇastho na yānagaḥ || 120 ||
M4.121a/ na vivāde na kalahe na senāyāṁ na saṅgare |
M4.121c/ na bhuktamātre na-ajīrṇe na vamitvā na śuktake || 121 ||
M4.122a/ atithiṁ ca-an.anujñāpya mārute vāti vā bhṛśam |
M4.122c/ rudhire ca srute gātrāt-śastreṇa ca parikṣate || 122 ||
M4.123a/ sāmadhvanāv ṛc.yajuṣī na-adhīyīta kadā cana |
M4.123c/ vedasya-adhītya vā-apy antam āraṇyakam adhītya ca || 123 ||
M4.124a/ ṛgvedo deva.daivatyo yajurvedas tu mānuṣaḥ |
M4.124c/ sāmavedaḥ smṛtaḥ pitryas tasmāt tasya-aśucir dhvaniḥ || 124 ||
M4.125a/ etad vidvanto vidvāṁsas trayīniṣkarṣam anvaham |
M4.125c/ kramataḥ pūrvam abhyasya paścād vedam adhīyate || 125 ||
M4.126a/ paśu.maṇḍūka.mārjāra.śva.sarpa.nakula.ākhubhiḥ |
M4.126c/ antarāgamane vidyād anadhyāyam ahar.niśam || 126 ||
M4.127a/ dvāv eva varjayen nityam anadhyāyau prayatnataḥ |
M4.127c/ svādhyāyabhūmiṁ ca-aśuddham ātmānaṁ ca-aśuciṁ dvijaḥ || 127 ||

4.1.14. 4.1.14. Rules of Conduct-III

[Page J 83 ] [Note: [ O edn 529-535 :: O tr. 130-132]
M4.128a/ amāvāsyām aṣṭamīṁ ca paurṇamāsīṁ caturdaśīm |
M4.128c/ brahmacārī bhaven nityam apy ṛtau snātako dvijaḥ || 128 ||
M4.129a/ na snānam ācared bhuktvā na-āturo na mahāniśi |
M4.129c/ na vāsobhiḥ saha-ajasraṁ na-avijñāte jalāśaye || 129 ||
M4.130a/ devatānāṁ guro rājñaḥ snātaka.ācāryayos tathā |
M4.130c/ na-ākrāmet kāmataś chāyāṁ babhruṇo dīkṣitasya ca || 130 ||
M4.131a/ madhyandine 'rdharātre ca śrāddhaṁ bhuktvā ca sa.āmiṣam |
M4.131c/ sandhyayor ubhayoś ca-eva na seveta catuṣpatham || 131 ||
M4.132a/ udvartanam apasnānaṁ viṣ.mūtre raktam eva ca |
M4.132c/ śleśma.niṣṭhyūta.vāntāni na-adhitiṣṭhet tu kāmataḥ || 132 ||
M4.133a/ vairiṇaṁ na-upaseveta sahāyaṁ ca-eva vairiṇaḥ |
M4.133c/ adhārmikaṁ taskaraṁ ca parasya-eva ca yoṣitaṁ || 133 ||
M4.134a/ na hi-īdṛśam an.āyuṣyaṁ loke kiṁ cana vidyate |
M4.134c/ yādṛśaṁ puruṣasya-iha paradāra.upasevanam || 134 ||
M4.135a/ kṣatriyaṁ ca-eva sarpaṁ ca brāhmaṇaṁ ca bahu.śrutam |
M4.135c/ na-avamanyeta vai bhūṣṇuḥ kṛśān api kadā cana || 135 ||
M4.136a/ etat trayaṁ hi puruṣaṁ nirdahed avamānitam |
M4.136c/ tasmād etat trayaṁ nityaṁ na-avamanyeta buddhimān || 136 ||
M4.137a/ na-ātmānam avamanyeta purvābhir a.samṛddhibhiḥ |
M4.137c/ ā mṛtyoḥ śriyam anvicchen na-enāṁ manyeta dur.labhām || 137 ||
[Page J 84 ]
M4.138a/ satyaṁ brūyāt priyaṁ brūyān na brūyāt satyam apriyam |
M4.138c/ priyaṁ ca na-anṛtaṁ brūyād eṣa dharmaḥ sanātanaḥ || 138 ||
M4.139a/ bhadraṁ bhadram iti brūyād bhadram ity eva vā vadet |
M4.139c/ śuṣka.vairaṁ vivādaṁ ca na kuryāt kena cit saha || 139 ||
M4.140a/ na-atikalyaṁ na-atisāyaṁ na-atimadhyandine sthite |
M4.140c/ na-ajñātena samaṁ gacchen na-eko na vṛṣalaiḥ saha || 140 ||
M4.141a/ hīna.aṅgān atirikta.aṅgān vidyā.hīnān vayo.'dhikān | [Note: M4.141av/ M: vayo'tigān]
M4.141c/ rūpa.draviṇa.hīnāṁś ca jāti.hīnāṁś ca na-ākṣipet || 141 || [Note: M4.141cv/ M: rūpadravya.hīnāṁś ca]
M4.142a/ na spṛśet pāṇinā-ucchiṣṭo vipro go.brāhmaṇa.analāṇ |
M4.142c/ na ca-api paśyed aśuciḥ sustho jyotirgaṇān divā || 142 || [Note: M4.142cv/ M: svastho jyotirgaṇān divi]
M4.143a/ spṛṣṭvā-etān aśucir nityam adbhiḥ prāṇān upaspṛśet |
M4.143c/ gātrāṇi ca-eva sarvāṇi nābhiṁ pāṇitalena tu || 143 ||
M4.144a/ an.āturaḥ svāni khāni na spṛśed animittataḥ |
M4.144c/ romāṇi ca rahasyāni sarvāṇy eva vivarjayet || 144 ||
M4.145a/ maṅgala.ācārayuktaḥ syāt prayata.ātmā jita.indriyaḥ |
M4.145c/ japec ca juhuyāc ca-eva nityam agnim atandritaḥ || 145 ||
M4.146a/ maṅgala.ācārayuktānāṁ nityaṁ ca prayata.ātmanām |
M4.146c/ japatāṁ juhvatāṁ ca-eva vinipāto na vidyate || 146 ||
M4.147a/ vedam eva-abhyasen nityaṁ yathākālam atandritaḥ | [Note: M4.147av/ M: vedam eva japen]
M4.147c/ taṁ hy asya-āhuḥ paraṁ dharmam upadharmo 'nya ucyate || 147 ||
[Page J 85 ]
M4.148a/ vedābhyāsena satataṁ śaucena tapasā-eva ca |
M4.148c/ adroheṇa ca bhūtānāṁ jātiṁ smarati paurvikīm || 148 ||
M4.149a/ paurvikīṁ saṁsmaran jātiṁ brahma-eva-abhyasyate punaḥ | [Note: M4.149av/ M: dvijaḥ]
M4.149c/ brahmābhyāsena ca-ajasram anantaṁ sukham aśnute || 149 ||
M4.150a/ sāvitrān-śāntihomāṁś ca kuryāt parvasu nityaśaḥ | [Note: M4.150av/ M: sāvitrān śāntihomāṁś]
M4.150c/ pitṝṁś ca-eva-aṣṭakāsv arcen nityam anvaṣṭakāsu ca || 150 ||
M4.151a/ dūrād āvasathān mūtraṁ dūrāt pādāvasecanam |
M4.151c/ ucchiṣtānna.niṣekaṁ ca dūrād eva samācaret || 151 ||
M4.152a/ maitraṁ prasādhanaṁ snānaṁ dantadhāvanam añjanam |
M4.152c/ pūrvāhṇa eva kurvīta devatānāṁ ca pūjanam || 152 ||
M4.153a/ daivatāny abhigacchet tu dhārmikāṁś ca dvijottamān |
M4.153c/ īśvaraṁ ca-eva rakṣārthaṁ gurūn eva ca parvasu || 153 ||
M4.154a/ abhivādayed vṛddhāṁś ca dadyāc ca-eva-āsanaṁ svakam |
M4.154c/ kṛta.añjalir upāsīta gacchataḥ pṛṣṭhato 'nviyāt || 154 ||
M4.155a/ śruti.smṛti.uditaṁ samyaṅ nibaddhaṁ sveṣu karmasu |
M4.155c/ dharmamūlaṁ niṣeveta sad.ācāram atandritaḥ || 155 ||
M4.156a/ ācārāt-labhate hy āyur ācārād īpsitāḥ prajāḥ |
M4.156c/ ācārād dhanam akṣayyam ācāro hanty alakṣaṇam || 156 ||
M4.157a/ dur.ācāro hi puruṣo loke bhavati ninditaḥ |
M4.157c/ duḥkhabhāgī ca satataṁ vyādhito 'lpa.āyur eva ca || 157 ||
[Page J 86 ]
M4.158a/ sarvalakṣaṇa.hīno 'pi yaḥ sadācāravān naraḥ |
M4.158c/ śraddadhāno 'n.asūyaś ca śataṁ varṣāṇi jīvati || 158 ||
M4.159a/ yad yat paravaśaṁ karma tat tad yatnena varjayet |
M4.159c/ yad yad ātmavaśaṁ tu syāt tat tat seveta yatnataḥ || 159 ||
M4.160a/ sarvaṁ paravaśaṁ duḥkhaṁ sarvam ātmavaśaṁ sukham |
M4.160c/ etad vidyāt samāsena lakṣaṇaṁ sukha.duḥkhayoḥ || 160 ||
M4.161a/ yat karma kurvato 'sya syāt paritoṣo 'ntarātmanaḥ |
M4.161c/ tat prayatnena kurvīta viparītaṁ tu varjayet || 161 ||

4.1.15. 4.1.15. Avoiding Violence

[Note: [ O edn 535-537 :: O tr. 132]
M4.162a/ ācāryaṁ ca pravaktāraṁ pitaraṁ mātaraṁ gurum |
M4.162c/ na hiṁsyād brāhmaṇān gāś ca sarvāṁś ca-eva tapasvinaḥ || 162 ||
M4.163a/ nāstikyaṁ vedanindāṁ ca devatānāṁ ca kutsanam |
M4.163c/ dveṣaṁ dambhaṁ ca mānaṁ ca krodhaṁ taikṣṇyaṁ ca varjayet || 163 || [Note: M4.163cv/ M: dveṣaṁ stambhaṁ ca]
M4.164a/ parasya daṇḍaṁ na-udyacchet kruddho na-enaṁ nipātayet |
M4.164c/ anyatra putrāt-śiṣyād vā śiṣṭi.arthaṁ tāḍayet tu tau || 164 ||
M4.165a/ brāhmaṇāya-avagurya-eva dvijātir vadhakāmyayā |
M4.165c/ śataṁ varṣāṇi tāmisre narake parivartate || 165 ||
M4.166a/ tāḍayitvā tṛṇena-api saṁrambhāt-matipūrvakam |
M4.166c/ ekaviṁśatīm ājātīḥ pāpayoniṣu jāyate || 166 ||
M4.167a/ ayudhyamānasya-utpādya brāhmaṇasya-asṛg aṅgataḥ |
M4.167c/ duḥkhaṁ sumahad āpnoti pretya-aprājñatayā naraḥ || 167 ||
[Page J 87 ]
M4.168a/ śoṇitaṁ yāvataḥ pāṁsūn saṅgṛhṇāti mahītalāt |
M4.168c/ tāvato 'bdān amutra-anyaiḥ śoṇita.utpādako 'dyate || 168 ||
M4.169a/ na kadā cid dvije tasmād vidvān avagured api |
M4.169c/ na tāḍayet tṛṇena-api na gātrāt srāvayed asṛk || 169 ||

4.1.16. 4.1.16. Following the Path of Righteousness

[Note: [ O edn 537-539 :: O tr. 132-133]
M4.170a/ a.dhārmiko naro yo hi yasya ca-apy anṛtaṁ dhanam |
M4.170c/ hiṁsārataś ca yo nityaṁ na-iha-asau sukham edhate || 170 || [Note: M4.170cv/ M: hiṁsāratiś]
M4.171a/ na sīdann api dharmeṇa mano 'dharme niveśayet |
M4.171c/ a.dhārmikānāṁ pāpānām āśu paśyan viparyayam || 171 ||
M4.172a/ na-adharmaś carito loke sadyaḥ phalati gaur iva |
M4.172c/ śanair āvartyamānas tu kartur mūlāni kṛntati || 172 ||
M4.173a/ yadi na-ātmani putreṣu na cet putreṣu naptṛṣu |
M4.173c/ na tv eva tu kṛto 'dharmaḥ kartur bhavati niṣ.phalaḥ || 173 || [Note: M4.173cv/ M: kṛto dharmaḥ?]
M4.174a/ adharmeṇa-edhate tāvat tato bhadrāṇi paśyati |
M4.174c/ tataḥ sapatnān jayati sa.mūlas tu vinaśyati || 174 ||
M4.175a/ satya.dharma.āryavṛtteṣu śauce ca-eva-āramet sadā |
M4.175c/ śiṣyāṁś ca śiṣyād dharmeṇa vāc.bāhu.udara.saṁyataḥ || 175 ||
M4.176a/ parityajed artha.kāmau yau syātāṁ dharmavarjitau |
M4.176c/ dharmaṁ ca-apy asukha.udarkaṁ lokasaṅkruṣṭam eva ca || 176 ||
M4.177a/ na pāṇi.pāda.capalo na netra.capalo 'n.ṛjuḥ |
M4.177c/ na syād vāk.capalaś ca-eva na paradrohakarma.dhīḥ || 177 ||
[Page J 88 ]
M4.178a/ yena-asya pitaro yātā yena yātāḥ pitāmahāḥ |
M4.178c/ tena yāyāt satāṁ mārgaṁ tena gacchan na riṣyati || 178 ||
M4.179a/ ṛtvik.purohita.ācāryair mātula.atithisaṁśritaiḥ |
M4.179c/ bāla.vṛddha.āturair vaidyair jñāti.sambandhi.bāndhavaiḥ || 179 ||

4.1.17. 4.1.17. Family and Social Relations

[Note: [ O edn 539-540 :: O tr. 133]
M4.180a/ mātā.pitṛbhyāṁ jāmībhir bhrātrā putreṇa bhāryayā |
M4.180c/ duhitrā dāsavargeṇa vivādaṁ na samācaret || 180 ||
M4.181a/ etair vivādān santyajya sarvapāpaiḥ pramucyate |
M4.181c/ etair jitaiś ca jayati sarvān-lokān imān gṛhī || 181 ||
M4.182a/ ācāryo brahmaloka.īśaḥ prājāpatye pitā prabhuḥ |
M4.182c/ atithis tv indraloka.īśo devalokasya ca-ṛtvijaḥ || 182 ||
M4.183a/ jāmayo 'psarasām loke vaiśvadevasya bāndhavāḥ |
M4.183c/ sambandhino hy apāṁ loke pṛthivyāṁ mātṛ.mātulau || 183 ||
M4.184a/ ākāśa.īśās tu vijñeyā bāla.vṛddha.kṛśa.āturāḥ |
M4.184c/ bhrātā jyeṣṭhaḥ samaḥ pitrā bhāryā putraḥ svakā tanuḥ || 184 ||
M4.185a/ chāyā svo dāsavargaś ca duhitā kṛpaṇaṁ param |
M4.185c/ tasmād etair adhikṣiptaḥ saheta-a.sañjvaraḥ sadā || 185 ||

4.1.18. 4.1.18. Accepting and Giving Gifts

[Note: [ O edn 540-542 :: O tr. 133-134]
M4.186a/ pratigrahasamartho 'pi prasaṅgaṁ tatra varjayet |
M4.186c/ pratigraheṇa hy asya-āśu brāhmaṁ tejaḥ praśāmyati || 186 ||
M4.187a/ na dravyāṇām a.vijñāya vidhiṁ dharmyaṁ pratigrahe |
M4.187c/ prājñaḥ pratigrahaṁ kuryād avasīdann api kṣudhā || 187 ||
[Page J 89 ]
M4.188a/ hiraṇyaṁ bhūmim aśvaṁ gām annaṁ vāsas tilān ghṛtam |
M4.188c/ pratigṛhṇann a.vidvāṁs tu bhasmī.bhavati dāruvat || 188 ||
M4.189a/ hiraṇyam āyur annaṁ ca bhūr gauś ca-apy oṣatas tanum |
M4.189c/ aśvaś cakṣus tvacaṁ vāso ghṛtaṁ tejas tilāh prajāḥ || 189 ||
M4.190a/ a.tapās tv an.adhīyānaḥ pratigraha.rucir dvijaḥ |
M4.190c/ ambhasy aśmaplavena-iva saha tena-eva majjati || 190 ||
M4.191a/ tasmād a.vidvān bibhiyād yasmāt tasmāt pratigrahāt |
M4.191c/ svalpakena-apy a.vidvān hi paṅke gaur iva sīdati || 191 ||
M4.192a/ na vāry api prayacchet tu baiḍālavratike dvije |
M4.192c/ na bakavratike pāpe na-a.vedavidi dharmavit || 192 ||
M4.193a/ triṣv apy eteṣu dattaṁ hi vidhinā-apy arjitaṁ dhanam |
M4.193c/ dātur bhavaty anarthāya paratra-ādātur eva ca || 193 ||
M4.194a/ yathā plavena-aupalena nimajjaty udake taran |
M4.194c/ tathā nimajjato 'dhastād ajñau dātṛ.pratīcchakau || 194 ||

4.1.19. 4.1.19. Hypocrisy

[Note: [ O edn 542-543 :: O tr. 134]
M4.195a/ dharmadhvajī sadā lubdhaś chādmiko lokadambhakaḥ | |
M4.195c/ baiḍālavratiko jñeyo hiṁsraḥ sarvābhisandhakaḥ || 195 ||
M4.196a[197Ma]/ adho.dṛṣṭir naiṣkṛtikaḥ svārthasādhana.tatparaḥ |
M4.196c[197Mc]/ śaṭho mithyāvinītaś ca bakavratacaro dvijaḥ || 196 ||
M4.197a[198Ma]/ ye bakavratino viprā ye ca mārjāraliṅginaḥ |
M4.197c[198Mc]/ te patanty andhatāmisre tena pāpena karmaṇā || 197 ||
[Page J 90 ]
M4.198a[199Ma]/ na dharmasya-apadeśena pāpaṁ kṛtvā vrataṁ caret |
M4.198c[199Mc]/ vratena pāpaṁ pracchādya kurvan strī.śūdra.dambhanam || 198 ||
M4.199a[200Ma]/ pretya-iha ca-īdṛśā viprā garhyante brahmavādibhiḥ |
M4.199c[200Mc]/ chadmanā caritaṁ yac ca vrataṁ rakṣāṁsi gacchati || 199 ||
M4.200a[201Ma]/ aliṅgī liṅgiveṣeṇa yo vṛttim upajīvati |
M4.200c[201Mc]/ sa liṅgināṁ haraty enas tiryagyonau ca jāyate || 200 ||

4.1.20. 4.1.20. Using What Belongs to Others

[Note: [ O edn 543-544 :: O tr. 134]
M4.201a[202Ma]/ parakīyanipāneṣu na snāyādd hi kadā cana | [Note: M4.201a[202Ma]v/ K: snāyāc ca kadā cana]
M4.201c[202Mc]/ nipānakartuḥ snātvā tu duṣkṛtāṁśena lipyate || 201 ||
M4.202a[203Ma]/ yāna.śayyā.āsanāny asya kūpa.udyāna.gṛhāṇi ca |
M4.202c[203Mc]/ a.dattāny upayuñjāna enasaḥ syāt turīya.bhāk || 202 ||
M4.203a[204Ma]/ nadīṣu devakhāteṣu taḍāgeṣu saraḥsu ca |
M4.203c[204Mc]/ snānaṁ samācaren nityaṁ garta.prasravaṇeṣu ca || 203 ||
M4.204a[205Ma]/ yamān seveta satataṁ na nityaṁ niyamān budhaḥ |
M4.204c[205Mc]/ yamān pataty a.kurvāṇo niyamān kevalān bhajan || 204 ||

4.1.21. 4.1.21. Unfit Food

[Note: [ O edn 545-449 :: O tr. 134-135]
M4.205a[206Ma]/ na-aśrotriyatate yajñe grāmayājikṛte tathā |
M4.205c[206Mc]/ striyā klībena ca hute bhuñjīta brāhmaṇaḥ kva cit || 205 ||
M4.206a[207Ma]/ aślīkam etat sādhūnāṁ yatra juhvaty amī haviḥ | [Note: M4.206a[207Ma]v/ M: a.ślīlam]
M4.206c[207Mc]/ pratīpam etad devānāṁ tasmāt tat parivarjayet || 206 ||
M4.207a[208Ma]/ matta.kruddha.āturāṇāṁ ca na bhuñjīta kadā cana |
M4.207c[208Mc]/ keśa.kīṭāvapannaṁ ca padā spṛṣṭaṁ ca kāmataḥ || 207 ||
[Page J 91 ]
M4.208a[209Ma]/ bhrūṇaghna.avekṣitaṁ ca-eva saṁspṛṣṭaṁ ca-apy udakyayā |
M4.208c[209Mc]/ patatriṇa.avalīḍhaṁ ca śunā saṁspṛṣṭam eva ca || 208 ||
M4.209a[210Ma]/ gavā ca-annam upaghrātaṁ ghuṣṭānnaṁ ca viśeṣataḥ |
M4.209c[210Mc]/ gaṇānnaṁ gaṇikānnaṁ ca viduṣā ca jugupsitam || 209 ||
M4.210a[211Ma]/ stena.gāyanayoś ca-annaṁ takṣṇo vārdhuṣikasya ca |
M4.210c[211Mc]/ dīkṣitasya kadaryasya baddhasya nigaḍasya ca || 210 ||
M4.211a[212Ma]/ abhiśastasya ṣaṇḍhasya puṁścalyā dāmbhikasya ca |
M4.211c[212Mc]/ śuktaṁ paryuṣitaṁ ca-eva śūdrasya-ucchiṣṭam eva ca || 211 ||
M4.212a[213Ma]/ cikitsakasya mṛgayoḥ krūrasya-ucchiṣṭa.bhojinaḥ |
M4.212c[213Mc]/ ugrānnaṁ sūtikānnaṁ ca paryācāntam a.nirdaśam || 212 ||
M4.213a[214Ma]/ an.arcitaṁ vṛthāmāṁsam a.vīrāyāś ca yoṣitaḥ |
M4.213c[214Mc]/ dviṣadannaṁ nagarī.annaṁ patitānnam avakṣutam || 213 ||
M4.214a[215Ma]/ piśuna.anṛtinoś ca-annaṁ kratuvikrayiṇas tathā | [Note: M4.214a[215Ma]v/ M: kratuvikrayakasya ca]
M4.214c[215Mc]/ śailūṣa.tunnavāya.annaṁ kṛtaghnasya-annam eva ca || 214 ||
M4.215a[216Ma]/ karmārasya niṣādasya raṅgāvatārakasya ca |
M4.215c[216Mc]/ suvarṇakartur veṇasya śastravikrayiṇas tathā || 215 ||
M4.216a[217Ma]/ śvavatāṁ śauṇḍikānāṁ ca caila.nirṇejakasya ca |
M4.216c[217Mc]/ rañjakasya nṛśaṁsasya yasya ca-upapatir gṛhe || 216 || [Note: M4.216c[217Mc]v/ M: rajakasya]
M4.217a[218Ma]/ mṛṣyanti ye ca-upapatiṁ strījitānām ca sarvaśaḥ |
M4.217c[218Mc]/ a.nirdaśaṁ ca pretānnam a.tuṣṭikaram eva ca || 217 ||
[Page J 92 ]
M4.218a[219Ma]/ rājānnaṁ teja ādatte śūdrānnaṁ brahmavarcasam |
M4.218c[219Mc]/ āyuḥ suvarṇakārānnaṁ yaśaś carmāvakartinaḥ || 218 ||
M4.219a[220Ma]/ kārukānnaṁ prajāṁ hanti balaṁ nirṇejakasya ca |
M4.219c[220Mc]/ gaṇānnaṁ gaṇikānnaṁ ca lokebhyaḥ parikṛntati || 219 ||
M4.220a[221Ma]/ pūyaṁ cikitsakasya-annaṁ puṁścalyās tv annam indriyam |
M4.220c[221Mc]/ viṣṭhā vārdhuṣikasya-annaṁ śastravikrayiṇo malam || 220 ||
M4.221a[222Ma]/ ya ete 'nye tv abhojya.annāḥ kramaśaḥ parikīrtitāḥ |
M4.221c[222Mc]/ teṣāṁ tvag.asthi.romāṇi vadanty annaṁ manīṣiṇaḥ || 221 ||
M4.222a[223Ma]/ bhuktvā-ato 'nyatam asya-annam amatyā kṣapaṇaṁ tryaham |
M4.222c[223Mc]/ matyā bhuktvā-ācaret kṛcchraṁ retas.viṣ.mūtram eva ca || 222 ||
M4.223a[224Ma]/ na-adyāt-śūdrasya pakvānnaṁ vidvān a.śrāddhino dvijaḥ |
M4.223c[224Mc]/ ādadīta-āmam eva-asmād avṛttāv ekarātrikam || 223 ||
M4.224a[225Ma]/ śrotriyasya kadaryasya vadānyasya ca vārdhuṣeḥ |
M4.224c[225Mc]/ mīmāṁsitvā-ubhayaṁ devāḥ samam annam akalpayan || 224 ||
M4.225a[226Ma]/ tān prajāpatir āha-etya mā kṛdhvaṁ viṣamaṁ samam |
M4.225c[226Mc]/ śraddhāpūtaṁ vadānyasya hatam a.śraddhayā-itarat || 225 ||

4.1.22. 4.1.22. Gifts and Their Rewards

[Note: [ O edn 549-552 :: O tr. 135-136]
M4.226a[227Ma]/ śraddhayā-iṣṭaṁ ca pūrtaṁ ca nityaṁ kuryād atandritaḥ |
M4.226c[227Mc]/ śraddhākṛte hy akṣaye te bhavataḥ svāgatair dhanaiḥ || 226 ||
M4.227a[228Ma]/ dānadharmaṁ niṣeveta nityam aiṣṭika.paurtikam |
M4.227c[228Mc]/ parituṣṭena bhāvena pātram āsādya śaktitaḥ || 227 ||
[Page J 93 ]
M4.228a[229Ma]/ yat kiṁ cid api dātavyaṁ yācitena-an.asūyayā | [Note: M4.228a[229Ma]v/ M: anasūyatā?]
M4.228c[229Mc]/ utpatsyate hi tat pātraṁ yat tārayati sarvataḥ || 228 ||
M4.229a[230Ma]/ vāridas tṛptim āpnoti sukham akṣayyam annadaḥ | [Note: M4.229a[230Ma]v/ M: akṣayam]
M4.229c[230Mc]/ tilapradaḥ prajām iṣṭāṁ dīpadaś cakṣur uttamam || 229 ||
M4.230a[231Ma]/ bhūmido bhūmim āpnoti dīrgham āyur hiraṇyadaḥ |
M4.230c[231Mc]/ gṛhado 'gryāṇi veśmāni rūpyado rūpam uttamam || 230 ||
M4.231a[232Ma]/ vāsodaś candrasālokyam aśvisālokyam aśvadaḥ |
M4.231c[232Mc]/ anaḍuhaḥ śriyaṁ puṣṭāṁ godo bradhnasya viṣṭapam || 231 ||
M4.232a[233Ma]/ yāna.śayyāprado bhāryām aiśvaryam abhayapradaḥ |
M4.232c[233Mc]/ dhānyadaḥ śāśvataṁ saukhyaṁ brahmado brahmasārṣṭitām || 232 ||
M4.233a[234Ma]/ sarveṣām eva dānānāṁ brahmadānaṁ viśiṣyate |
M4.233c[234Mc]/ vāri.anna.go.mahī.vāsas.tila.kāñcana.sarpiṣām || 233 ||
M4.234a[235Ma]/ yena yena tu bhāvena yad yad dānaṁ prayacchati |
M4.234c[235Mc]/ tat tat tena-eva bhāvena prāpnoti pratipūjitaḥ || 234 ||
M4.235a[236Ma]/ yo 'rcitaṁ pratigṛhṇāti dadāty arcitam eva vā |
M4.235c[236Mc]/ tāv ubhau gacchataḥ svargaṁ narakaṁ tu viparyaye || 235 ||
M4.236a[237Ma]/ na vismayeta tapasā vaded iṣṭvā ca na-anṛtam |
M4.236c[237Mc]/ na-ārto 'py apavaded viprān na dattvā parikīrtayet || 236 || [Note: M4.236c[237Mc]v/ M: datvā]
M4.237a[238Ma]/ yajño 'nṛtena kṣarati tapaḥ kṣarati vismayāt |
M4.237c[238Mc]/ āyur viprāpavādena dānaṁ ca parikīrtanāt || 237 ||

4.1.23. 4.1.23. Accumulating Merit

[Page J 94 ] [Note: [ O edn 552-553 :: O tr. 136-137]
M4.238a[239Ma]/ dharmaṁ śanaiḥ sañcinuyād valmīkam iva puttikāḥ | [Note: M4.238a[239Ma]v/ M: sañcinuyād]
M4.238c[239Mc]/ paralokasahāyārthaṁ sarvabhūtāny a.pīḍayan || 238 ||
M4.239a[240Ma]/ na-amutra hi sahāyārthaṁ pitā mātā ca tiṣṭhataḥ |
M4.239c[240Mc]/ na putradāraṁ na jñātir dharmas tiṣṭhati kevalaḥ || 239 ||
M4.240a[241Ma]/ ekaḥ prajāyate jantur eka eva pralīyate |
M4.240c[241Mc]/ eko 'nubhuṅkte sukṛtam eka eva ca duṣkṛtam || 240 ||
M4.241a[242Ma]/ mṛtaṁ śarīram utsṛjya kāṣṭha.loṣṭasamaṁ kṣitau |
M4.241c[242Mc]/ vimukhā bāndhavā yānti dharmas tam anugacchati || 241 ||
M4.242a[243Ma]/ tasmād dharmaṁ sahāyārthaṁ nityaṁ sañcinuyāt- śanaiḥ |
M4.242c[243Mc]/ dharmeṇa hi sahāyena tamas tarati dustaram || 242 ||
M4.243a[244Ma]/ dharma.pradhānaṁ puruṣaṁ tapasā hata.kilbiṣam |
M4.243c[244Mc]/ paralokaṁ nayaty āśu bhāsvantaṁ kha.śarīriṇam || 243 ||
M4.244a[245Ma]/ uttamair uttamair nityaṁ sambandhān ācaret saha | [Note: M4.244a[245Ma]v/ M: sambhandhān]
M4.244c[245Mc]/ ninīṣuḥ kulam utkarṣam adhamān adhamāṁs tyajet || 244 ||
M4.245a[246Ma]/ uttamān uttamān eva gacchan hīnāṁs tu varjayan |
M4.245c[246Mc]/ brāhmaṇaḥ śreṣṭhatām eti pratyavāyena śūdratām || 245 ||
M4.246a[247Ma]/ dṛḍhakārī mṛdur dāntaḥ krūra.ācārair a.saṁvasan |
M4.246c[247Mc]/ ahiṁsro dama.dānābhyāṁ jayet svargaṁ tathā.vrataḥ || 246 ||

4.1.24. 4.1.24. Acceptance of Gifts and Food

[Note: [ O edn 554-556 :: O tr. 137]
M4.247a[248Ma]/ edha.udakaṁ mūla.phalam annam abhyudyataṁ ca yat |
M4.247c[248Mc]/ sarvataḥ pratigṛhṇīyāt- madhu-atha-abhayadakṣiṇām || 247 ||
[Page J 95 ]
M4.248a[249Ma]/ āhṛta.abhyudyatāṁ bhikṣāṁ purastād a.pracoditām |
M4.248c[249Mc]/ mene prajāpatir grāhyām api duṣkṛta.karmaṇaḥ || 248 ||
M4.249a[250Ma]/ na-aśnanti pitaras tasya daśavarṣāṇi pañca ca |
M4.249c[250Mc]/ na ca havyaṁ vahaty agnir yas tām abhyavamanyate || 249 ||
M4.250a[251Ma]/ śayyāṁ gṛhān kuśān gandhān apaḥ puṣpaṁ maṇīn dadhi |
M4.250c[251Mc]/ dhānā matsyān payo māṁsaṁ śākaṁ ca-eva na nirṇudet || 250 ||
M4.251a[252Ma]/ gurūn bhṛtyāṁś ca-ujjihīrṣann arciṣyan devatā.atithīn |
M4.251c[252Mc]/ sarvataḥ pratigṛhṇīyān na tu tṛpyet svayaṁ tataḥ || 251 ||
M4.252a[253Ma]/ guruṣu tv abhyatīteṣu vinā vā tair gṛhe vasan |
M4.252c[253Mc]/ ātmano vṛttim anvicchan gṛhṇīyāt sādhutaḥ sadā || 252 ||
M4.253a[254Ma]/ ārdhikaḥ kulamitraṁ ca gopālo dāsa.nāpitau |
M4.253c[254Mc]/ ete śūdreṣu bhojya.annā yāś ca-ātmānaṁ nivedayet || 253 ||
M4.254a[255Ma]/ yādṛśo 'sya bhaved ātmā yādṛśaṁ ca cikīrṣitam |
M4.254c[255Mc]/ yathā ca-upacared enaṁ tathā-ātmānaṁ nivedayet || 254 ||
M4.255a[256Ma]/ yo 'nyathā santam ātmānam anyathā satsu bhāṣate |
M4.255c[256Mc]/ sa pāpakṛttamo loke stena ātma.apahārakaḥ || 255 ||
M4.256a[257Ma]/ vācy arthā niyatāḥ sarve vāc.mūlā vāc.viniḥsṛtāḥ |
M4.256c[257Mc]/ tāṁs tu yaḥ stenayed vācaṁ sa sarvasteyakṛt- naraḥ || 256 || [Note: M4.256c[257Mc]v/ M: tān tu?]

4.1.25. 4.1.25. Old Age and Retirement

[Note: [ O edn 556-557 :: O tr. 137]
M4.257a[258Ma]/ maharṣi.pitṛ.devānāṁ gatvā-ānṛṇyaṁ yathāvidhi |
M4.257c[258Mc]/ putre sarvaṁ samāsajya vasen mādhyasthyam āsśritaḥ || 257 || [Note: M4.257c[258Mc]v/ M: āsthitaḥ]
[Page J 96 ]
M4.258a[259Ma]/ ekākī cintayen nityaṁ vivikte hitam ātmanaḥ | [Note: M4.258a[259Ma]v/ M: hitam ātmani]
M4.258c[259Mc]/ ekākī cintayāno hi paraṁ śreyo 'dhigacchati || 258 ||
M4.259a[260Ma]/ eṣā-uditā gṛhasthasya vṛttir viprasya śāśvatī |
M4.259c[260Mc]/ snātakavratakalpaś ca sattvavṛddhikaraḥ śubhaḥ || 259 ||
M4.260a[261Ma]/ anena vipro vṛttena vartayan veda.śāstravit |
M4.260c[261Mc]/ vyapeta.kalmaṣo nityaṁ brahmaloke mahīyate || 260 ||

5. Chapter 5

[Page J 97 ] [Note: [ O edn 558-593 :: O tr. 138-147]

5.1. 5.1. Prologue

[Note: [ O edn 558 :: O tr. 138]
M5.01a/ śrutvā-etān ṛṣayo dharmān snātakasya yathā.uditān |
M5.01c/ idam ūcur mahātmānam anala.prabhavaṁ bhṛgum || 1 ||
M5.02a/ evaṁ yathā.uktaṁ viprāṇāṁ svadharmam anutiṣṭhatām |
M5.02c/ kathaṁ mṛtyuḥ prabhavati veda.śāstravidāṁ prabho || 2 ||
M5.03a/ sa tān uvāca dharma.ātmā maharṣīn mānavo bhṛguḥ |
M5.03c/ śrūyatāṁ yena doṣeṇa mṛtyur viprān jighāṁsati || 3 ||

5.2. 5.2. Forbidden Food

[Note: [ O edn 558-562 :: O tr. 138-139]
M5.04a/ anabhyāsena vedānām ācārasya ca varjanāt |
M5.04c/ ālasyād annadoṣāc ca mṛtyur viprāñ jighāṁsati || 4 || [Note: M5.04cv/ M: viprān]
M5.05a/ laśunaṁ gṛñjanaṁ ca-eva palāṇḍuṁ kavakāni ca |
M5.05c/ abhakṣyāṇi dvijātīnām amedhya.prabhavāni ca || 5 ||
M5.06a/ lohitān vṛkṣaniryāsān vṛścana.prabhavāṁs tathā | [Note: M5.06av/ M: vraścana.prabhavāṁs]
M5.06c/ śeluṁ gavyaṁ ca peyūṣaṁ prayatnena vivarjayet || 6 || [Note: M5.06cv/ M: pīyūṣaṁ]
M5.07a/ vṛthā kṛsara.saṁyāvaṁ pāyasa.apūpam eva ca |
M5.07c/ an.upākṛtamāṁsāni devānnāni havīṁṣi ca || 7 ||
[Page J 98 ]
M5.08a/ a.nirdaśāyā goḥ kṣīram auṣṭram aikaśaphaṁ tathā |
M5.08c/ āvikaṁ sandhinīkṣīraṁ vi.vatsāyāś ca goḥ payaḥ || 8 || [Note: M5.08cv/ M: sandhinīkṣīraṁ]
M5.09a/ āraṇyānāṁ ca sarveṣāṁ mṛgāṇāṁ māhiṣaṁ vinā |
M5.09c/ strīkṣīraṁ ca-eva varjyāni sarvaśuktāni ca-eva hi || 9 ||
M5.10a/ dadhi bhakṣyaṁ ca śukteṣu sarvaṁ ca dadhi.sambhavam | [Note: M5.10av/ M: dadhi.sambhavam]
M5.10c/ yāni ca-eva-abhiṣūyante puṣpa.mūla.phalaiḥ śubhaiḥ || 10 ||
M5.11a/ kravyādāñ śakunān sarvān-tathā grāmanivāsinaḥ | [Note: M5.11av/ M: kravyādaḥ śakunīn]
M5.11c/ a.nirdiṣṭāṁś ca-ekaśaphāṁṣ ṭiṭṭibhaṁ ca vivarjayet || 11 ||
M5.12a/ kalaviṅkaṁ plavaṁ haṁsaṁ cakrāhvaṁ grāmakukkuṭam |
M5.12c/ sārasaṁ rajjuvālaṁ ca dātyūhaṁ śuka.sārike || 12 || [Note: M5.12cv/ M: rajjudālaṁ]
M5.13a/ pratudāñ jālapādāṁś ca koyaṣṭi.nakhaviṣkirān | [Note: M5.13av/ M: pratudān]
M5.13c/ nimajjataś ca matsyādān saunaṁ vallūram eva ca || 13 ||
M5.14a/ bakaṁ ca-eva balākāṁ ca kākolaṁ khañjarīṭakam |
M5.14c/ matsyādān viḍvarāhāṁś ca matsyān eva ca sarvaśaḥ || 14 ||
M5.15a/ yo yasya māṁsam aśnāti sa tanmāṁsāda ucyate |
M5.15c/ matsyādaḥ sarvamāṁsādas tasmān matsyān vivarjayet || 15 ||
M5.16a/ pāṭhīna.rohitāv ādyau niyuktau havya.kavyayoḥ |
M5.16c/ rājīvān siṁhatuṇḍāś ca sa.śalkāś ca-eva sarvaśaḥ || 16 || [Note: M5.16cv/ M: rājīvāḥ]
M5.17a/ na bhakṣayed ekacarān ajñātāṁś ca mṛga.dvijān |
M5.17c/ bhakṣyeṣv api samuddiṣṭān sarvān pañcanakhāṁs tathā || 17 ||
[Page J 99 ]
M5.18a/ śvāvidhaṁ śalyakaṁ godhāṁ khaḍga.kūrma.śaśāṁs tathā |
M5.18c/ bhakṣyān pañcanakheṣv āhur anuṣṭrāṁś ca-ekatodatah || 18 ||
M5.19a/ chatrākaṁ viḍvarāhaṁ ca laśunaṁ grāmakukkuṭam |
M5.19c/ palāṇḍuṁ gṛñjanaṁ ca-eva matyā jagdhvā pated dvijaḥ || 19 ||
M5.20a/ a.matyā-etāni ṣaḍ jagdhvā kṛcchraṁ sāntapanaṁ caret |
M5.20c/ yaticāndrāyāṇaṁ vā-api śeṣeṣu-upavased ahaḥ || 20 ||
M5.21a/ saṁvatsarasya-ekam api caret kṛcchraṁ dvijottamaḥ |
M5.21c/ a.jñātabhuktaśuddhi.arthaṁ jñātasya tu viṣeśataḥ || 21 ||
M5.22a/ yajñārthaṁ brāhmaṇair vadhyāḥ praśastā mṛga.pakṣiṇaḥ |
M5.22c/ bhṛtyānāṁ ca-eva vṛtti.artham agastyo hy ācarat purā || 22 ||
M5.23a/ babhūvur hi puroḍāśā bhakṣyāṇāṁ mṛga.pakṣiṇām |
M5.23c/ purāṇeṣv api yajñeṣu brahma.kṣatrasaveṣu ca || 23 || [Note: M5.23cv/ M: purāṇeṣv ṛṣiyajñeṣu]
M5.24a/ yat kiṁ cit snehasaṁyuktaṁ bhakṣyaṁ bhojyam a.garhitam |
M5.24c/ tat paryuṣitam apy ādyaṁ haviḥśeṣaṁ ca yad bhavet || 24 ||
M5.25a/ cirasthitam api tv ādyam a.snehāktaṁ dvijātibhiḥ |
M5.25c/ yava.godhūmajaṁ sarvaṁ payasaś ca-eva vikriyā || 25 ||
M5.26a/ etad uktaṁ dvijātīnāṁ bhakṣya.abhakṣyam a.śeṣataḥ |
M5.26c/ māṁsasya-ataḥ pravakṣyāmi vidhiṁ bhakṣaṇavarjane || 26 ||

5.3. 5.3. Eating Meat

[Note: [ O edn 562-568 :: O tr. 139-141]
M5.27a/ prokṣitaṁ bhakṣayen māṁsaṁ brāhmaṇānāṁ ca kāmyayā |
M5.27c/ yathāvidhi niyuktas tu prāṇānām eva ca-atyaye || 27 ||
[Page J 100 ]
M5.28a/ prāṇasya-annam idaṁ sarvaṁ prajāpatir akalpayat |
M5.28c/ sthāvaraṁ jaṅgamaṁ ca-eva sarvaṁ prāṇasya bhojanam || 28 ||
M5.29a/ carāṇām annam a.carā daṁṣṭriṇām apy a.daṁṣṭriṇaḥ |
M5.29c/ a.hastāś ca sa.hastānāṁ śūrāṇāṁ ca-eva bhīravaḥ || 29 ||
M5.30a/ na-attā duṣyaty adann ādyān prāṇino 'hany.ahany api |
M5.30c/ dhātrā-eva sṛṣṭā hy ādyāś ca prāṇino 'ttāra eva ca || 30 ||
M5.31a/ yajñāya jagdhir māṁsasya-ity eṣa daivo vidhiḥ smṛtaḥ |
M5.31c/ ato 'nyathā pravṛttis tu rākṣaso vidhir ucyate || 31 ||
M5.32a/ krītvā svayaṁ vā-apy utpādya para.upakṛtam eva vā |
M5.32c/ devān pitṝṁś ca-arcayitvā khādan māṁsaṁ na duṣyati || 32 ||
M5.33a/ na-adyād avidhinā māṁsaṁ vidhijño 'nāpadi dvijaḥ |
M5.33c/ jagdhvā hy a.vidhinā māṁsaṁ pretas tair adyate '.vaśaḥ || 33 ||
M5.34a/ na tādṛśaṁ bhavaty eno mṛgahantur dhanārthinaḥ |
M5.34c/ yādṛśaṁ bhavati pretya vṛthāmāṁsāni khādataḥ || 34 ||
M5.35a/ niyuktas tu yathānyāyaṁ yo māṁsaṁ na-atti mānavaḥ |
M5.35c/ sa pretya paśutāṁ yāti sambhavān ekaviṁśatim || 35 ||
M5.36a/ asaṁskṛtān paśūn mantrair na-adyād vipraḥ kadā cana |
M5.36c/ mantrais tu saṁskṛtān adyāt-śāśvataṁ vidhim āsthitaḥ || 36 ||
M5.37a/ kuryād ghṛtapaśuṁ saṅge kuryāt piṣṭapaśuṁ tathā |
M5.37c/ na tv eva tu vṛthā hantuṁ paśum icchet kadā cana || 37 ||
[Page J 101 ]
M5.38a/ yāvanti paśuromāṇi tāvatkṛtvo ha māraṇam |
M5.38c/ vṛthāpaśughnaḥ prāpnoti pretya janmani janmani || 38 ||
M5.39a/ yajñārthaṁ paśavaḥ sṛṣṭāḥ svayam eva svayambhuvā |
M5.39c/ yajño 'sya bhūtyai sarvasya tasmād yajñe vadho '.vadhaḥ || 39 ||
M5.40a/ oṣadhyaḥ paśavo vṛkṣās tiryañcaḥ pakṣiṇas tathā |
M5.40c/ yajñārthaṁ nidhanaṁ prāptāḥ prāpnuvanty utsṛtīḥ punaḥ || 40 || [Note: M5.40cv/ M: ucchritīḥ]
M5.41a/ madhuparke ca yajñe ca pitṛ.daivatakarmaṇi |
M5.41c/ atra-eva paśavo hiṁsyā na-anyatra-ity abravīn manuḥ || 41 ||
M5.42a/ eṣv artheṣu paśūn hiṁsan vedatattvārthavid dvijaḥ |
M5.42c/ ātmānaṁ ca paśuṁ ca-eva gamayaty uttamaṁ gatim || 42 ||
M5.43a/ gṛhe gurāv araṇye vā nivasann ātmavān dvijaḥ |
M5.43c/ na-a.vedavihitāṁ hiṁsām āpady api samācaret || 43 ||
M5.44a/ yā vedavihitā hiṁsā niyatā-asmiṁś cara.acare |
M5.44c/ ahiṁsām eva tāṁ vidyād vedād dharmo hi nirbabhau || 44 ||
M5.45a/ yo 'hiṁsakāni bhūtāni hinasty ātmasukha.icchayā |
M5.45c/ sa jīvāṁś ca mṛtaś ca-eva na kva cit sukham edhate || 45 ||
M5.46a/ yo bandhanavadhakleśān prāṇināṁ na cikīrṣati |
M5.46c/ sa sarvasya hitaprepsuḥ sukham atyantam aśnute || 46 ||
M5.47a/ yad dhyāyati yat kurute ratiṁ badhnāti yatra ca |
M5.47c/ tad avāpnoty ayatnena yo hinasti na kiṁ cana || 47 ||
[Page J 102 ]
M5.48a/ na-a.kṛtvā prāṇināṁ hiṁsāṁ māṁsam utpadyate kva cit |
M5.48c/ na ca prāṇivadhaḥ svargyas tasmān māṁsaṁ vivarjayet || 48 ||
M5.49a/ samutpattiṁ ca māṁsasya vadha.bandhau ca dehinām |
M5.49c/ prasamīkṣya nivarteta sarvamāṁsasya bhakṣaṇāt || 49 ||
M5.50a/ na bhakṣayati yo māṁsaṁ vidhiṁ hitvā piśācavat |
M5.50c/ na loke priyatāṁ yāti vyādhibhiś ca na pīḍyate || 50 ||
M5.51a/ anumantā viśasitā nihantā kraya.vikrayī |
M5.51c/ saṁskartā ca-upahartā ca khādakaś ca-iti ghātakāḥ || 51 ||
M5.52a/ svamāṁsaṁ paramāṁsena yo vardhayitum icchati |
M5.52c/ an.abhyarcya pitṝn devāṁs tato 'nyo na-asty apuṇyakṛt || 52 ||
M5.53a/ varṣe varṣe 'śvamedhena yo yajeta śataṁ samāḥ |
M5.53c/ māṁsāni ca na khāded yas tayoḥ puṇyaphalaṁ samam || 53 ||
M5.54a/ phala.mūla.aśanair medhyair muni.annānāṁ ca bhojanaiḥ |
M5.54c/ na tat phalam avāpnoti yat-māṁsaparivarjanāt || 54 ||
M5.55a/ māṁ sa bhakṣayitā-amutra yasya māṁsam iha-admy aham |
M5.55c/ etat-māṁsasya māṁsatvaṁ pravadanti manīṣiṇaḥ || 55 ||
M5.56a/ na māṁsabhakṣaṇe doṣo na madye na ca maithune |
M5.56c/ pravṛttir eṣā bhūtānāṁ nivṛttis tu mahāphalā || 56 ||
M5.57a/ pretaśuddhiṁ pravakṣyāmi dravyaśuddhiṁ tathā-eva ca |
M5.57c/ caturṇām api varṇānāṁ yathāvad anupūrvaśaḥ || 57 ||

5.4. 5.4. Bodily Purification

[Page J 103 ] [Note: [ O edn 568-579 :: O tr. 141-144]

5.4.1. 5.4.1. Death or Birth of a Person Belonging to the Same Ancestry

[Note: [ O edn 568-577 :: O tr. 141-143]
M5.58a/ dantajāte 'nujāte ca kṛta.cūḍe ca saṁsthite |
M5.58c/ aśuddhā bāndhavāḥ sarve sūtake ca tathā-ucyate || 58 ||
M5.59a/ daśāhaṁ śāvam āśaucaṁ sapiṇḍeṣu vidhīyate |
M5.59c/ arvāk sañcayanād asthnāṁ tryaham ekāham eva vā || 59 ||
M5.60a/ sapiṇḍatā tu puruṣe saptame vinivartate |
M5.60c/ samānodakabhāvas tu janma.nāmnor a.vedane || 60 ||
M5.61a/ yathā-idaṁ śāvam āśaucaṁ sapiṇḍeṣu vidhīyate | [Note: M5.61av/ not in M]
M5.61c/ janane 'py evam eva syāt-nipuṇaṁ śuddhim icchatām || 61 || [Note: M5.61cv/ not in M]
M5.62a[61Ma]/ sarveṣāṁ śāvam āśaucaṁ mātā.pitros tu sūtakam | [Note: M5.62a[61Ma]v/ M: janane 'py evam eva syān mātā.pitros tu sūtakam]
M5.62c[61Mc]/ sūtakaṁ mātur eva syād upaspṛśya pitā śuciḥ || 62 ||
M5.63a[62Ma]/nirasya tu pumān-śukram upaspṛsya-eva śudhyati |
M5.63c[62Mc]/ baijikād abhisambandhād anurundhyād aghaṁ tryaham || 63 ||
M5.64a[63Ma]/ahnā ca-ekena rātryā ca trirātrair eva ca tribhiḥ |
M5.64c[63Mc]/ śava.spṛśo viśudhyanti tryahād udakadāyinaḥ || 64 ||
M5.65a[64Ma]/guroḥ pretasya śiṣyas tu pitṛmedhaṁ samācaran |
M5.65c[64Mc]/ pretahāraiḥ samaṁ tatra daśarātreṇa śudhyati || 65 || [Note: M5.65c[64Mc]v/ M: pretāhāraiḥ]
M5.66a[65Ma]/rātribhir māsa.tulyābhir garbhasrāve viśudhyati |
M5.66c[65Mc]/ rajasy uparate sādhvī snānena strī rajasvalā || 66 ||
M5.67a[66Ma]/nṛṇām a.kṛtacūḍānāṁ viśuddhir naiśikī smṛtā |
M5.67c[66Mc]/ nirvṛtta.cūḍakānāṁ tu trirātrāt-śuddhir iṣyate || 67 || [Note: M5.67c[66Mc]v/ M: nirvṛtta.muṇḍakānāṁ]
[Page J 104 ]
M5.68a[67Ma]/ūna.dvivārṣikaṁ pretaṁ nidadhyur bāndhavā bahiḥ |
M5.68c[67Mc]/ alaṅkṛtya śucau bhūmāv asthisañcayanād ṛte || 68 ||
M5.69a[68Ma]/na-asya kāryo 'gnisaṁskāro na ca kāryā-udakakriyā |
M5.69c[68Mc]/ araṇye kāṣṭhavat tyaktvā kṣapeyus tryaham eva tu || 69 || [Note: M5.69c[68Mc]v/ M: kṣapeta tryaham eva ca]
M5.70a[69Ma]/na-a.trivarṣasya kartavyā bāndhavair udakakriyā |
M5.70c[69Mc]/ jāta.dantasya vā kuryur nāmni vā.api kṛte sati || 70 ||
M5.71a[70Ma]/sa.brahmacāriṇy ekāham atīte kṣapaṇam smṛtam |
M5.71c[70Mc]/ janmany eka.udakānāṁ tu trirātrāt-śuddhir iṣyate || 71 ||
M5.72a[71Ma]/strīṇām a.saṁskṛtānāṁ tu tryahāt-śudhyanti bāndhavāḥ |
M5.72c[71Mc]/ yathā.uktena-eva kalpena śudhyanti tu sa.nābhayaḥ || 72 ||
M5.73a[72Ma]/a.kṣāra.lavaṇa.annāḥ syur nimajjeyuś ca te tryaham |
M5.73c[72Mc]/ māṁsāśanaṁ ca na-aśnīyuḥ śayīraṁś ca pṛthak kṣitau || 73 ||
5.4.1.1. 5.4.1.1. Death in a Distant Region
[Note: [ O edn 572-573 :: O tr. 142]
M5.74a[73Ma]/sannidhāv eṣa vai kalpaḥ śāva.āśaucasya kīrtitaḥ |
M5.74c[73Mc]/ a.sannidhāv ayaṁ jñeyo vidhiḥ sambandhi.bāndhavaiḥ || 74 ||
M5.75a[74Ma]/vigataṁ tu videśasthaṁ śṛṇuyād yo hy a.nirdaśam |
M5.75c[74Mc]/ yat-śeṣaṁ daśarātrasya tāvad eva-aśucir bhavet || 75 ||
M5.76a[75Ma]/ atikrānte daśāhe ca trirātram aśucir bhavet |
M5.76c[75Mc]/ saṁvatsare vyatīte tu spṛṣṭvā-eva-āpo viśudhyati || 76 ||
M5.77a[76Ma]/ nirdaśaṁ jñātimaraṇaṁ śrutvā putrasya janma ca |
M5.77c[76Mc]/ sa.vāsā jalam āplutya śuddho bhavati mānavaḥ || 77 ||
[Page J 105 ]
M5.78a[77Ma]/ bāle deśāntarasthe ca pṛthak.piṇḍe ca saṁsthite |
M5.78c[77Mc]/ sa.vāsā jalam āplutya sadya eva viśudhyati || 78 ||
5.4.1.2. 5.4.1.2. Overlapping Period of Impurity
[Note: [ O edn 573 :: O tr. 142]
M5.79a[78Ma]/ antar.daśāhe syātāṁ cet punar maraṇa.janmanī | [Note: M5.79a[78Ma]v/ M: cet syātāṁ]
M5.79c[78Mc]/ tāvat syād a.śucir vipro yāvat tat syād a.nirdaśam || 79 ||
5.4.1.3. 5.4.1.3. Death of Significant Others
[Note: [ O edn 573 :: O tr. 142]
M5.80a[79Ma]/ trirātram āhur āśaucam ācārye saṁsthite sati |
M5.80c[79Mc]/ tasya putre ca patnyāṁ ca divā.rātram iti sthitiḥ || 80 ||
M5.81a[80Ma]/ śrotriye tu-upasampanne trirātram aśucir bhavet |
M5.81c[80Mc]/ mātule pakṣiṇīṁ rātriṁ śiṣya.ṛtvig.bāndhaveṣu ca || 81 ||
M5.82a[81Ma]/ prete rājani sa.jyotir yasya syād viṣaye sthitaḥ |
M5.82c[81Mc]/ a.śrotriye tv ahaḥ kṛtsnam anūcāne tathā gurau || 82 || [Note: M5.82c[81Mc]v/ M: kṛtsnām]
5.4.1.4. 5.4.1.4. Periods of Impurity for Different Classes
[Note: [ O edn 573-574 :: O tr. 142]
M5.83a[82Ma]/ śuddhyed vipro daśāhena dvādaśāhena bhūmipaḥ |
M5.83c[82Mc]/ vaiśyaḥ pañcadaśāhena śūdro māsena śudhyati || 83 ||
M5.84a[83Ma]/ na vardhayed agha.ahāni pratyūhen na-agniṣu kriyāḥ |
M5.84c[83Mc]/ na ca tatkarma kurvāṇaḥ sa.nābhyo 'py aśucir bhavet || 84 ||
5.4.1.5. 5.4.1.5. Impurity from Touch
[Note: [ O edn 575 :: O tr. 142]
M5.85a[84Ma]/ divākīrtim udakyāṁ ca patitaṁ sūtikāṁ tathā |
M5.85c[84Mc]/ śavaṁ tatspṛṣṭinaṁ ca-eva spṛṣṭvā snānena śudhyati || 85 ||
M5.86a[85Ma]/ ācamya prayato nityaṁ japed a.śucidarśane |
M5.86c[85Mc]/ saurān mantrān yathā.utsāhaṁ pāvamānīś ca śaktitaḥ || 86 ||
M5.87a[86Ma]/ nāraṁ spṛṣṭvā-asthi sa.snehaṁ snātvā vipro viśudhyati |
M5.87c[86Mc]/ ācamya-eva tu niḥsnehaṁ gām ālabhya-arkam īkṣya vā || 87 ||
5.4.1.6. 5.4.1.6. Libations for the Dead
[Page J 106 ] [Note: [ O edn 575-576 :: O tr. 142-143]
M5.88a[87Ma]/ ādiṣṭī na-udakaṁ kuryād ā vratasya samāpanāt |
M5.88c[87Mc]/ samāpte tu-udakaṁ kṛtvā trirātreṇa-eva śudhyati || 88 ||
M5.89a[88Ma]/ vṛthā.saṅkara.jātānāṁ pravrajyāsu ca tiṣṭhatām |
M5.89c[88Mc]/ ātmanas tyāgināṁ ca-eva nivarteta-udakakriyā || 89 ||
M5.90a[89Ma]/ pāṣaṇḍam āśritānāṁ ca carantīnāṁ ca kāmataḥ |
M5.90c[89Mc]/ garbha.bhartṛ.druhāṁ ca-eva surāpīnāṁ ca yoṣitām || 90 ||
M5.91a[90Ma]/ ācāryaṁ svam upādhyāyaṁ pitaraṁ mātaraṁ gurum |
M5.91c[90Mc]/ nirhṛtya tu vratī pretān na vratena viyujyate || 91 ||
5.4.1.7. 5.4.1.7. Funeral Path
[Note: [ O edn 576 :: O tr. 143]
M5.92a[91Ma]/ dakṣiṇena mṛtaṁ śūdraṁ puradvāreṇa nirharet |
M5.92c[91Mc]/ paścima.uttara.pūrvais tu yathāyogaṁ dvijanmanaḥ || 92 ||
5.4.1.8. 5.4.1.8. Instant Purification of Kings
[Note: [ O edn 576-577 :: O tr. 143]
M5.93a[92Ma]/ na rājñām aghadoṣo 'sti vratināṁ na ca sattriṇām |
M5.93c[92Mc]/ aindraṁ sthānam upāsīnā brahmabhūtā hi te sadā || 93 ||
M5.94a[93Ma]/ rājño mahātmike sthāne sadyaḥśaucaṁ vidhīyate |
M5.94c[93Mc]/ prajānāṁ parirakṣārtham āsanaṁ ca-atra kāraṇam || 94 ||
M5.95a[94Ma]/ ḍimbha.āhava.hatānāṁ ca vidyutā pārthivena ca | [Note: M5.95a[94Ma]v/ M: ḍimba.āhava.hatānāṁ]
M5.95c[94Mc]/ go.brāhmaṇasya ca-eva-arthe yasya ca-icchati pārthivaḥ || 95 ||
M5.96a[95Ma]/ soma.agni.arka.anila.indrāṇāṁ vitta.appatyor yamasya ca |
M5.96c[95Mc]/ aṣṭānāṁ lokapālānāṁ vapur dhārayate nṛpaḥ || 96 ||
M5.97a[96Ma]/ lokeśādhiṣṭhito rājā na-asya-āśaucaṁ vidhīyate |
M5.97c[96Mc]/ śauca.āśaucaṁ hi martyānāṁ lokebhyaḥ prabhava.apyayau || 97 ||
[Page J 107 ]
M5.98a[97Ma]/ udyatair āhave śastraiḥ kṣatradharmahatasya ca |
M5.98c[97Mc]/ sadyaḥ santiṣṭhate yajñas tathā-āśaucam iti sthitiḥ || 98 ||
M5.99c[98Ma]/ vipraḥ śudhyaty apaḥ spṛṣṭvā kṣatriyo vāhana.āyudham |
M5.99c[98Mc]/ vaiśyaḥ pratodaṁ raśmīn vā yaṣṭiṁ śūdraḥ kṛta.kriyaḥ || 99 ||
M5.100a[99Ma]/ etad vo 'bhihitaṁ śaucaṁ sapiṇḍeṣu dvijottamāḥ |
M5.100c[99Mc]/ asapiṇḍeṣu sarveṣu pretaśuddhiṁ nibodhata || 100 ||

5.4.2. 5.4.2. Death of a Person Belonging to a Different Ancestry

[Note: [ O edn 577-578 :: O tr. 143]
M5.101a[100Ma]/ asapiṇḍaṁ dvijaṁ pretaṁ vipro nirhṛtya bandhuvat |
M5.101c[100Mc]/ viśudhyati trirātreṇa mātur āptāṁś ca bāndhavān || 101 ||
M5.102a[101Ma]/ yady annam atti teṣāṁ tu daśāhena-eva śudhyati |
M5.102c[101Mc]/ an.adann annam ahnā-eva na cet tasmin gṛhe vaset || 102 ||
M5.103a[102Ma]/ anugamya-icchayā pretaṁ jñātim ajñātim eva ca | [Note: M5.103a[102Ma]v/ M: ajñātim eva vā]
M5.103c[102Mc]/ snātvā sa.cailaḥ spṛṣṭvā-agniṁ ghṛtaṁ prāśya viśudhyati || 103 || [Note: M5.103c[102Mc]v/ M: sa.cailaṁ, viśuddhyati]
M5.104a[103Ma]/ na vipraṁ sveṣu tiṣṭhatsu mṛtaṁ śūdreṇa nāyayet |
M5.104c[103Mc]/ a.svargyā hy āhutiḥ sā syāt-śūdrasaṁsparśadūṣitā || 104 ||

5.4.3. 5.4.3. Means of Purification

[Note: [ O edn 578-579 :: O tr. 144]
M5.105a[104Ma]/ jñānaṁ tapo 'gnir āhāro mṛt-mano vāry upāñjanam |
M5.105c[104Mc]/ vāyuḥ karma-arka.kālau ca śuddheḥ kartṝṇi dehinām || 105 ||
M5.106a[105Ma]/ sarveṣām eva śaucānām arthaśaucaṁ paraṁ smṛtaṁ |
M5.106c[105Mc]/ yo 'rthe śucir hi sa śucir na mṛt.vāri.śuciḥ śuciḥ || 106 ||
M5.107a[106Ma]/ kṣāntyā śudhyanti vidvāṁso dānena-a.kāryakāriṇaḥ | [Note: M5.107a[106Ma]v/ M: śuddhyanti]
M5.107c[106Mc]/ pracchanna.pāpā japyena tapasā vedavittamāḥ || 107 ||
[Page J 108 ]
M5.108a[107Ma]/ mṛt.toyaiḥ śudhyate śodhyaṁ nadī vegena śudhyati |
M5.108c[107Mc]/ rajasā strī manoduṣṭā sannyāsena dvijottamāḥ || 108 ||
M5.109a[108Ma]/ adbhir gātrāṇi śudhyanti manaḥ satyena śudhyati |
M5.109c[108Mc]/ vidyā.tapobhyāṁ bhūtātmā buddhir jñānena śudhyati || 109 || [Note: M5.109c[108Mc]v/ M: śuddhyati]
M5.110a[109Ma]/ eṣa śaucasya vaḥ proktaḥ śarīrasya vinirṇayaḥ |
M5.110c[109Mc]/ nānāvidhānāṁ dravyāṇāṁ śuddheḥ śṛṇuta nirṇayam || 110 ||

5.5. 5.5. Purification of Articles

[Note: [ O edn 579-584 :: O tr. 144-145]
M5.111a[110Ma]/ taijasānāṁ maṇīnāṁ ca sarvasya-aśmamayasya ca |
M5.111c[110Mc]/ bhasmanā-adbhir mṛdā ca-eva śuddhir uktā manīṣibhiḥ || 111 ||
M5.112a[111Ma]/ nirlepaṁ kāñcanaṁ bhāṇḍam adbhir eva viśudhyati | [Note: M5.112a[111Ma]v/ M: viśuddhyati]
M5.112c[111Mc]/ ap.jam aśmamayaṁ ca-eva rājataṁ ca-an.upaskṛtam || 112 ||
M5.113a[112Ma]/ apām agneś ca saṁyogādd haimaṁ raupyaṁ ca nirbabhau |
M5.113c[112Mc]/ tasmāt tayoḥ svayonyā-eva nirṇeko guṇavattaraḥ || 113 ||
M5.114a[113Ma]/ tāmra.ayas.kāṁsya.raityānāṁ trapuṇaḥ sīsakasya ca |
M5.114c[113Mc]/ śaucaṁ yathārhaṁ kartavyaṁ kṣāra.amlodaka.vāribhiḥ || 114 ||
M5.115a[114Ma]/ dravāṇāṁ ca-eva sarveṣāṁ śuddhir utpavanaṁ smṛtam |
M5.115c[114Mc]/ prokṣaṇaṁ saṁhatānāṁ ca dāravāṇāṁ ca takṣaṇam || 115 ||
M5.116a[115Ma]/ mārjanaṁ yajñapātrāṇāṁ pāṇinā yajñakarmaṇi |
M5.116c[115Mc]/ camasānāṁ grahāṇāṁ ca śuddhiḥ prakṣālanena tu || 116 ||
M5.117a[116Ma]/ carūṇāṁ sruk.sruvāṇāṁ ca śuddhir uṣṇena vāriṇā |
M5.117c[116Mc]/ sphya.śūrpa.śakaṭānāṁ ca musala.ulūkhalasya ca || 117 ||
[Page J 109 ]
M5.118a[117Ma]/ adbhis tu prokṣaṇaṁ śaucaṁ bahūnāṁ dhānya.vāsasām |
M5.118c[117Mc]/ prakṣālanena tv alpānām adbhiḥ śaucaṁ vidhīyate || 118 ||
M5.119a[118Ma]/ cailavat-carmaṇāṁ śuddhir vaidalānāṁ tathā-eva ca |
M5.119c[118Mc]/ śāka.mūla.phalānāṁ ca dhānyavat-śuddhir iṣyate || 119 || [Note: M5.119c[118Mc]v/ M: tu]
M5.120a[119Ma]/ kauśeya.āvikayor ūṣaiḥ kutapānām ariṣṭakaiḥ |
M5.120c[119Mc]/ śrīphalair aṁśupaṭṭānāṁ kṣaumāṇāṁ gaurasarṣapaiḥ || 120 ||
M5.121a[120Ma]/ kṣaumavat-śaṅkha.śṛṅgāṇām asthi.dantamayasya ca |
M5.121c[120Mc]/ śuddhir vijānatā kāryā go.mūtreṇa-udakena vā || 121 ||
M5.122a[121Ma]/ prokṣaṇāt tṛṇa.kāṣṭhaṁ ca palālaṁ ca-eva śudhyati |
M5.122c[121Mc]/ mārjana.upāñjanair veśma punaḥpākena mṛt.mayam || 122 ||
[M5.123Ka]/ madyair mūtraiḥ purīṣair vā ṣṭhīvanaih pūyaśoṇitaiḥ | [Note: [M5.123Ka]v/ not in M]
[M5.123Kc]/ saṁspṛṣṭaṁ na-eva śuddhyeta punaḥpākena mṛt.mayam || 123 || [Note: [M5.123Kc]v/ not in M]
M5.124a[122Ma]/ sammārjana.upāñjanena sekena-ullekhanena ca |
M5.124c[122Mc]/ gavāṁ ca parivāsena bhūmiḥ śudhyati pañcabhiḥ || 124 || [Note: M5.124c[122Mc]v/ M: śuddhyati]
M5.125a[123Ma]/ pakṣi.jagdhaṁ gavā ghrātam avadhūtam avakṣutam |
M5.125c[123Mc]/ dūṣitaṁ keśa.kīṭaiś ca mṛt.prakṣepeṇa śudhyati || 125 ||
M5.126a[124Ma]/ yāvat-na-apaity a.medhyāktād gandho lepaś ca tat.kṛtaḥ |
M5.126c[124Mc]/ tāvan mṛd.vāri ca-ādeyaṁ sarvāsu dravyaśuddhiṣu || 126 ||
M5.127a[125Ma]/ trīṇi devāḥ pavitrāṇi brāhmaṇānām akalpayan |
M5.127c[125Mc]/ a.dṛṣṭam adbhir nirṇiktaṁ yac ca vācā praśasyate || 127 ||

5.5.1. 5.5.1. Statutory Purity of Things

[Page J 110 ] [Note: [ O edn 583-584 :: O tr. 145]
M5.128a[126Ma]/ āpaḥ śuddhā bhūmigatā vaitṛṣṇyaṁ yāsu gor bhavet |
M5.128c[126Mc]/ a.vyāptāś ced a.medhyena gandha.varṇa.rasa.anvitāḥ || 128 ||
M5.129a[127Ma]/ nityaṁ śuddhaḥ kāru.hastaḥ paṇye yac ca prasāritam | [Note: M5.129a[127Ma]v/ M: paṇyaṁ]
M5.129c[127Mc]/ brahmacārigataṁ bhaikṣyaṁ nityaṁ medhyam iti sthitiḥ || 129 ||
M5.130a[128Ma]/ nityam āsyaṁ śuci strīṇāṁ śakuniḥ phalapātane |
M5.130c[128Mc]/ prasrave ca śucir vatsaḥ śvā mṛgagrahaṇe śuciḥ || 130 ||
M5.131a[129Ma]/ śvabhir hatasya yan māṁsaṁ śuci tan manur abravīt |
M5.131c[129Mc]/ kravyādbhiś ca hatasya-anyaiś caṇḍālādyaiś ca dasyubhiḥ || 131 ||
M5.132a[130Ma]/ ūrdhvaṁ nābher yāni khāni tāni medhyāni sarvaśaḥ |
M5.132c[130Mc]/ yāny adhas tāny a.medhyāni dehāc ca-eva malāś cyutāḥ || 132 ||
M5.133a[131Ma]/ makṣikā vipruṣaś chāyā gaur aśvaḥ sūryaraśmayaḥ |
M5.133c[131Mc]/ rajo bhūr vāyur agniś ca sparśe medhyāni nirdiśet || 133 ||

5.6. 5.6. Purification of the Body

[Note: [ O edn 584-587 :: O tr. 145-146]
M5.134a[132Ma]/ viṣ.mūtra.utsarga.śuddhi.arthaṁ mṛt.vāry ādeyam arthavat |
M5.134c[132Mc]/ daihikānāṁ malānāṁ ca śuddhiṣu dvādaśasv api || 134 ||
M5.135a[133Ma]/ vasā śukram asṛj-majjā mūtra.viṣ-ghrāṇa.karṇa.viṣ-(sic |
M5.135c[133Mc]/ śleśma aśru dūṣikā svedo dvādaśa-ete nṛṇāṁ malāḥ || 135 ||
M5.136a[134Ma]/ ekā liṅge gude tisras tathā-ekatra kare daśa |
M5.136c[134Mc]/ ubhayoḥ sapta dātavyā mṛdaḥ śuddhim abhīpsatā || 136 ||
M5.137a[135Ma]/ etat-śaucaṁ gṛhasthānāṁ dviguṇaṁ brahmacāriṇām |
M5.137c[135Mc]/ triguṇaṁ syād vanasthānāṁ yatīnāṁ tu caturguṇam || 137 ||
[Page J 111 ]
M5.138a[136Ma]/ kṛtvā mūtraṁ purīṣaṁ vā khāny ācānta upaspṛśet |
M5.138c[136Mc]/ vedam adhyeṣyamāṇaś ca annam aśnaṁś ca sarvadā || 138 ||
M5.139a[137Ma]/ trir ācāmed apaḥ pūrvaṁ dviḥ pramṛjyāt tato mukham |
M5.139c[137Mc]/ śarīraṁ śaucam icchan hi strī śūdras tu sakṛt sakṛt || 139 ||
M5.140a[138Ma]/ śūdrāṇāṁ māsikaṁ kāryaṁ vapanaṁ nyāyavartinām |
M5.140c[138Mc]/ vaiśyavat-śaucakalpaś ca dvija.ucchiṣṭaṁ ca bhojanam || 140 ||
M5.141a[139Ma]/ na-ucchiṣṭaṁ kurvate mukhyā vipruṣo 'ṅgaṁ na yānti yāḥ |
M5.141c[139Mc]/ na śmaśrūṇi gatāny āsyaṁ na dantāntar.adhiṣṭhitam || 141 ||
M5.142a[140Ma]/ spṛśanti bindavaḥ pādau ya ācāmayataḥ parān |
M5.142c[140Mc]/ bhaumikais te samā jñeyā na tair āprayato bhavet || 142 || [Note: M5.142c[140Mc]v/ M: a.prayato]
M5.143a[141Ma]/ ucchiṣṭena tu saṁspṛṣṭo dravya.hastaḥ kathaṁ cana |
M5.143c[141Mc]/ a.nidhāya-eva tad dravyam ācāntaḥ śucitām iyāt || 143 ||
M5.144a[142Ma]/ vānto viriktaḥ snātvā tu ghṛtaprāśanam ācaret |
M5.144c[142Mc]/ ācāmed eva bhuktvā-annaṁ snānaṁ maithuninaḥ smṛtam || 144 ||
M5.145a[143Ma]/ suptvā kṣutvā ca bhuktvā ca niṣṭhīvya-uktvā-anṛtāni ca |
M5.145c[143Mc]/ pītvā-apo 'dhyeṣyamāṇaś ca ācāmet prayato 'pi san || 145 ||
M5.146a[144Ma]/ eṣāṁ śaucavidhiḥ kṛtsno dravyaśuddhis tathā-eva ca | [Note: M5.146a[144Ma]v/ M: eṣa]
M5.146c[144Mc]/ ukto vaḥ sarvavarṇānāṁ strīṇāṁ dharmān nibodhata || 146 ||

5.7. 5.7. Law with Respect to Women

[Note: [ O edn 588-592 :: O tr. 146-147]

5.7.1. 5.7.1. Lack of Independence

[Note: [ O edn 588 :: O tr. 146]
M5.147a[145Ma]/ bālayā vā yuvatyā vā vṛddhayā vā-api yoṣitā |
M5.147c[145Mc]/ na svātantryeṇa kartavyaṁ kiṁ cid kāryaṁ gṛheṣv api || 147 ||
[Page J 112 ]
M5.148a[146Ma]/ bālye pitur vaśe tiṣṭhet pāṇigrāhasya yauvane |
M5.148c[146Mc]/ putrāṇāṁ bhartari prete na bhajet strī svatantratām || 148 ||
M5.149a[147Ma]/ pitrā bhartrā sutair vā-api na-icched viraham ātmanaḥ |
M5.149c[147Mc]/ eṣāṁ hi viraheṇa strī garhye kuryād ubhe kule || 149 ||
M5.150a[148Ma]/ sadā prahṛṣṭayā bhāvyaṁ gṛhakārye ca dakṣayā |
M5.150c[148Mc]/ susaṁskṛta.upaskarayā vyaye ca-amukta.hastayā || 150 ||

5.7.2. 5.7.2. Duties towards Husband

[Note: [ O edn 588-592 :: O tr. 146-147]
M5.151a[149Ma]/ yasmai dadyāt pitā tv enāṁ bhrātā vā-anumate pituḥ |
M5.151c[149Mc]/ taṁ śuśrūṣeta jīvantaṁ saṁsthitaṁ ca na laṅghayet || 151 ||
M5.152a[150Ma]/ maṅgalārthaṁ svastyayanaṁ yajñaś ca-āsāṁ prajāpateḥ |
M5.152c[150Mc]/ prayujyate vivāhe tu pradānaṁ svāmya.kāraṇam || 152 ||
M5.153a[151Ma]/ an.ṛtāv ṛtukāle ca mantra.saṁskārakṛt patiḥ |
M5.153c[151Mc]/ sukhasya nityaṁ dātā-iha paraloke ca yoṣitaḥ || 153 ||
M5.154a[152Ma]/ vi.śīlaḥ kāma.vṛtto vā guṇair vā parivarjitaḥ |
M5.154c[152Mc]/ upacāryaḥ striyā sādhvyā satataṁ devavat patiḥ || 154 ||
M5.155a[153Ma]/ na-asti strīṇāṁ pṛthag yajño na vrataṁ na-apy upoṣaṇam | [Note: M5.155a[153Ma]v/ M: upoṣitam]
M5.155c[153Mc]/ patiṁ śuśrūṣate yena tena svarge mahīyate || 155 ||
M5.156a[154Ma]/ pāṇigrāhasya sādhvī strī jīvato vā mṛtasya vā |
M5.156c[154Mc]/ patilokam abhīpsantī na-ācaret kiṁ cid a.priyam || 156 ||
M5.157a[155Ma]/ kāmaṁ tu ksapayed dehaṁ puṣpa.mūla.phalaiḥ śubhaiḥ |
M5.157c[155Mc]/ na tu nāma-api gṛhṇīyāt patyau prete parasya tu || 157 ||
[Page J 113 ]
M5.158a[156Ma]/ āsīta-ā maraṇāt ksāntā niyatā brahmacāriṇī |
M5.158c[156Mc]/ yo dharma ekapatnīnāṁ kāṅkṣantī tam anuttamam || 158 ||
M5.159a[157Ma]/ anekāni sahasrāṇi kumāra.brahmacāriṇām |
M5.159c[157Mc]/ divaṁ gatāni viprāṇām a.kṛtvā kulasantatim || 159 ||
M5.160a[158Ma]/ mṛte bhartari sāḍhvī strī brahmacarye vyavasthitā |
M5.160c[158Mc]/ svargaṁ gacchaty a.putrā-api yathā te brahmacāriṇaḥ || 160 ||
M5.161a[159Ma]/ apatyalobhād yā tu strī bhartāram ativartate |
M5.161c[159Mc]/ sā-iha nindām avāpnoti paralokāc ca hīyate || 161 ||
M5.162a[160Ma]/ na-anya.utpannā prajā-asti-iha na ca-apy anyaparigrahe | [Note: M5.162a[160Ma]v/ M: na ca-anyasya parigrahe]
M5.162c[160Mc]/ na dvitīyaś ca sādhvīnāṁ kva cid bhartā-upadiśyate || 162 ||
M5.163a[161Ma]/ patiṁ hitvā-apakṛṣṭaṁ svam utkṛṣṭaṁ yā niṣevate | [Note: M5.163a[161Ma]v/ M: hitvā-avakṛṣṭaṁ]
M5.163c[161Mc]/ nindyā-eva sā bhavel loke para.pūrvā-iti ca-ucyate || 163 ||
M5.164a[162Ma]/ vyabhicārāt tu bhartuḥ strī loke prāpnoti nindyatām | [Note: M5.164a[162Ma]v/ M: vyabhicāre tu]
M5.164c[162Mc]/ śṛgāla.yoniṁ prāpnoti pāpa.rogaiś ca pīḍyate || 164 ||
M5.165a[163Ma]/ patiṁ yā na-abhicarati mano.vāg.dehasaṁyutā | [Note: M5.165a[163Ma]v/ M: .dehasaṁyatā]
M5.165c[163Mc]/ sā bhartṛlokam āpnoti sadbhiḥ sādhvī-iti ca-ucyate || 165 ||
M5.166a[164Ma]/ anena nārī vṛttena mano.vāg.dehasaṁyatā |
M5.166c[164Mc]/ iha-agryāṁ kīrtim āpnoti patilokaṁ paratra ca || 166 ||

5.7.3. 5.7.3. Funeral

[Note: [ O edn 592 :: O tr. 147]
M5.167a[165Ma]/ evaṁ vṛttāṁ sa.varṇāṁ strīṁ dvijātiḥ pūrvamāriṇīm |
M5.167c[165Mc]/ dāhayed agnihotreṇa yajñapātraiś ca dharmavit || 167 ||
[Page J 114 ]
M5.168a[166Ma]/ bhāryāyai pūrvamāriṇyai dattvā-agnīn antyakarmaṇi |
M5.168c[166Mc]/ punar dārakriyāṁ kuryāt punar ādhānam eva ca || 168 ||

5.8. 5.8. Concluding Statement on the Householder

[Note: [ O edn 592-593 :: O tr. 147]
M5.169a[167Ma]/ anena vidhinā nityaṁ pañcayajñān na hāpayet |
M5.169c[167Mc]/ dvitīyam āyuṣo bhāgaṁ kṛta.dāro gṛhe vaset || 169 ||

6. Chapter 6

[Page J 115 ] [Note: [ O edn 594-612 :: O tr. 148-153]

6.1. 6.1. Forest Hermit

[Note: [ O edn 594-600 :: O tr. 148-149]
M6.01a/ evaṁ gṛhāśrame sthitvā vidhivat snātako dvijaḥ |
M6.01c/ vane vaset tu niyato yathāvad vijita.indriyaḥ || 1 ||

6.1.1. 6.1.1. Time and Procedure

[Note: [ O edn 594 :: O tr. 148]
M6.02a/ gṛhasthas tu yathā paśyed valī.palitam ātmanaḥ |
M6.02c/ apatyasya-eva ca-apatyaṁ tadā-araṇyaṁ samāśrayet || 2 ||
M6.03a/ santyajya grāmyam āhāraṁ sarvaṁ ca-eva paricchadam |
M6.03c/ putreṣu bhāryāṁ nikṣipya vanaṁ gacchet saha-eva vā || 3 ||
M6.04a/ agnihotraṁ samādāya gṛhyaṁ ca-agniparicchadam |
M6.04c/ grāmād araṇyaṁ niḥsṛtya nivasen niyata.indriyaḥ || 4 || [Note: M6.04cv/ M: niṣkramya]

6.1.2. 6.1.2. Mode of Life

[Note: [ O edn 594-599 :: O tr. 148-149]
M6.05a/ muni.annair vividhair medhyaiḥ śāka.mūla.phalena vā |
M6.05c/ etān eva mahāyajñān nirvaped vidhipūrvakam || 5 ||
M6.06a/ vasīta carma cīraṁ vā sāyaṁ snāyāt prage tathā |
M6.06c/ jaṭāś ca bibhṛyān nityaṁ śmaśru.loma.nakhāni ca || 6 ||
6.1.2.1. 6.1.2.1. Great Sacrifices
[Page J 116 ] [Note: [ O edn 595-596 :: O tr. 148]
M6.07a/ yad.bhakṣyaṁ syād tato dadyād baliṁ bhikṣāṁ ca śaktitaḥ | [Note: M6.07av/ M: yadbhakṣaḥ]
M6.07c/ ap.mūla.phala.bhikṣābhir arcayed āśramāgatān || 7 || [Note: M6.07cv/ M: āśramāgatam]
M6.08a/ svādhyāye nityayuktaḥ syād dānto maitraḥ samāhitaḥ |
M6.08c/ dātā nityam an.ādātā sarvabhūtānukampakaḥ || 8 ||
M6.09a/ vaitānikaṁ ca juhuyād agnihotraṁ yathāvidhi |
M6.09c/ darśam a.skandayan parva paurṇamāsaṁ ca yogataḥ || 9 ||
M6.10a/ ṛkṣeṣṭy.āgrayaṇaṁ ca-eva cāturmāsyāni ca-āharet | [Note: M6.10av/ M: darśeṣṭy.āgrayaṇaṁ]
M6.10c/ turāyaṇaṁ ca kramaśo dakṣasyāyanam eva ca || 10 || [Note: M6.10cv/ KM: dākṣasyāyanam]
M6.11a/ vāsanta.śāradair medhyair muni.annaiḥ svayam āhṛtaiḥ |
M6.11c/ puroḍāśāṁś carūṁś ca-eva vidhivat-nirvapet pṛthak || 11 ||
6.1.2.2. 6.1.2.2. Food
[Note: [ O edn 596-598 :: O tr. 149-149]
M6.12a/ devatābhyas tu tadd hutvā vanyaṁ medhyataraṁ haviḥ |
M6.12c/ śeṣam ātmani yuñjīta lavaṇaṁ ca svayaṁ kṛtam || 12 ||
M6.13a/ sthalaja.audakaśākāni puṣpa.mūla.phalāni ca |
M6.13c/ medhyavṛkṣa.udbhavāny adyāt snehāṁś ca phala.sambhavān || 13 ||
M6.14a/ varjayen madhu māṁsaṁ ca bhaumāni kavakāni ca |
M6.14c/ bhūstṛṇaṁ śigrukaṁ ca-eva śleśmātaka.phalāni ca || 14 ||
M6.15a/ tyajed āśvayuje māsi muni.annaṁ pūrvasañcitam |
M6.15c/ jīrṇāni ca-eva vāsāṁsi śāka.mūla.phalāni ca || 15 ||
M6.16a/ na phālakṛṣṭam aśnīyād utsṛṣṭam api kena cit |
M6.16c/ na grāmajātāny ārto 'pi mūlāṇi ca phalāni ca || 16 || [Note: M6.16cv/ M: puṣpāni ca phalāni ca]
[Page J 117 ]
M6.17a/ agnipakva.aśano vā syāt kālapakvabhuj-eva vā |
M6.17c/ aśma.kuṭṭo bhaved vā-api danta.ulūkhaliko 'pi vā || 17 ||
M6.18a/ sadyaḥ prakṣālako vā syān māsa.sañcayiko 'pi vā |
M6.18c/ ṣaṇmāsa.nicayo vā syāt samā.nicaya eva vā || 18 ||
M6.19a/ naktaṁ ca-annaṁ samaśnīyād divā vā-āhṛtya śaktitaḥ |
M6.19c/ caturthakāliko vā syāt syād vā-apy aṣṭama.kālikaḥ || 19 ||
M6.20a/ cāndrāyaṇavidhānair vā śukla.kṛṣṇe ca vartayet |
M6.20c/ pakṣāntayor vā-apy aśnīyād yavāgūṁ kvathitāṁ sakṛt || 20 ||
M6.21a/ puṣpa.mūla.phalair vā-api kevalair vartayet sadā |
M6.21c/ kālapakvaiḥ svayaṁ śīrṇair vaikhānasamate sthitaḥ || 21 ||
6.1.2.3. 6.1.2.3. Austerities
[Note: [ O edn 598 :: O tr. 149]
M6.22a/ bhūmau viparivarteta tiṣṭhed vā prapadair dinam |
M6.22c/ sthāna.āsanābhyāṁ viharet savaneṣu-upayann apaḥ || 22 ||
M6.23a/ grīṣme pañca.tapās tu syād varṣāsv abhra.avakāśikaḥ |
M6.23c/ ārdra.vāsās tu hemante kramaśo vardhayaṁs tapaḥ || 23 ||
M6.24a/ upaspṛśaṁs triṣavaṇaṁ pitṝn devāṁś ca tarpayet |
M6.24c/ tapas-caraṁś ca-ugrataraṁ śoṣayed deham ātmanaḥ || 24 ||
6.1.2.4. 6.1.2.4. Homeless Ascetic
[Note: [ O edn 598-599 :: O tr. 149]
M6.25a/ agnīn ātmani vaitānān samāropya yathāvidhi |
M6.25c/ an.agnir a.niketaḥ syān munir mūla.phala.aśanaḥ || 25 ||
M6.26a/ aprayatnaḥ sukhārtheṣu brahmacārī dharā.āśayaḥ |
M6.26c/ śaraṇeṣv a.mamaś ca-eva vṛkṣamūla.niketanaḥ || 26 ||
[Page J 118 ]
M6.27a/ tāpaseṣv eva vipreṣu yātrikaṁ bhaikṣam āharet |
M6.27c/ gṛhamedhiṣu ca-anyeṣu dvijeṣu vanavāsiṣu || 27 ||
M6.28a/ grāmād āhṛtya vā-aśnīyād aṣṭau grāsān vane vasan |
M6.28c/ pratigṛhya puṭena-eva pāṇinā śakalena vā || 28 ||

6.1.3. 6.1.3. Conclusion

[Note: [ O edn 599-600 :: O tr. 149]
M6.29a/ etāś ca-anyāś ca seveta dīkṣā vipro vane vasan |
M6.29c/ vividhāś ca-aupaniṣadīr ātmasaṁsiddhaye śrutīḥ || 29 ||
M6.30a/ ṛṣibhir brāhmaṇaiś ca-eva gṛhasthair eva sevitāḥ |
M6.30c/ vidyā.tapo.vivṛddhyarthaṁ śarīrasya ca śuddhaye || 30 ||
M6.31a/ aparājitāṁ vā-āsthāya vrajed diśam ajihmagaḥ |
M6.31c/ ā nipātāt-śarīrasya yukto vāri.anila.aśanaḥ || 31 ||
M6.32a/ āsāṁ maharṣicaryāṇāṁ tyaktvā-anyatamayā tanum |
M6.32c/ vīta.śoka.bhayo vipro brahmaloke mahīyate || 32 ||

6.2. 6.2. Wandering Ascetic

[Note: [ O edn 600-610 :: O tr. 150-153]
M6.33a/ vaneṣu ca vihṛtya-evaṁ tṛtīyaṁ bhāgam āyuṣaḥ |
M6.33c/ caturtham āyuṣo bhāgaṁ tyakvā saṅgān parivrajet || 33 ||
M6.34a/ āśramād āśramaṁ gatvā huta.homo jita.indriyaḥ |
M6.34c/ bhikṣā.bali.pariśrāntaḥ pravrajan pretya vardhate || 34 ||

6.2.1. 6.2.1. Qualification

[Note: [ O edn 600-601 :: O tr. 150]
M6.35a/ ṛṇāni trīṇy apākṛtya mano mokṣe niveśayet |
M6.35c/ an.apākṛtya mokṣaṁ tu sevamāno vrajaty adhaḥ || 35 ||
M6.36a/ adhītya vidhivad vedān putrāṁś ca-utpādya dharmataḥ |
M6.36c/ iṣṭvā ca śaktito yajñair mano mokṣe niveśayet || 36 ||
[Page J 119 ]
M6.37a/ an.adhītya dvijo vedān an.utpādya tathā sutān | [Note: M6.37av/ M: tathā prajām]
M6.37c/ an.iṣṭvā ca-eva yajñaiś ca mokṣam icchan vrajaty adhaḥ || 37 ||

6.2.2. 6.2.2. Initiation

[Note: [ O edn 601 :: O tr. 150]
M6.38a/ prājāpatyaṁ nirupya-iṣṭiṁ sarvavedasa.dakṣiṇām | [Note: M6.38av/ M: sārvavedasadakṣiṇām]
M6.38c/ ātmany agnīn samāropya brāhmaṇaḥ pravrajed gṛhāt || 38 ||
M6.39a/ yo dattvā sarvabhūtebhyaḥ pravrajaty abhayaṁ gṛhāt |
M6.39c/ tasya tejomayā lokā bhavanti brahmavādinaḥ || 39 ||
M6.40a/ yasmād aṇu-api bhūtānāṁ dvijān na-utpadyate bhayam |
M6.40c/ tasya dehād vimuktasya bhayaṁ na-asti kutaś cana || 40 ||
M6.41a/ agārād abhiniṣkrāntaḥ pavitra.upacito muniḥ |
M6.41c/ samupoḍheṣu kāmeṣu nir.apekṣaḥ parivrajet || 41 ||

6.2.3. 6.2.3. Mode of Life

[Note: [ O edn 601-603 :: O tr. 150-151]
M6.42a/ eka eva caren nityaṁ siddhyartham asahāyavān |
M6.42c/ siddhim ekasya sampaśyan na jahāti na hīyate || 42 || [Note: M6.42cv/ M: siddham]
M6.43a/ an.agnir a.niketaḥ syād grāmam annārtham āśrayet |
M6.43c/ upekṣako '.saṅkusuko munir bhāvasamāhitaḥ || 43 || [Note: M6.43cv/ M: a.sāṅkusuko]
M6.44a/ kapālaṁ vṛkṣamūlāni kucelam asahāyatā | [Note: M6.44av/ M: kucailam]
M6.44c/ samatā ca-eva sarvasminn etat-muktasya lakṣaṇam || 44 ||
M6.45a/ na-abhinandeta maraṇaṁ na-abhinandeta jīvitam |
M6.45c/ kālam eva pratīkṣeta nirveśaṁ bhṛtako yathā || 45 ||
M6.46a/ dṛṣṭipūtaṁ nyaset pādaṁ vastrapūtaṁ jalaṁ pibet |
M6.46c/ satyapūtāṁ vaded vācaṁ manaḥpūtaṁ samācaret || 46 ||
[Page J 120 ]
M6.47a/ ativādāṁs titikṣeta na-avamanyeta kaṁ cana |
M6.47c/ na ca-imaṁ deham āśritya vairaṁ kurvīta kena cit || 47 ||
M6.48a/ kruddhyantaṁ na pratikrudhyed ākruṣṭaḥ kuśalaṁ vadet |
M6.48c/ saptadvārāvakīrṇāṁ ca na vācam anṛtāṁ vadet || 48 ||
M6.49a/ adhyātma.ratir āsīno nir.apekṣo nir.āmiṣaḥ |
M6.49c/ ātmanā-eva sahāyena sukhārthī vicared iha || 49 ||

6.2.4. 6.2.4. Begging and Food

[Note: [ O edn 603-606 :: O tr. 151]
M6.50a/ na ca-utpāta.nimittābhyāṁ na nakṣatra.aṅgavidyayā |
M6.50c/ na-anuśāsana.vādābhyāṁ bhikṣāṁ lipseta karhi cit || 50 ||
M6.51a/ na tāpasair brāhmaṇair vā vayobhir api vā śvabhiḥ |
M6.51c/ ākīrṇaṁ bhikṣukair vā-anyair agāram upasaṁvrajet || 51 ||
M6.52a/ kḷpta.keśa.nakha.śmaśruḥ pātrī daṇḍī kusumbhavān |
M6.52c/ vicaren niyato nityaṁ sarvabhūtāny a.pīḍayan || 52 ||
M6.53a/ ataijasāni pātrāṇi tasya syur nir.vraṇāni ca |
M6.53c/ teṣām adbhiḥ smṛtaṁ śaucaṁ camasānām iva-adhvare || 53 ||
M6.54a/ alābuṁ dārupātraṁ ca mṛṇmayaṁ vaidalaṁ tathā |
M6.54c/ etāṇi yatipātrāṇi manuḥ svāyambhuvo 'bravīt || 54 ||
M6.55a/ ekakālaṁ cared bhaikṣaṁ na prasajjeta vistare |
M6.55c/ bhaikṣe prasakto hi yatir viṣayeṣv api sajjati || 55 ||
M6.56a/ vi.dhūme sanna.musale vy.aṅgāre bhuktavaj.jane |
M6.56c/ vṛtte śarāvasampāte bhikṣāṁ nityaṁ yatiś caret || 56 ||
[Page J 121 ]
M6.57a/ alābhe na viṣadī syāt-lābhe ca-eva na harṣayet |
M6.57c/ prāṇayātrika.mātraḥ syāt-mātrāsaṅgād vinirgataḥ || 57 ||
M6.58a/ abhipūjitalābhāṁs tu jugupseta-eva sarvaśaḥ |
M6.58c/ abhipūjitalābhaiś ca yatir mukto 'pi badhyate || 58 ||
M6.59a/ alpānnābhyavahāreṇa rahaḥsthāna.āsanena ca |
M6.59c/ hriyamāṇāni viṣayair indriyāṇi nivartayet || 59 ||
M6.60a/ indriyāṇāṁ nirodhena rāga.dveśa.kṣayeṇa ca |
M6.60c/ ahiṁsayā ca bhūtānām amṛtatvāya kalpate || 60 ||

6.2.5. 6.2.5. Yogic Meditation

[Note: [ O edn 606-610 :: O tr. 151-153]
M6.61a/ avekṣeta gatīr nṝṇāṁ karmadoṣa.samudbhavāḥ |
M6.61c/ niraye ca-eva patanaṁ yātanāś ca yamakṣaye || 61 ||
M6.62a/ viprayogaṁ priyaiś ca-eva saṁyogaṁ ca tathā-apriyaiḥ |
M6.62c/ jarayā ca-abhibhavanaṁ vyādhibhiś ca-upapīḍanaṁ || 62 ||
M6.63a/ dehād utkramaṇaṁ ca-aṣmāt punar garbhe ca sambhavam |
M6.63c/ yonikoṭisahasreṣu sṛtīś ca-asya-antarātmanaḥ || 63 ||
M6.64a/ adharma.prabhavaṁ ca-eva duḥkhayogaṁ śarīriṇām |
M6.64c/ dharmārtha.prabhavaṁ ca-eva sukhasaṁyogam akṣayam || 64 ||
M6.65a/ sūkṣmatāṁ ca-anvavekṣeta yogena paramātmanaḥ |
M6.65c/ deheṣu ca samutpattim uttameṣv adhameṣu ca || 65 || [Note: M6.65cv/ M: deheṣu caivopapattim]
6.2.5.1. 6.2.5.1. Conduct
[Note: [ O edn 607 :: O tr. 151-152]
M6.66a/ dūṣito 'pi cared dharmaṁ yatra tatra-āśrame rataḥ | [Note: M6.66av/ M: bhūṣito 'pi]
M6.66c/ samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu na liṅgaṁ dharmakāraṇam || 66 ||
[Page J 122 ]
M6.67a/ phalaṁ katakavṛkṣasya yady apy ambuprasādakam |
M6.67c/ na nāmagrahaṇād eva tasya vāri prasīdati || 67 ||
M6.68a/ saṁrakṣaṇārthaṁ jantūnāṁ rātrāv ahani vā sadā |
M6.68c/ śarīrasya-atyaye ca-eva samīkṣya vasudhāṁ caret || 68 ||
M6.69a/ ahnā rātryā ca yāñ jantūn hinasty ajñānato yatiḥ |
M6.69c/ teṣāṁ snātvā viśuddhyarthaṁ prāṇāyāmān ṣaḍ ācaret || 69 ||
6.2.5.2. 6.2.5.2. Breath Control
[Note: [ O edn 607-608 :: O tr. 152]
M6.70a/ prāṇāyāmā brāhmaṇasya trayo 'pi vidhivat kṛtāḥ |
M6.70c/ vyāhṛti.praṇavair yuktā vijñeyaṁ paramaṁ tapaḥ || 70 ||
M6.71a/ dahyante dhmāyamānānāṁ dhātūnāṁ hi yathā malāḥ |
M6.71c/ tathā-indriyāṇāṁ dahyante doṣāḥ prāṇasya nigrahāt || 71 ||
6.2.5.3. 6.2.5.3. Meditation
[Note: [ O edn 608 :: O tr. 152]
M6.72a/ prāṇāyamair dahed doṣān dhāraṇābhiś ca kilbiṣam |
M6.72c/ pratyāhāreṇa saṁsargān dhyānena-an.īśvarān guṇān || 72 ||
M6.73a/ uccāvaceṣu bhūteṣu durjñeyām akṛta.ātmabhiḥ |
M6.73c/ dhyānayogena sampaśyed gatim asya-antarātmanaḥ || 73 ||
M6.74a/ samyagdarśanasampannaḥ karmabhir na nibadhyate |
M6.74c/ darśanena vihīnas tu saṁsāraṁ pratipadyate || 74 ||
M6.75a/ ahiṁsayā-indriya.a.saṅgair vaidikaiś ca-eva karmabhiḥ |
M6.75c/ tapasaś caraṇaiś ca-ugraiḥ sādhayanti-iha tatpadam || 75 ||
6.2.5.4. 6.2.5.4. Meditation on the Body
[Note: [ O edn 608-609 :: O tr. 152]
M6.76a/ asthi.sthūṇaṁ snāyuyutaṁ māṁsa.śoṇita.lepanam |
M6.76c/ carmāvanaddhaṁ dur.gandhi pūrṇaṁ mūtra.purīṣayoḥ || 76 ||
[Page J 123 ]
M6.77a/ jarā.śokasamāviṣṭaṁ rogāyatanam āturam |
M6.77c/ rajasvalam anityaṁ ca bhūtāvāsam imaṁ tyajet || 77 ||
M6.78a/ nadīkūlaṁ yathā vṛkṣo vṛkṣaṁ vā śakunir yathā |
M6.78c/ tathā tyajann imaṁ dehaṁ kṛcchrād grāhād vimucyate || 78 ||
6.2.5.5. 6.2.5.5. Final Goal
[Note: [ O edn 609-610 :: O tr. 152-153]
M6.79a/ priyeṣu sveṣu sukṛtam apriyeṣu ca duṣkṛtam |
M6.79c/ visṛjya dhyānayogena brahma-abhyeti sanātanam || 79 ||
M6.80a/ yadā bhāvena bhavati sarvabhāveṣu niḥspṛhaḥ |
M6.80c/ tadā sukham avāpnoti pretya ca-iha ca śāśvatam || 80 ||
M6.81a/ anena vidhinā sarvāṁs tyaktvā saṅgān-śanaiḥ śanaiḥ |
M6.81c/ sarvadvandvavinirmukto brahmaṇy eva-avatiṣṭhate || 81 ||
M6.82a/ dhyānikaṁ sarvam eva-etad yad etad abhiśabditam |
M6.82c/ na hy an.adhyātmavit kaś cit kriyāphalam upāśnute || 82 ||
M6.83a/ adhiyajñaṁ brahma japed ādhidaivikam eva ca |
M6.83c/ ādhyātmikaṁ ca satataṁ vedāntābhihitaṁ ca yat || 83 ||
M6.84a/ idaṁ śaraṇam ajñānām idam eva vijānatām |
M6.84c/ idam anvicchatāṁ svargam idam ānantyam icchatām || 84 ||
M6.85a/ anena kramayogena parivrajati yo dvijaḥ |
M6.85c/ sa vidhūya-iha pāpmānaṁ paraṁ brahma-adhigacchati || 85 ||
M6.86a/ eṣa dharmo 'nuśiṣṭo vo yatīnāṁ niyata.ātmanām |
M6.86c/ vedasannyāsikānāṁ tu karmayogaṁ nibodhata || 86 ||

6.3. 6.3. Vedic Retiree

[Page J 124 ] [Note: [ O edn 610-612 :: O tr. 153]

6.3.1. 6.3.1. Superiority of the Householder

[Note: [ O edn 610 :: O tr. 153]
M6.87a/ brahmacārī gṛhasthaś ca vānaprastho yatis tathā |
M6.87c/ ete gṛhastha.prabhavāś catvāraḥ pṛthag āśramāḥ || 87 ||
M6.88a/ sarve 'pi kramaśas tv ete yathāśāstraṁ niṣevitāḥ |
M6.88c/ yathā.ukta.kāriṇaṁ vipraṁ nayanti paramāṁ gatim || 88 ||
M6.89a/ sarveṣām api ca-eteṣāṁ veda.smṛtividhānataḥ | [Note: M6.89av/ M: veda.śrutividhānataḥ]
M6.89c/ gṛhastha ucyate śreṣṭhaḥ sa trīn etān bibharti hi || 89 ||
M6.90a/ yathā nadī.nadāḥ sarve sāgare yānti saṁsthitim |
M6.90c/ tathā-eva-āśramiṇaḥ sarve gṛhasthe yānti saṁsthitim || 90 ||

6.3.2. 6.3.2. The Ten-Point Law

[Note: [ O edn 611 :: O tr. 153]
M6.91a/ caturbhir api ca-eva-etair nityam āśramibhir dvijaiḥ |
M6.91c/ daśa.lakṣaṇako dharmaḥ sevitavyaḥ prayatnataḥ || 91 ||
M6.92a/ dhṛtiḥ kṣamā damo 'steyaṁ śaucam indriyanigrahaḥ |
M6.92c/ dhīr vidyā satyam akrodho daśakaṁ dharmalakṣaṇam || 92 ||
M6.93a/ daśa lakṣaṇāni dharmasya ye viprāḥ samadhīyate |
M6.93c/ adhītya ca-anuvartante te yānti paramāṁ gatim || 93 ||

6.3.3. 6.3.3. Retirement

[Note: [ O edn 611-612 :: O tr. 153]
M6.94a/ daśa.lakṣaṇakaṁ dharmam anutiṣṭhan samāhitaḥ |
M6.94c/ vedāntaṁ vidhivat-śrutvā sannyased an.ṛṇo dvijaḥ || 94 ||
M6.95a/ sannyasya sarvakarmāṇi karmadoṣān apānudan |
M6.95c/ niyato vedam abhyasya putraiśvarye sukhaṁ vaset || 95 ||
[Page J 125 ]
M6.96a/ evaṁ sannyasya karmāṇi svakārya.paramo '.spṛhaḥ |
M6.96c/ sannyāsena-apahatya-enaḥ prāpnoti paramaṁ gatim || 96 ||
M6.97a/ eṣa vo 'bhihito dharmo brāhmaṇasya catur.vidhaḥ |
M6.97c/ puṇyo 'kṣaya.phalaḥ pretya rājñāṁ dharmaṁ nibodhata || 97 ||

7. Chapter 7

[Page J 126 ] [Note: [ O edn 613-654 :: O tr. 154-166]

7.1. 7.1. The Law for the King

[Note: [ O edn 613-654 :: O tr. 154-166]
M7.01a/ rājadharmān pravakṣyāmi yathāvṛtto bhaven nṛpaḥ |
M7.01c/ sambhavaś ca yathā tasya siddhiś ca paramā yathā || 1 ||

7.1.1. 7.1.1. Origin of the King

[Note: [ O edn 613-618 :: O tr. 154-155]
M7.02a/ brāhmaṁ prāptena saṁskāraṁ kṣatriyeṇa yathāvidhi |
M7.02c/ sarvasya-asya yathānyāyaṁ kartavyaṁ parirakṣaṇam || 2 ||
M7.03a/ a.rājake hi loke 'smin sarvato vidruto bhayāt |
M7.03c/ rakṣārtham asya sarvasya rājānam asṛjat prabhuḥ || 3 ||
M7.04a/ indra.anila.yama.arkāṇām agneś ca varuṇasya ca |
M7.04c/ candra.vitteśayoś ca-eva mātrā nirhṛtya śāśvatīḥ || 4 ||
M7.05a/ yasmād eṣāṁ surendrāṇāṁ mātrābhyo nirmito nṛpaḥ |
M7.05c/ tasmād abhibhavaty eṣa sarvabhūtāni tejasā || 5 ||
M7.06a/ tapaty ādityavac ca-eṣa cakṣūṁṣi ca manāṁsi ca |
M7.06c/ na ca-enaṁ bhuvi śaknoti kaś cid apy abhivīkṣitum || 6 ||
[Page J 127 ]
M7.07a/ so 'gnir bhavati vāyuś ca so 'rkaḥ somaḥ sa dharmarāṭ |
M7.07c/ sa kuberaḥ sa varuṇaḥ sa mahendraḥ prabhāvataḥ || 7 || [Note: M7.07cv/ M: sa ca-indraḥ svaprabhāvataḥ]
M7.08a/ bālo 'pi na-avamāntavyo manuṣya iti bhūmipaḥ |
M7.08c/ mahatī devatā hy eṣā nararūpeṇa tiṣṭhati || 8 ||
M7.09a/ ekam eva dahaty agnir naraṁ durupasarpiṇam |
M7.09c/ kulaṁ dahati rājā-agniḥ sa.paśu.dravyasañcayam || 9 ||
M7.10a/ kāryaṁ so 'vekṣya śaktiṁ ca deśa.kālau ca tattvataḥ |
M7.10c/ kurute dharmasiddhyarthaṁ viśvarūpaṁ punaḥ punaḥ || 10 ||
M7.11a/ yasya prasāde padmā śrīr vijayaś ca parākrame |
M7.11c/ mṛtyuś ca vasati krodhe sarvatejomayo hi saḥ || 11 ||
M7.12a/ taṁ yas tu dveṣṭi sammohāt sa vinaśyaty asaṁśayam |
M7.12c/ tasya hy āśu vināśāya rājā prakurute manaḥ || 12 ||
M7.13a/ tasmād dharmaṁ yam iṣṭeṣu sa vyavasyen narādhipaḥ |
M7.13c/ aniṣṭaṁ ca-apy aniṣṭeṣu taṁ dharmaṁ na vicālayet || 13 ||
7.1.1.1. 7.1.1.1. Punishment
[Note: [ O edn 615-617 :: O tr. 154-155]
M7.14a/ tasyārthe sarvabhūtānāṁ goptāraṁ dharmam ātmajam | [Note: M7.14av/ M: tadarthaṁ]
M7.14c/ brahmatejomayaṁ daṇḍam asṛjat pūrvam īśvaraḥ || 14 ||
M7.15a/ tasya sarvāṇi bhūtāni sthāvarāṇi carāṇi ca |
M7.15c/ bhayād bhogāya kalpante svadharmāt-na calanti ca || 15 ||
M7.16a/ taṁ deśa.kālau śaktiṁ ca vidyāṁ ca-avekṣya tattvataḥ |
M7.16c/ yathārhataḥ sampraṇayen nareṣv anyāya.vartiṣu || 16 ||
[Page J 128 ]
M7.17a/ sa rājā puruṣo daṇḍaḥ sa netā śāsitā ca saḥ |
M7.17c/ caturṇām āśramāṇāṁ ca dharmasya pratibhūḥ smṛtaḥ || 17 ||
M7.18a/ daṇḍaḥ śāsti prajāḥ sarvā daṇḍa eva-abhirakṣati |
M7.18c/ daṇḍaḥ supteṣu jāgarti daṇḍaṁ dharmaṁ vidur budhāḥ || 18 ||
M7.19a/ samīkṣya sa dhṛtaḥ samyak sarvā rañjayati prajāḥ |
M7.19c/ a.samīkṣya praṇītas tu vināśayati sarvataḥ || 19 ||
M7.20a/ yadi na praṇayed rājā daṇḍaṁ daṇḍyeṣv atandritaḥ |
M7.20c/ śūle matsyān iva-apakṣyan durbalān balavattarāḥ || 20 ||
M7.21a/ adyāt kākaḥ puroḍāśaṁ śvā ca lihyādd havis tathā | [Note: M7.21av/ M: śvā-avalihyādd]
M7.21c/ svāmyaṁ ca na syāt kasmiṁś cit pravarteta-adhara.uttaram || 21 ||
M7.22a/ sarvo daṇḍajito loko durlabho hi śucir naraḥ |
M7.22c/ daṇḍasya hi bhayāt sarvaṁ jagad bhogāya kalpate || 22 ||
M7.23a/ deva.dānava.gandharvā rakṣāṁsi pataga.uragāḥ |
M7.23c/ te 'pi bhogāya kalpante daṇḍena-eva nipīḍitāḥ || 23 ||
M7.24a/ duṣyeyuḥ sarvavarṇāś ca bhidyeran sarvasetavaḥ |
M7.24c/ sarvalokaprakopaś ca bhaved daṇḍasya vibhramāt || 24 ||
M7.25a/ yatra śyāmo lohita.akṣo daṇḍaś carati pāpahā |
M7.25c/ prajās tatra na muhyanti netā cet sādhu paśyati || 25 ||
M7.26a/ tasya-āhuḥ sampraṇetāraṁ rājānaṁ satyavādinam |
M7.26c/ samīkṣyakāriṇaṁ prājñaṁ dharma.kāma.artha.kovidam || 26 ||
[Page J 129 ]
M7.27a/ taṁ rājā praṇayan samyak trivargeṇa-abhivardhate |
M7.27c/ kāma.ātmā viṣamaḥ kṣudro daṇḍena-eva nihanyate || 27 || [Note: M7.27cv/ M: kāma.andho]
M7.28a/ daṇḍo hi sumahat.tejo durdharaś ca-akṛta.ātmabhiḥ |
M7.28c/ dharmād vicalitaṁ hanti nṛpam eva sa.bāndhavam || 28 ||
M7.29a/ tato durgaṁ ca rāṣṭraṁ ca lokaṁ ca sa.cara.acaram |
M7.29c/ antarikṣagatāṁś ca-eva munīn devāṁś ca pīḍayet || 29 ||
M7.30a/ so 'sahāyena mūḍhena lubdhena-akṛta.buddhinā |
M7.30c/ na śakyo nyāyato netuṁ saktena viṣayeṣu ca || 30 ||
M7.31a/ śucinā satyasandhena yathāśāstra.anusāriṇā |
M7.31c/ praṇetuṁ śakyate daṇḍaḥ susahāyena dhīmatā || 31 ||
7.1.1.2. 7.1.1.2. Proper Behaviour
[Note: [ O edn 617-618 :: O tr. 155]
M7.32a/ svarāṣṭre nyāyavṛttaḥ syād bhṛśa.daṇḍaś ca śatruṣu |
M7.32c/ suhṛtsv ajihmaḥ snigdheṣu brāhmaṇeṣu kṣamānvitaḥ || 32 ||
M7.33a/ evaṁvṛttasya nṛpateḥ śilā.uñchena-api jīvataḥ |
M7.33c/ vistīryate yaśo loke tailabindur iva-ambhasi || 33 ||
M7.34a/ atas tu viparītasya nṛpater ajita.ātmanaḥ |
M7.34c/ saṅkṣipyate yaśo loke ghṛtabindur iva-ambhasi || 34 ||
M7.35a/ sve sve dharme niviṣṭānāṁ sarveṣām anupūrvaśaḥ |
M7.35c/ varṇānām āśramāṇāṁ ca rājā sṛṣṭo 'bhirakṣitā || 35 ||
M7.36a/ tena yad yat sa.bhṛtyena kartavyaṁ rakṣatā prajāḥ |
M7.36c/ tat tad vo 'haṁ pravakṣyāmi yathāvad anupūrvaśaḥ || 36 ||

7.1.2. 7.1.2. Cultivating Virtue and Learning

[Page J 130 ] [Note: [ O edn 618-621 :: O tr. 156]
M7.37a/ brāhmaṇān paryupāsīta prātar utthāya pārthivaḥ |
M7.37c/ traividyavṛddhān viduṣas tiṣṭhet teṣāṁ ca śāsane || 37 ||
M7.38a/ vṛddhāṁś ca nityaṁ seveta viprān vedavidaḥ śucīn |
M7.38c/ vṛddhasevī hi satataṁ rakṣobhir api pūjyate || 38 ||
M7.39a/ tebhyo 'dhigacched vinayaṁ vinīta.ātmā-api nityaśaḥ |
M7.39c/ vinīta.ātmā hi nṛpatir na vinaśyati karhi cit || 39 ||
M7.40a/ bahavo 'vinayāt-naṣṭā rājānaḥ sa.paricchadāḥ | [Note: M7.40av/ M: sa.parigrahāḥ]
M7.40c/ vanasthā api rājyāni vinayāt pratipedire || 40 ||
M7.41a/ veno vinaṣṭo 'vinayāt-nahuṣaś ca-eva pārthivaḥ |
M7.41c/ sudāḥ paijavanaś ca-eva sumukho nimir eva ca || 41 ||
M7.42a/ pṛthus tu vinayād rājyaṁ prāptavān manur eva ca |
M7.42c/ kuberaś ca dhanaiśvaryaṁ brāhmaṇyaṁ ca-eva gādhijaḥ || 42 ||
M7.43a/ traividyebhyas trayīṁ vidyāṁ daṇḍanītiṁ ca śāśvatīm | [Note: M7.43av/ M: trayīṁ vidyāt]
M7.43c/ ānvīkṣikīṁ ca-ātmavidyāṁ vārtārambhāṁś ca lokataḥ || 43 ||
M7.44a/ indriyāṇāṁ jaye yogaṁ samātiṣṭhed divā.niśam |
M7.44c/ jita.indriyo hi śaknoti vaśe sthāpayituṁ prajāḥ || 44 ||
M7.45a/ daśa kāma.samutthāni tathā-aṣṭau krodhajāni ca |
M7.45c/ vyasanāni dur.antāni prayatnena vivarjayet || 45 ||
M7.46a/ kāmajeṣu prasakto hi vyasaneṣu mahīpatiḥ |
M7.46c/ viyujyate 'rtha.dharmābhyāṁ krodhajeṣv ātmanā-eva tu || 46 ||
[Page J 131 ]
M7.47a/ mṛgayā-akṣo divāsvapnaḥ parivādaḥ striyo madaḥ |
M7.47c/ tauryatrikaṁ vṛthāṭyā ca kāmajo daśako gaṇaḥ || 47 ||
M7.48a/ paiśunyaṁ sāhasaṁ droha īrṣyā.asūyā.arthadūṣaṇam |
M7.48c/ vāgdaṇḍajaṁ ca pāruṣyaṁ krodhajo 'pi gaṇo 'ṣṭakaḥ || 48 ||
M7.49a/ dvayor apy etayor mūlaṁ yaṁ sarve kavayo viduḥ |
M7.49c/ taṁ yatnena jayet-lobhaṁ tajjāv etāv ubhau gaṇau || 49 ||
M7.50a/ pānam akṣāḥ striyaś ca-eva mṛgayā ca yathākramam |
M7.50c/ etat kaṣṭatamaṁ vidyāt-catuṣkaṁ kāmaje gaṇe || 50 ||
M7.51a/ daṇḍasya pātanaṁ ca-eva vākpāruṣya.arthadūṣaṇe |
M7.51c/ krodhaje 'pi gaṇe vidyāt kaṣṭam etat trikaṁ sadā || 51 ||
M7.52a/ saptakasya-asya vargasya sarvatra-eva-anuṣaṅgiṇaḥ |
M7.52c/ pūrvaṁ pūrvaṁ gurutaraṁ vidyād vyasanam ātmavān || 52 ||
M7.53a/ vyasanasya ca mṛtyoś ca vyasanaṁ kaṣṭam ucyate |
M7.53c/ vyasany adho 'dho vrajati svar yāty avyasanī mṛtaḥ || 53 ||

7.1.3. 7.1.3. Appointment of Counselors

[Note: [ O edn 621-622 :: O tr. 156-157]
M7.54a/ maulān-śāstravidaḥ śūrān-labdha.lakṣān kula.udbhavān | [Note: M7.54av/ M: kula.udgatān]
M7.54c/ sacivān sapta ca-aṣṭau vā prakurvīta parīkṣitān || 54 || [Note: M7.54cv/ M: kurvīta suparīkṣitān]
M7.55a/ api yat sukaraṁ karma tad apy ekena duṣkaram |
M7.55c/ viśeṣato 'sahāyena kiṁ tu rājyaṁ mahā.udayam || 55 || [Note: M7.55cv/ M: kiṁ nu]
M7.56a/ taiḥ sārdhaṁ cintayen nityaṁ sāmānyaṁ sandhi.vigraham |
M7.56c/ sthānaṁ samudayaṁ guptiṁ labdhapraśamanāni ca || 56 ||
[Page J 132 ]
M7.57a/ teṣāṁ svaṁ svam abhiprāyam upalabhya pṛthak pṛthak |
M7.57c/ samastānāṁ ca kāryeṣu vidadhyādd hitam ātmanaḥ || 57 ||
M7.58a/ sarveṣāṁ tu viśiṣṭena brāhmaṇena vipaścitā |
M7.58c/ mantrayet paramaṁ mantraṁ rājā ṣāḍguṇyasaṁyutam || 58 ||
M7.59a/ nityaṁ tasmin samāśvastaḥ sarvakāryāṇi niḥkṣipet | [Note: M7.59av/ M: nikṣipet]
M7.59c/ tena sārdhaṁ viniścitya tataḥ karma samārabhet || 59 ||

7.1.4. 7.1.4. Appointment of Officials

[Note: [ O edn 622 :: O tr. 157]
M7.60a/ anyān api prakurvīta śucīn prājñān avasthitān |
M7.60c/ samyag arthasamāhartṝn amātyān suparīkṣitān || 60 ||
M7.61a/ nirvarteta-asya yāvadbhir itikartavyatā nṛbhiḥ |
M7.61c/ tāvato 'tandritān dakṣān prakurvīta vicakṣaṇān || 61 ||
M7.62a/ teṣām arthe niyuñjīta śūrān dakṣān kula.udgatān |
M7.62c/ śucīn ākara.karmānte bhīrūn antarniveśane || 62 ||

7.1.5. 7.1.5. Appointment of an Envoy

[Note: [ O edn 623-624 :: O tr. 157]
M7.63a/ dūtaṁ ca-eva prakurvīta sarvaśāstra.viśāradam |
M7.63c/ iṅgita.ākāra.ceṣṭajñaṁ śuciṁ dakṣaṁ kula.udgatam || 63 ||
M7.64a/ anuraktaḥ śucir dakṣaḥ smṛtimān deśa.kālavit |
M7.64c/ vapuṣmān vītabhīr vāgmī dūto rājñaḥ praśasyate || 64 ||
M7.65a/ amātye daṇḍa āyatto daṇḍe vainayikī kriyā |
M7.65c/ nṛpatau kośa.rāṣṭre ca dūte sandhi.viparyayau || 65 ||
M7.66a/ dūta eva hi sandhatte bhinatty eva ca saṁhatān |
M7.66c/ dūtas tat kurute karma bhidyante yena mānavaḥ || 66 ||
[Page J 133 ]
M7.67a/ sa vidyād asya kṛtyeṣu nirgūḍha.iṅgita.ceṣṭitaiḥ |
M7.67c/ ākāram iṅgitaṁ ceṣṭāṁ bhṛtyeṣu ca cikīrṣitam || 67 ||
M7.68a/ buddhvā ca sarvaṁ tattvena pararājacikīrṣitam |
M7.68c/ tathā prayatnam ātiṣṭhed yathā-ātmānaṁ na pīḍayet || 68 ||

7.1.6. 7.1.6. Constructing the Royal Fort

[Note: [ O edn 624-625 :: O tr. 157-158]
M7.69a/ jāṅgalaṁ sasyasampannam ārya.prāyam an.āvilam |
M7.69c/ ramyam ānata.sāmantaṁ svājīvyaṁ deśam āvaset || 69 ||
M7.70a/ dhanva.durgaṁ mahī.durgam ab.durgaṁ vārkṣam eva vā |
M7.70c/ nṛdurgaṁ giridurgaṁ vā samāśritya vaset puram || 70 ||
M7.71a/ sarveṇa tu prayatnena giridurgaṁ samāśrayet |
M7.71c/ eṣāṁ hi bāhuguṇyena giridurgaṁ viśiṣyate || 71 ||
M7.72a/ triṇy ādyāny āśritās tv eṣāṁ mṛga.gartāśraya.apcarāḥ |
M7.72c/ trīṇy uttarāṇi kramaśaḥ plavaṅgama.nara.amarāḥ || 72 ||
M7.73a/ yathā durgāśritān etān na-upahiṁsanti śatravaḥ |
M7.73c/ tathā-arayo na hiṁsanti nṛpaṁ durgasamāśritam || 73 ||
M7.74a/ ekaḥ śataṁ yodhayati prākārastho dhanurdharaḥ |
M7.74c/ śataṁ daśasahasrāṇi tasmād durgaṁ vidhīyate || 74 ||
M7.75a/ tat syād āyudhasampannaṁ dhana.dhānyena vāhanaiḥ |
M7.75c/ brāhmaṇaiḥ śilpibhir yantrair yavasena-udakena ca || 75 ||
M7.76a/ tasya madhye suparyāptaṁ kārayed gṛham ātmanaḥ |
M7.76c/ guptaṁ sarva.ṛtukaṁ śubhraṁ jala.vṛkṣasamanvitam || 76 ||

7.1.7. 7.1.7. Marriage

[Page J 134 ] [Note: [ O edn 625 :: O tr. 158]
M7.77a/ tad adhyāsya-udvahed bhāryāṁ sa.varṇāṁ lakṣaṇānvitām |
M7.77c/ kule mahati sambhūtāṁ hṛdyāṁ rūpa.guṇānvītām || 77 ||

7.1.8. 7.1.8. Appointment of Chaplain and Priests

[Note: [ O edn 626 :: O tr. 158]
M7.78a/ purohitaṁ ca kurvīta vṛṇuyād eva ca-ṛtvijaḥ |
M7.78c/ te 'sya gṛhyāṇi karmāṇi kuryur vaitānikāni ca || 78 ||
M7.79a/ yajeta rājā kratubhir vividhair āpta.dakṣiṇaiḥ |
M7.79c/ dharmārthaṁ ca-eva viprebhyo dadyād bhogān dhanāni ca || 79 ||

7.1.9. 7.1.9. Collectors and Supervisors

[Note: [ O edn 626 :: O tr. 158]
M7.80a/ sāṁvatsarikam āptaiś ca rāṣṭrād āhārayed balim |
M7.80c/ syāc ca-āmnāya.paro loke varteta pitṛvat-nṛṣu || 80 ||
M7.81a/ adhyakṣān vividhān kuryāt tatra tatra vipaścitaḥ |
M7.81c/ te 'sya sarvāṇy avekṣeran nṛṇāṁ kāryāṇi kurvatām || 81 ||

7.1.10. 7.1.10. Devotion to Brahmins

[Note: [ O edn 626-627 :: O tr. 158]
M7.82a/ āvṛttānāṁ gurukulād viprāṇāṁ pūjako bhavet |
M7.82c/ nṛpāṇām akṣayo hy eṣa nidhir brāhmo 'bhidhīyate || 82 ||
M7.83a/ na taṁ stenā na ca-amitrā haranti na ca naśyati |
M7.83c/ tasmād rājñā nidhātavyo brāhmaṇeṣv akṣayo nidhiḥ || 83 ||
M7.84a/ na skandate na vyathate na vinaśyati karhi cit | [Note: M7.84av/ M: na skandati na cyavate]
M7.84c/ variṣṭham agnihotrebhyo brāhmaṇasya mukhe hutam || 84 ||
M7.85a/ samam abrāhmaṇe dānaṁ dviguṇaṁ brāhmaṇabruve |
M7.85c/ prādhīte śatasāhasram anantaṁ vedapārage || 85 || [Note: M7.85cv/ M: ācārye śatasāhasram J: sahasraguṇam ācārye]
[Page J 135 ]
M7.86a/ pātrasya hi viśeṣeṇa śraddadhānatayā-eva ca |
M7.86c/ alpaṁ vā bahu vā pretya dānasya phalam aśnute || 86 ||

7.1.11. 7.1.11. War and Warrior Ethic

[Note: [ O edn 627-629 :: O tr. 159]
[M7.87Ma]/ deśa.kālavidhānena dravyaṁ śraddhāsamanvitam | [Note: [M7.87Ma]v/ not in K]
[M7.87Mc]/ pātre pradīyate yat tu tad dharmasya prasādhanam || 87 || [Note: [M7.87Mc]v/ not in K]

(Although Medhatithi comments on the above verse, Jha's edition does not count it in his numbering of the text. Therefore, Jha ed.'s numbering is the same with K in the following.

M7.87a[88Ma]/ sama.uttama.adhamai rājā tv āhūtaḥ pālayan prajāḥ |
M7.87c[88Mc]/ na nivarteta saṅgrāmāt kṣātraṁ dharmam anusmaran || 87 ||
M7.88a[89Ma]/ saṅgrāmeṣv anivartitvaṁ prajānāṁ ca-eva pālanam |
M7.88c[89Mc]/ śuśrūṣā brāhmaṇānāṁ ca rājñāṁ śreyaskaraṁ param || 88 ||
M7.89a[90Ma]/ āhaveṣu mitho 'nyonyaṁ jighāṁsanto mahīkṣitaḥ |
M7.89c[90Mc]/ yudhyamānāḥ paraṁ śaktyā svargaṁ yānty a.parāṅmukhāḥ || 89 ||
M7.90a[91Ma]/ na kūṭair āyudhair hanyād yudhyamāno raṇe ripūn |
M7.90c[91Mc]/ na karṇibhir na-api digdhair na-agnijvalita.tejanaiḥ || 90 ||
M7.91a[92Ma]/ na ca hanyāt sthalārūḍhaṁ na klībaṁ na kṛta.añjalim |
M7.91c[92Mc]/ na mukta.keśaṁ na-āsīnaṁ na tava-asmi-iti vādinam || 91 ||
M7.92a[93Ma]/ na suptaṁ na vi.sannāhaṁ na nagnaṁ na nir.āyudham |
M7.92c[93Mc]/ na-ayudhyamānaṁ paśyantaṁ na pareṇa samāgatam || 92 ||
M7.93a[94Ma]/ na-āyudhavyasanaprāptaṁ na-ārtaṁ na-atiparikṣataṁ |
M7.93c[94Mc]/ na bhītaṁ na parāvṛttaṁ satāṁ dharmam anusmaran || 93 ||
M7.94a[95Ma]/ yas tu bhītaḥ parāvṛttaḥ saṅgrāme hanyate paraiḥ |
M7.94c[95Mc]/ bhartur yad duṣkṛtaṁ kiṁ cit tat sarvaṁ pratipadyate || 94 ||
M7.95a[96Ma]/ yat-ca-asya sukṛtaṁ kiṁ cid amutrārtham upārjitam |
M7.95c[96Mc]/ bhartā tat sarvam ādatte parāvṛttahatasya tu || 95 ||
7.1.11.1. 7.1.11.1. War Booty
[Page J 136 ] [Note: [ O edn 629 :: O tr. 159]
M7.96a[97Ma]/ ratha.aśvaṁ hastinaṁ chatraṁ dhanaṁ dhānyaṁ paśūn striyaḥ |
M7.96c[97Mc]/ sarvadravyāṇi kupyaṁ ca yo yaj jayati tasya tat || 96 ||
M7.97a[98Ma]/ rājñaś ca dadyur uddhāram ity eṣā vaidikī śrutiḥ |
M7.97c[98Mc]/ rājñā ca sarvayodhebhyo dātavyam apṛthagjitam || 97 ||
M7.98a[99Ma]/ eṣo 'nupaskṛtaḥ prokto yodhadharmaḥ sanātanaḥ |
M7.98c[99Mc]/ asmād dharmān na cyaveta kṣatriyo ghnan raṇe ripūn || 98 ||

7.1.12. 7.1.12. Policies for Good Government

[Note: [ O edn 630-632 :: O tr. 159-160]
M7.99a[100Ma]/ alabdhaṁ ca-eva lipseta labdhaṁ rakṣet prayatnataḥ |
M7.99c[100Mc]/ rakṣitaṁ vardhayec ca-eva vṛddhaṁ pātreṣu nikṣipet || 99 ||
M7.100a[101Ma]/ etac caturvidhaṁ vidyāt puruṣārthaprayojanam |
M7.100c[101Mc]/ asya nityam anuṣṭhānaṁ samyak kuryād atandritaḥ || 100 ||
M7.101a[102Ma]/ alabdham icched daṇḍena labdhaṁ rakṣed avekṣayā |
M7.101c[102Mc]/ rakṣitaṁ vardhayed vṛddhyā vṛddhaṁ pātreṣu nikṣipet || 101 ||
M7.102a[103Ma]/ nityam udyata.daṇḍaḥ syān nityaṁ vivṛta.pauruṣaḥ |
M7.102c[103Mc]/ nityaṁ saṁvṛta.saṁvāryo nityaṁ chidrānusāry areḥ || 102 ||
M7.103a[104Ma]/ nityam udyata.daṇḍasya kṛtsnam udvijate jagat |
M7.103c[104Mc]/ tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni daṇḍena-eva prasādhayet || 103 ||
M7.104a[105Ma]/ a.māyayā-eva varteta na kathaṁ cana māyayā |
M7.104c[105Mc]/ budhyeta-ariprayuktāṁ ca māyāṁ nityaṁ susaṁvṛtaḥ || 104 ||
M7.105a[106Ma]/ na-asya chidraṁ paro vidyād vidyāt-chidraṁ parasya ca |
M7.105c[106Mc]/ gūhet kūrma iva-aṅgāni rakṣed vivaram ātmanaḥ || 105 ||
[Page J 137 ]
M7.106a[107Ma]/ bakavat-cintayed arthān siṁhavat-ca parākrame |
M7.106c[107Mc]/ vṛkavat-ca-avalumpeta śaśavat-ca viniṣpatet || 106 ||
M7.107a[108Ma]/ evam vijayamānasya ye 'sya syuḥ paripanthinaḥ |
M7.107c[108Mc]/ tān ānayed vaśaṁ sarvān sāmādibhir upakramaiḥ || 107 ||
M7.108a[109Ma]/ yadi te tu na tiṣṭheyur upāyaiḥ prathamais tribhiḥ |
M7.108c[109Mc]/ daṇḍena-eva prasahya-etān-śanakair vaśam ānayet || 108 ||
M7.109a[110Ma]/ sāma.adīnām upāyānāṁ caturṇām api paṇḍitāḥ |
M7.109c[110Mc]/ sāma.daṇḍau praśaṁsanti nityaṁ rāṣṭrābhivṛddhaye || 109 ||
M7.110[111Ma]/ yathā-uddharati nirdātā kakṣaṁ dhānyaṁ ca rakṣati |
M7.110c[111Mc]/ tathā rakṣen nṛpo rāṣṭraṁ hanyāc ca paripanthinaḥ || 110 ||
M7.111a[112Ma]/ mohād rājā svarāṣṭraṁ yaḥ karṣayaty anavekṣayā |
M7.111c[112Mc]/ so 'cirād bhraśyate rājyāt-jīvitāt-ca sa.bāndhavaḥ || 111 ||
M7.112a[113Ma]/ śarīrakarṣaṇāt prāṇāḥ kṣīyante prāṇināṁ yathā |
M7.112c[113Mc]/ tathā rājñām api prāṇāḥ kṣīyante rāṣṭrakarṣaṇāt || 112 ||
M7.113a[114Ma]/ rāṣṭrasya saṅgrahe nityaṁ vidhānam idam ācaret |
M7.113c[114Mc]/ susaṅgṛhītarāṣṭre hi pārthivaḥ sukham edhate || 113 ||

7.1.13. 7.1.13. Organization of the State

[Note: [ O edn 632-634 :: O tr. 160-161]
7.1.13.1. 7.1.13.1. Governance of Villages and Towns
[Note: [ O edn 632-633 :: O tr. 160]
M7.114a[115Ma]/ dvayos trayāṇāṁ pañcānāṁ madhye gulmam adhiṣṭhitam |
M7.114c[115Mc]/ tathā grāmaśatānāṁ ca kuryād rāṣṭrasya saṅgraham || 114 ||
M7.115a[116Ma]/ grāmasya-adhipatiṁ kuryād daśagrāmapatiṁ tathā |
M7.115c[116Mc]/ viṁśatīśaṁ śata.īśaṁ ca sahasrapatim eva ca || 115 ||
[Page J 138 ]
M7.116a[117Ma]/ grāmadoṣān samutpannān grāmikaḥ śanakaiḥ svayam |
M7.116c[117Mc]/ śaṁsed grāmadaśa.īśāya daśa.īśo viṁśatīśine || 116 ||
M7.117a[118Ma]/ viṁśatīśas tu tat sarvaṁ śata.īśāya nivedayet |
M7.117c[118Mc]/ śaṁsed grāmaśata.īśas tu sahasrapataye svayam || 117 ||
M7.118a[119Ma]/ yāni rājapradeyāni pratyahaṁ grāmavāsibhiḥ |
M7.118c[119Mc]/ anna.pāna.indhanādīni grāmikas tāny avāpnuyāt || 118 ||
M7.119a[120Ma]/ daśī kulaṁ tu bhuñjīta viṁśī pañca kulāni ca |
M7.119c[120Mc]/ grāmaṁ grāmaśatādhyakṣaḥ sahasrādhipatiḥ puram || 119 ||
7.1.13.2. 7.1.13.2. Supervision of Officials
[Note: [ O edn 633-634 :: O tr. 160-161]
M7.120a[121Ma]/ teṣāṁ grāmyāṇi kāryāni pṛthakkāryāṇi ca-eva hi |
M7.120c[121Mc]/ rājño 'nyaḥ sacivaḥ snigdhas tāni paśyed atandritaḥ || 120 ||
M7.121a[122Ma]/ nagare nagare ca-ekaṁ kuryāt sarvārthacintakam |
M7.121c[122Mc]/ uccaiḥsthānaṁ ghorarūpaṁ nakṣatrāṇām iva graham || 121 ||
M7.122a[123Ma]/ sa tān anuparikrāmet sarvān eva sadā svayam |
M7.122c[123Mc]/ teṣāṁ vṛttaṁ pariṇayet samyag rāṣṭreṣu tat.caraiḥ || 122 ||
M7.123a[124Ma]/ rājño hi rakṣādhikṛtāḥ parasvādāyinaḥ śaṭhāḥ |
M7.123c[124Mc]/ bhṛtyā bhavanti prāyeṇa tebhyo rakṣed imāḥ prajāḥ || 123 ||
M7.124a[125Ma]/ ye kāryikebhyo 'rtham eva gṛhṇīyuḥ pāpacetasaḥ |
M7.124c[125Mc]/ teṣāṁ sarvasvam ādāya rājā kuryāt pravāsanam || 124 ||
7.1.13.3. 7.1.13.3. Wages
[Note: [ O edn 634 :: O tr. 161]
M7.125a[126Ma]/ rājā karmasu yuktānāṁ strīṇāṁ preṣyajanasya ca | [Note: M7.125a[126Ma]v/ M: rājakarmasu]
M7.125c[126Mc]/ pratyahaṁ kalpayed vṛttiṁ sthānaṁ karmānurūpataḥ || 125 || [Note: M7.125c[126Mc]v/ M: sthāna.karmānurūpataḥ]
[Page J 139 ]
M7.126a[127Ma]/ paṇo deyo 'vakṛṣṭasya ṣaḍ utkṛṣṭasya vetanam |
M7.126c[127Mc]/ ṣāṇmāsikas tathā-ācchādo dhānyadroṇas tu māsikaḥ || 126 ||

7.1.14. 7.1.14. Taxes and Duties

[Note: [ O edn 634-637 :: O tr. 161]
M7.127a[128Ma]/ kraya.vikrayam adhvānaṁ bhaktaṁ ca sa.parivyayam |
M7.127c[128Mc]/ yogakṣemaṁ ca samprekṣya vaṇijo dāpayet karān || 127 ||
M7.128a[129Ma]/ yathā phalena yujyeta rājā kartā ca karmaṇām |
M7.128c[129Mc]/ tathā-avekṣya nṛpo rāṣṭre kalpayet satataṁ karān || 128 ||
M7.129a[130Ma]/ yathā-alpālpam adanty ādyaṁ vāryoko.vatsa.ṣaṭpadāḥ |
M7.129c[130Mc]/ tathā-alpālpo grahītavyo rāṣṭrād rājñābdikaḥ karaḥ || 129 ||
M7.130a[131Ma]/ pañcāśadbhāga ādeyo rājñā paśu.hiraṇyayoḥ |
M7.130c[131Mc]/ dhānyānām aṣṭamo bhāgaḥ ṣaṣṭho dvādaśa eva vā || 130 ||
M7.131a[132Ma]/ ādadīta-atha ṣaḍbhāgaṁ dru.māṁsa.madhu.sarpiṣām |
M7.131c[132Mc]/ gandha.oṣadhi.rasānāṁ ca puṣpa.mūla.phalasya ca || 131 ||
M7.132a[133Ma]/ patra.śāka.tṛṇānāṁ ca carmaṇāṁ vaidalasya ca |
M7.132c[133Mc]/ mṛnmayānāṁ ca bhāṇḍānāṁ sarvasya-aśmamayasya ca || 132 ||
M7.133a[134Ma]/ mriyamāṇo 'py ādadīta na rājā śrotriyāt karam |
M7.133c[134Mc]/ na ca kṣudhā-asya saṁsīdet-śrotriyo viṣaye vasan || 133 ||
M7.134a[135Ma]/ yasya rājñas tu viṣaye śrotriyaḥ sīdati kṣudhā |
M7.134c[135Mc]/ tasya-api tat kṣudhā rāṣṭram acirena-eva sīdati || 134 ||
M7.135a[136Ma]/ śruta.vṛtte viditvā-asya vṛttiṁ dharmyāṁ prakalpayet |
M7.135c[136Mc]/ saṁrakṣet sarvataś ca-enaṁ pitā putram iva-aurasam || 135 ||
[Page J 140 ]
M7.136a[137Ma]/ saṁrakṣyamāṇo rājñā yaṁ kurute dharmam anvaham | [Note: M7.136a[137Ma]v/ M: rājñā-ayaṁ]
M7.136c[137Mc]/ tena-āyur vardhate rājño draviṇaṁ rāṣṭram eva ca || 136 ||
M7.137a[138Ma]/ yat kiṁ cid api varṣasya dāpayet karasañjñitam |
M7.137c[138Mc]/ vyavahāreṇa jīvantaṁ rājā rāṣṭre pṛthagjanam || 137 ||
M7.138a[139Ma]/ kārukān-śilpinaś ca-eva śūdrāṁs cātma.upajīvinaḥ |
M7.138c[139Mc]/ ekaikaṁ kārayet karma māsi māsi mahīpatiḥ || 138 ||
M7.139a[140Ma]/ na-ucchindyād ātmano mūlaṁ pareṣāṁ ca-atitṛṣṇayā |
M7.139c[140Mc]/ ucchindan hy ātmano mūlam āṭmānaṁ tāṁś ca pīdayet || 139 ||

7.1.15. 7.1.15. Adjudicating Lawsuits

[Note: [ O edn 637 :: O tr. 161]
M7.140a[141Ma]/ tīkṣṇaś ca-eva mṛduś ca syāt kāryaṁ vīkṣya mahīpatiḥ |
M7.140c[141Mc]/ tīkṣṇaś ca-eva mṛduś ca-eva rāja bhavati sammataḥ || 140 ||
M7.141a[142Ma]/ amātyamukhyaṁ dharmajñaṁ prājñaṁ dāntaṁ kula.udgatam |
M7.141c[142Mc]/ sthāpayed āsane tasmin khinnaḥ kārya.īkṣaṇe nṛṇām || 141 ||

7.1.16. 7.1.16. Protection of the Subjects

[Note: [ O edn 637-638 :: O tr. 161-162]
M7.142a[143Ma]/ evaṁ sarvaṁ vidhāya-idam itikartavyam ātmanaḥ |
M7.142c[143Mc]/ yuktaś ca-eva-apramattaś ca parirakṣed imāḥ prajāḥ || 142 ||
M7.143a[144Ma]/ vikrośantyo yasya rāṣṭrād hriyante dasyubhiḥ prajāḥ |
M7.143c[144Mc]/ sampaśyataḥ sa.bhṛtyasya mṛtaḥ sa na tu jīvati || 143 ||
M7.144a[145Ma]/ kṣatriyasya paro dharmaḥ prājānām eva pālanam |
M7.144c[145Mc]/ nirdiṣṭaphalabhoktā hi rājā dharmeṇa yujyate || 144 ||

7.1.17. 7.1.17. Morning Routine

[Note: [ O edn 638-652 :: O tr. 162-165]
M7.145a[146Ma]/ utthāya paścime yāme kṛta.śaucaḥ samāhitaḥ |
M7.145c[146Mc]/ hutāgnir brāhmaṇāṁś cārcya praviśet sa śubhāṁ sabhām || 145 ||
[Page J 141 ]
M7.146a[147Ma]/ tatra sthitaḥ prajāḥ sarvāḥ pratinandya visarjayet |
M7.146c[147Mc]/ visṛjya ca prajāḥ sarvā mantrayet saha mantribhiḥ || 146 ||
7.1.17.1. 7.1.17.1. Meeting with Counselors
[Note: [ O edn 638-640 :: O tr. 162]
M7.147a[148Ma]/ giripṛṣṭhaṁ samāruhya prasādaṁ vā rahogataḥ |
M7.147c[148Mc]/ araṇye niḥ.śalāke vā mantrayed a.vibhāvitaḥ || 147 ||
M7.148a[149Ma]/ yasya mantraṁ na jānanti samāgamya pṛthagjanāḥ |
M7.148c[149Mc]/ sa kṛtsnāṁ pṛthivīṁ bhuṅkte kośahīno 'pi pārthivaḥ || 148 ||
M7.149a[150Ma]/ jaḍa.mūka.andha.badhirāṁs tairyagyonān vayo.'tigān |
M7.149c[150Mc]/ strī.mleccha.vyādhita.vyaṅgān mantrakāle 'pasārayet || 149 ||
M7.150a[151Ma]/ bhindanty avamatā mantraṁ tairyagyonās tathā-eva ca |
M7.150c[151Mc]/ striyaś ca-eva viśeṣeṇa tasmāt tatrādṛto bhavet || 150 ||
M7.151a[152Ma]/ madhyandine 'rdharātre vā viśrānto vigataklamaḥ |
M7.151c[152Mc]/ cintayed dharma.kāma.arthān sārdhaṁ tair eka eva vā || 151 || [Note: M7.151c[152Mc]v/ M: sārthaṁ]
M7.152a[153Ma]/ parasparaviruddhānāṁ teṣāṁ ca samupārjanam |
M7.152c[153Mc]/ kanyānāṁ sampradānaṁ ca kumārāṇāṁ ca rakṣaṇaṁ || 152 ||
M7.153a[154Ma]/ dūtasampreṣaṇaṁ ca-eva kāryaśeṣaṁ tathā-eva ca |
M7.153c[154Mc]/ antaḥpurapracāraṁ ca praṇidhīnāṁ ca ceṣṭitam || 153 ||
M7.154a[155Ma]/ kṛtsnaṁ ca-aṣṭavidhaṁ karma pañcavargaṁ ca tattvataḥ |
M7.154c[155Mc]/ anurāga.aparāgau ca pracāraṁ maṇḍalasya ca || 154 ||
M7.155a[156Ma]/ madhyamasya pracāraṁ ca vijīgiṣoś ca ceṣṭitam |
M7.155c[156Mc]/ udāsīnapracāraṁ ca śatroś ca-eva prayatnataḥ || 155 ||
7.1.17.2. 7.1.17.2. Constituents of the Circle
[Page J 142 ] [Note: [ O edn 640-641 :: O tr. 162]
M7.156a[157Ma]/ etāḥ prakṛtayo mūlaṁ maṇḍalasya samāsataḥ |
M7.156c[157Mc]/ aṣṭau ca-anyāḥ samākhyātā dvādaśa-eva tu tāḥ smṛtāḥ || 156 ||
M7.157a[158Ma]/ amātya.rāṣṭra.durga.artha.daṇḍākhyāḥ pañca ca-aparāḥ |
M7.157c[158Mc]/ pratyekaṁ kathitā hy etāḥ saṅkṣepeṇa dvisaptatiḥ || 157 ||
M7.158a[159Ma]/ anantaram ariṁ vidyād arisevinam eva ca |
M7.158c[159Mc]/ arer anantaraṁ mitram udāsīnaṁ tayoḥ param || 158 ||
M7.159a[160Ma]/ tān sarvān abhisandadhyāt sāmādibhir upakramaiḥ |
M7.159c[160Mc]/ vyastaiś ca-eva samastaiś ca pauruṣeṇa nayena ca || 159 ||
7.1.17.3. 7.1.17.3. Political Strategy-I
[Note: [ O edn 641-645 :: O tr. 162-163]
M7.160a[161Ma]/ sandhiṁ ca vigrahaṁ ca-eva yānam āsanam eva ca |
M7.160c[161Mc]/ dvaidhībhāvaṁ saṁśrayaṁ ca ṣaḍguṇāṁś cintayet sadā || 160 ||
M7.161a[162Ma]/ āsanaṁ ca-eva yānaṁ ca sandhiṁ vigraham eva ca |
M7.161c[162Mc]/ kāryaṁ vīkṣya prayuñjīta dvaidhaṁ saṁśrayam eva ca || 161 ||
M7.162a[163Ma]/ sandhiṁ tu dvividhaṁ vidyād rājā vigraham eva ca |
M7.162c[163Mc]/ ubhe yāna.āsane ca-eva dvividhaḥ saṁśrayaḥ smṛtaḥ || 162 ||
M7.163a[164Ma]/ samāna.yānakarmā ca viparītas tathā-eva ca |
M7.163c[164Mc]/ tadā tv āyatisaṁyuktaḥ sandhir jñeyo dvilakṣaṇaḥ || 163 ||
M7.164a[165Ma]/ svayaṅkṛtaś ca kāryārtham akāle kāla eva vā |
M7.164c[165Mc]/ mitrasya ca-eva-apakṛte dvividho vigrahaḥ smṛtaḥ || 164 ||
M7.165a[166Ma]/ ekākinaś ca-ātyayike kārye prāpte yadṛcchayā |
M7.165c[166Mc]/ saṁhatasya ca mitreṇa dvividhaṁ yānam ucyate || 165 ||
[Page J 143 ]
M7.166a[167Ma]/ kṣīṇasya ca-eva kramaśo daivāt pūrvakṛtena vā |
M7.166c[167Mc]/ mitrasya ca-anurodhena dvividhaṁ smṛtam āsanam || 166 ||
M7.167a[168Ma]/ balasya svāminaś ca-eva sthitiḥ kāryārthasiddhaye |
M7.167c[168Mc]/ dvividhaṁ kīrtyate dvaidhaṁ ṣāḍguṇyaguṇavedibhiḥ || 167 ||
M7.168a[169Ma]/ arthasampādanārthaṁ ca pīḍyamānasya śatrubhiḥ |
M7.168c[169Mc]/ sādhuṣu vyapadeśaś ca dvividhaḥ saṁśrayaḥ smṛtaḥ || 168 ||
M7.169a[170Ma]/ yadā-avagacched āyatyām ādhikyaṁ dhruvam ātmanaḥ |
M7.169c[170Mc]/ tadātve ca-alpikāṁ pīḍāṁ tadā sandhiṁ samāśrayet || 169 ||
M7.170a[171Ma]/ yadā prahṛṣṭā manyeta sarvās tu prakṛtīr bhṛśam |
M7.170c[171Mc]/ atyucchritaṁ tathātmānaṁ tadā kurvīta vigraham || 170 ||
M7.171a[172Ma]/ yadā manyeta bhāvena hṛṣṭaṁ puṣṭaṁ balaṁ svakam |
M7.171c[172Mc]/ parasya viparītaṁ ca tadā yāyād ripuṁ prati || 171 ||
M7.172a[173Ma]/ yadā tu syāt parikṣīṇo vāhanena balena ca |
M7.172c[173Mc]/ tadāsīta prayatnena śanakaiḥ sāntvayann arīn || 172 ||
M7.173a[174Ma]/ manyeta-ariṁ yadā rājā sarvathā balavattaram |
M7.173c[174Mc]/ tadā dvidhā balaṁ kṛtvā sādhayet kāryam ātmanaḥ || 173 ||
M7.174a[175Ma]/ yadā parabalānāṁ tu gamanīyatamo bhavet |
M7.174c[175Mc]/ tadā tu saṁśrayet kṣipraṁ dhārmikaṁ balinaṁ nṛpam || 174 ||
M7.175a[176Ma]/ nigrahaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ ca kuryād yo 'ribalasya ca |
M7.175c[176Mc]/ upaseveta taṁ nityaṁ sarvayatnair guruṁ yathā || 175 ||
[Page J 144 ]
M7.176a[177Ma]/ yadi tatra-api sampaśyed doṣaṁ saṁśrayakāritam |
M7.176c[177Mc]/ suyuddham eva tatra-api nirviśaṅkaḥ samācaret || 176 ||
M7.177a[178Ma]/ sarva.upāyais tathā kuryān nītijñaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ |
M7.177c[178Mc]/ yathā-asya-abhyadhikā na syur mitra.udāsīna.śatravaḥ || 177 ||
M7.178a[179Ma]/ āyatiṁ sarvakāryāṇāṁ tadātvaṁ ca vicārayet |
M7.178c[179Mc]/ atītānāṁ ca sarveṣāṁ guṇa.doṣau ca tattvataḥ || 178 ||
M7.179a[180Ma]/ āyatyāṁ guṇa.doṣajñas tadātve kṣipra.niścayaḥ |
M7.179c[180Mc]/ atīte kāryaśeṣajñaḥ śatrubhir na-abhibhūyate || 179 ||
M7.180a[181Ma]/ yathā-enaṁ na-abhisandadhyur mitra.udāsīna.śatravaḥ |
M7.180c[181Mc]/ tathā sarvaṁ saṁvidadhyād eṣa sāmāsiko nayaḥ || 180 ||
7.1.17.4. 7.1.17.4. War
[Note: [ O edn 645-649 :: O tr. 164]
M7.181a[182Ma]/ tadā tu yānam ātiṣṭhed arirāṣṭraṁ prati prabhuḥ |
M7.181c[182Mc]/ tadānena vidhānena yāyād aripuraṁ śanaiḥ || 181 ||
M7.182a[183Ma]/ mārgaśīrṣe śubhe māsi yāyād yātrāṁ mahīpatiḥ |
M7.182c[183Mc]/ phālgunaṁ vātha caitraṁ vā māsau prati yathābalam || 182 ||
M7.183a[184Ma]/ anyeṣv api tu kāleṣu yadā paśyed dhruvaṁ jayam |
M7.183c[184Mc]/ tadā yāyād vigṛhya-eva vyasane ca-utthite ripoḥ || 183 ||
M7.184a[185Ma]/ kṛtvā vidhānaṁ mūle tu yātrikaṁ ca yathāvidhi |
M7.184c[185Mc]/ upagṛhya-āspadaṁ ca-eva cārān samyag vidhāya ca || 184 ||
M7.185a[186Ma]/ saṁśodhya trividhaṁ mārgaṁ ṣaḍvidhaṁ ca balaṁ svakam |
M7.185c[186Mc]/ sāmparāyikakalpena yāyād aripuraṁ prati || 185 ||
[Page J 145 ]
M7.186a[187Ma]/ śatrusevini mitre ca gūḍhe yuktataro bhavet |
M7.186c[187Mc]/ gata.pratyāgate ca-eva sa hi kaṣṭataro ripuḥ || 186 ||
M7.187a[188Ma]/ daṇḍavyūhena tan mārgaṁ yāyāt tu śakaṭena vā |
M7.187c[188Mc]/ varāha.makarābhyāṁ vā sūcyā vā garuḍena vā || 187 ||
M7.188a[189Ma]/ yataś ca bhayam āśaṅket tato vistārayed balam |
M7.188c[189Mc]/ padmena ca-eva vyūhena niviśeta sadā svayam || 188 ||
M7.189a[190Ma]/ senāpati.balādhyakṣau sarvadikṣu niveśayet |
M7.189c[190Mc]/ yataś ca bhayam āśaṅket prācīṁ tāṁ kalpayed diśam || 189 ||
M7.190a[191Ma]/ gulmāṁś ca sthāpayed āptān kṛtasañjñān samantataḥ |
M7.190c[191Mc]/ sthāne yuddhe ca kuśalān abhīrūn avikāriṇaḥ || 190 ||
M7.191a[192Ma]/ saṁhatān yodhayed alpān kāmaṁ vistārayed bahūn |
M7.191c[192Mc]/ sūcyā vajreṇa ca-eva-etān vyūhena vyūhya yodhayet || 191 ||
M7.192a[193Ma]/ syandana.aśvaiḥ same yudhyed anūpe nau dvipais tathā |
M7.192c[193Mc]/ vṛkṣa.gulmāvṛte cāpair asi.carma.āyudhaiḥ sthale || 192 ||
M7.193a[194Ma]/ kurukṣetrāṁś ca matsyāṁś ca pañcālān-śūrasenajān | [Note: M7.193a[194Ma]v/ M: kaurakṣetrāṁś ca]
M7.193c[194Mc]/ dīrghāṁl laghūṁś ca-eva narān agrānīkeṣu yojayet || 193 ||
M7.194a[195Ma]/ praharṣayed balaṁ vyūhya tāṁś ca samyak parīkṣayet | [Note: M7.194a[195Ma]v/ M: bhṛśaṁ parīkṣayet]
M7.194c[195Mc]/ ceṣṭāś ca-eva vijānīyād arīn yodhayatām api || 194 ||
M7.195a[196Ma]/ uparudhya-arim āsīta rāṣṭraṁ cāsya-upapīḍayet |
M7.195c[196Mc]/ dūṣayec cāsya satataṁ yavasa.anna.udaka.indhanam || 195 ||
[Page J 146 ]
M7.196a[197Ma]/ bhindyāc ca-eva taḍāgāni prākāra.parikhās tathā |
M7.196c[197Mc]/ samavaskandayec ca-enaṁ rātrau vitrāsayet tathā || 196 ||
M7.197a[198Ma]/ upajapyān upajaped budhyeta-eva ca tatkṛtam |
M7.197c[198Mc]/ yukte ca daive yudhyeta jayaprepsur apetabhīḥ || 197 ||
M7.198a[199Ma]/ sāmnā dānena bhedena samastair atha vā pṛthak |
M7.198c[199Mc]/ vijetuṁ prayateta-arīn na yuddhena kadā cana || 198 || [Note: M7.198c[199Mc]v/ M: -ariṁ]
M7.199a[200Ma]/ anityo vijayo yasmād dṛśyate yudhyamānayoḥ |
M7.199c[200Mc]/ parājayaś ca saṅgrāme tasmād yuddhaṁ vivarjayet || 199 ||
M7.200a[201Ma]/ trayāṇām apy upāyānāṁ pūrva.uktānām asambhave |
M7.200c[201Mc]/ tathā yudhyeta sampanno vijayeta ripūn yathā || 200 ||
7.1.17.5. 7.1.17.5. Conduct in Victory
[Note: [ O edn 649-650 :: O tr. 164-165]
M7.201a[202Ma]/ jitvā sampūjayed devān brāhmaṇāṁś ca-eva dhārmikān |
M7.201c[202Mc]/ pradadyāt parihārārthaṁ khyāpayed abhayāni ca || 201 ||
M7.202a[203Ma]/ sarveṣāṁ tu viditvā-eṣāṁ samāsena cikīrṣitam |
M7.202c[203Mc]/ sthāpayet tatra tadvaṁśyaṁ kuryāc ca samayakriyām || 202 ||
M7.203a[204Ma]/ pramāṇāni ca kurvīta teṣāṁ dharmān yathā.uditān |
M7.203c[204Mc]/ ratnaiś ca pūjayed enaṁ pradhānapuruṣaiḥ saha || 203 ||
M7.204a[205Ma]/ ādānam apriyakaraṁ dānaṁ ca priyakārakam |
M7.204c[205Mc]/ abhīpsitānām arthānāṁ kāle yuktaṁ || 204 || [Note: M7.204c[205Mc]v/ M: kālayuktaṁ praśasyate]
M7.205a[206Ma]/ sarvaṁ karma-idam āyattaṁ vidhāne daiva.mānuṣe |
M7.205c[206Mc]/ tayor daivam acintyaṁ tu mānuṣe vidyate kriyā || 205 ||
7.1.17.6. 7.1.17.6. Political Strategy-II
[Page J 147 ] [Note: [ O edn 650-652 :: O tr. 165]

The following three verses are found only in M. (Jha's edition does not count them in its numbering of the text, although Medhatithi gives their commentary.

[M7.207Ma]/ daivena vidhinā yuktaṁ mānuṣyaṁ yat pravartate | [Note: [M7.207Ma]v/ not in K. Jha 'yuktaṁ]
[M7.207Mc]/ parikleśena mahatā tadarthasya samādhakam || 207 || [Note: [M7.207Mc]v/ not in K]
[M7.208Ma]/ saṁyuktasya-api daivena puruṣakāreṇa varjitam | [Note: [M7.208Ma]v/ not in K]
[M7.208Mc]/ vinā puruṣakāreṇa phalaṁ kṣetraṁ prayacchati || 208 || [Note: [M7.208Mc]v/ not in K]
[M7.209Ma]/ candrārka.ādyā grahā vāyur agnir āpas tathā-eva ca | [Note: [M7.209Ma]v/ not in K]
[M7.209Mc]/ iha daivena sādhyante pauruṣeṇa prayatnataḥ || 209 || [Note: [M7.209Mc]v/ not in K]
M7.206a[210Ma]/ saha vā-api vrajed yuktaḥ sandhiṁ kṛtvā prayatnataḥ |
M7.206c[210Mc]/ mitraṁ hiraṇyaṁ bhūmiṁ vā sampaśyaṁs trividhaṁ phalam || 206 ||
M7.207a[211Ma]/ pārṣṇigrāhaṁ ca samprekṣya tathākrandaṁ ca maṇḍale |
M7.207c[211Mc]/ mitrād atha-apy amitrād vā yātrāphalam avāpnuyāt || 207 ||
M7.208a[212Ma]/ hiraṇya.bhūmisamprāptyā pārthivo na tatha-edhate |
M7.208c[212Mc]/ yathā mitraṁ dhruvaṁ labdhvā kṛśam apy āyatikṣamam || 208 ||
M7.209a[213Ma]/ dharmajñaṁ ca kṛtajñaṁ ca tuṣṭaprakṛtim eva ca |
M7.209c[213Mc]/ anuraktaṁ sthirārambhaṁ laghumitraṁ praśasyate || 209 ||
M7.210a[214Ma]/ prājñaṁ kulīnaṁ śūraṁ ca dakṣaṁ dātāram eva ca |
M7.210c[214Mc]/ kṛtajñaṁ dhṛtimantaṁ ca kaṣṭam āhur ariṁ budhāḥ || 210 ||
M7.211a[215Ma]/ āryatā puruṣajñānaṁ śauryaṁ karuṇaveditā |
M7.211c[215Mc]/ sthaulalakṣyaṁ ca satatam udāsīnaguṇa.udayaḥ || 211 ||
M7.212a[216Ma]/ ksemyāṁ sasyapradāṁ nityaṁ paśuvṛddhikarīm api |
M7.212c[216Mc]/ parityajen nṛpo bhūmim ātmārtham a.vicārayan || 212 ||
M7.213a[217Ma]/ āpadarthaṁ dhanaṁ rakṣed dārān rakṣed dhanair api | [Note: M7.213a[217Ma]v/ M: āpadarthe]
M7.213c[217Mc]/ ātmānaṁ satataṁ rakṣed dārair api dhanair api || 213 ||
M7.214a[218Ma]/ saha sarvāḥ samutpannāḥ prasamīkṣya-āpado bhṛśam |
M7.214c[218Mc]/ saṁyuktāṁś ca viyuktāṁś ca sarva.upāyān sṛjed budhaḥ || 214 ||
M7.215a[219Ma]/ upetāram upeyaṁ ca sarva.upāyāṁś ca kṛtsnaśaḥ |
M7.215c[219Mc]/ etat trayaṁ samāśritya prayateta-arthasiddhaye || 215 ||

7.1.18. 7.1.18. Afternoon Routine

[Page J 148 ] [Note: [ O edn 652-653 :: O tr. 165-166]
M7.216a[220Ma]/ evaṁ sarvam idaṁ rājā saha sammantrya mantribhiḥ |
M7.216c[220Mc]/ vyāyamya-āplutya madhyāhne bhoktum antaḥpuraṁ viśet || 216 ||
M7.217a[221Ma]/ tatra-ātmabhūtaiḥ kālajñair a.hāryaiḥ paricārakaiḥ |
M7.217c[221Mc]/ suparīkṣitam annādyam adyān mantrair viṣāpahaiḥ || 217 ||
M7.218a[222Ma]/ viṣaghnair agadaiś ca-asya sarvadravyāṇi yojayet | [Note: M7.218a[222Ma]v/ M: viṣaghnair udakaiś ca-asya sarvadravyāṇi śodhayet]
M7.218c[222Mc]/ viṣaghnāni ca ratnāni niyato dhārayet sadā || 218 ||
M7.219a[223Ma]/ parīkṣitāḥ striyaś ca-enaṁ vyajana.udaka.dhūpanaiḥ |
M7.219c[223Mc]/ veṣābharaṇasaṁśuddhāḥ spṛśeyuḥ susamāhitāḥ || 219 ||
M7.220a[224Ma]/ evaṁ prayatnaṁ kurvīta yāna.śayyā.āsana.aśane |
M7.220c[224Mc]/ snāne prasādhane ca-eva sarvālaṅkārakeṣu ca || 220 ||
M7.221a[225Ma]/ bhuktavān viharec ca-eva strībhir antaḥpure saha |
M7.221c[225Mc]/ vihṛtya tu yathākālaṁ punaḥ kāryāṇi cintayet || 221 ||
M7.222a[226Ma]/ alaṅkṛtaś ca sampaśyed āyudhīyaṁ punar janam |
M7.222c[226Mc]/ vāhanāni ca sarvāṇi śastrāṇy ābharaṇāni ca || 222 ||

7.1.19. 7.1.19. Evening Routine

[Note: [ O edn 653-654 :: O tr. 166]
M7.223a[227Ma]/ sandhyāṁ ca-upāsya śṛṇuyād antarveśmani śastrabhṛt |
M7.223c[227Mc]/ rahasya-ākhyāyināṁ ca-eva praṇidhīnāṁ ca ceṣṭitam || 223 ||
M7.224a[228Ma]/ gatvā kakṣāntaraṁ tv anyat samanujñāpya taṁ janam |
M7.224c[228Mc]/ praviśed bhojanārthaṁ ca strīvṛto 'ntaḥpuraṁ punaḥ || 224 ||
[Page J 149 ]
M7.225a[229Ma]/ tatra bhuktvā punaḥ kiṁ cit tūryaghoṣaiḥ praharṣitaḥ |
M7.225c[229Mc]/ saṁviśet taṁ yathākālam uttiṣṭhec ca gataklamaḥ || 225 ||
M7.226a[230Ma]/ etadvidhānam ātiṣṭhed arogaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ |
M7.226c[230Mc]/ asvasthaḥ sarvam etat tu bhṛtyeṣu viniyojayet || 226 ||

8. Chapter 8

[Page J 150 ] [Note: [ O edn 659-745 :: O tr. 167-189]

8.1. 8.1. The Justice System

[Note: [ O edn 659-745 :: O tr. 167-189]

8.1.1. 8.1.1. Court

[Note: [ O edn 659 :: O tr. 167]
M8.01a/ vyavahārān didṛkṣus tu brāhmaṇaiḥ saha pārthivaḥ |
M8.01c/ mantrajñair mantribhiś ca-eva vinītaḥ praviśet sabhām || 1 ||
M8.02a/ tatra-āsīnaḥ sthito vā-api pāṇim udyamya dakṣiṇam |
M8.02c/ vinīta.veṣa.ābharaṇaḥ paśyet kāryāṇi kāryiṇām || 2 ||
M8.03a/ pratyahaṁ deśadṛṣṭaiś ca śāstradṛṣṭaiś ca hetubhiḥ |
M8.03c/ aṣṭādaśasu mārgeṣu nibaddhāni pṛthak pṛthak || 3 ||

8.1.2. 8.1.2. Grounds for Litigation

[Note: [ O edn 659-660 :: O tr. 167]
M8.04a/ teṣām ādyam ṛṇādānaṁ nikṣepo 'svāmivikrayaḥ |
M8.04c/ sambhūya ca samutthānaṁ dattasya-anapakarma ca || 4 ||
M8.05a/ vetanasya-eva cādānaṁ saṁvidaś ca vyatikramaḥ |
M8.05c/ kraya.vikrayānuśayo vivādaḥ svāmi.pālayoḥ || 5 ||
M8.06a/ sīmāvivādadharmaś ca pāruṣye daṇḍavācike |
M8.06c/ steyaṁ ca sāhasaṁ ca-eva strīsaṅgrahaṇam eva ca || 6 ||
M8.07a/ strī.pundharmo vibhāgaś ca dyūtam āhvaya eva ca |
M8.07c/ padāny aṣṭādaśa-etāni vyavahārasthitāv iha || 7 ||
[Page J 151 ]
M8.08a/ eṣu sthāneṣu bhūyiṣṭhaṁ vivādaṁ caratāṁ nṛṇām |
M8.08c/ dharmaṁ śāśvatam āśritya kuryāt kāryavinirṇayam || 8 ||

8.1.3. 8.1.3. Legal Proceedings

[Note: [ O edn 660-666 :: O tr. 167-169]
8.1.3.1. 8.1.3.1. Judges
[Note: [ O edn 660 :: O tr. 167]
M8.09a/ yadā svayaṁ na kuryāt tu nṛpatiḥ kāryadarśanam |
M8.09c/ tadā niyuñjyād vidvāṁsaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ kāryadarśane || 9 ||
M8.10a/ so 'sya kāryāṇi sampaśyet sabhyair eva tribhir vṛtaḥ |
M8.10c/ sabhām eva praviśya-agryām āsīnaḥ sthita eva vā || 10 ||
M8.11a/ yasmin deśe niṣīdanti viprā vedavidas trayaḥ |
M8.11c/ rājñaś ca-adhikṛto vidvān brahmaṇas tāṁ sabhāṁ viduḥ || 11 ||
8.1.3.2. 8.1.3.2. Pursuit of Justice
[Note: [ O edn 661-662 :: O tr. 167-168]
M8.12a/ dharmo viddhas tv adharmeṇa sabhāṁ yatra-upatiṣṭhate |
M8.12c/ śalyaṁ ca-asya na kṛntanti viddhās tatra sabhāsadaḥ || 12 ||
M8.13a/ sabhāṁ vā na praveṣṭavyaṁ vaktavyaṁ vā samañjasam | [Note: M8.13av/ M: sabhā vā na praveṣṭavyā]
M8.13c/ abruvan vibruvan vā-api naro bhavati kilbiṣī || 13 ||
M8.14a/ yatra dharmo hy adharmeṇa satyaṁ yatra-anṛtena ca |
M8.14c/ hanyate prekṣamāṇānāṁ hatās tatra sabhāsadaḥ || 14 ||
M8.15a/ dharma eva hato hanti dharmo rakṣati rakṣitaḥ |
M8.15c/ tasmād dharmo na hantavyo mā no dharmo hato 'vadhīt || 15 || [Note: M8.15cv/ M: vadhīt]
M8.16a/ vṛṣo hi bhagavān dharmas tasya yaḥ kurute hy alam | [Note: M8.16av/ M: tv alam]
M8.16c/ vṛṣalaṁ taṁ vidur devās tasmād dharmaṁ na lopayet || 16 ||
M8.17a/ eka eva suhṛd dharmo nidhāne 'py anuyāti yaḥ |
M8.17c/ śarīreṇa samaṁ nāśaṁ sarvam anyadd hi gacchati || 17 ||
[Page J 152 ]
M8.18a/ pādo 'dharmasya kartāraṁ pādaḥ sākṣiṇam ṛcchati |
M8.18c/ pādaḥ sabhāsadaḥ sarvān pādo rājānam ṛcchati || 18 ||
M8.19a/ rājā bhavaty an.enās tu mucyante ca sabhāsadaḥ |
M8.19c/ eno gacchati kartāraṁ nindā.arho yatra nindyate || 19 ||
8.1.3.3. 8.1.3.3. Excursus: Śūdras as Legal Interpreters
[Note: [ O edn 662 :: O tr. 168]
M8.20a/ jātimātra.upajīvī vā kāmaṁ syād brāhmaṇabruvaḥ |
M8.20c/ dharmapravaktā nṛpater na śūdraḥ kathaṁ cana || 20 ||
M8.21a/ yasya śūdras tu kurute rājño dharmavivecanam |
M8.21c/ tasya sīdati tad rāṣṭraṁ paṅke gaur iva paśyataḥ || 21 ||
M8.22a/ yad rāṣṭraṁ śūdra.bhūyiṣṭhaṁ nāstikākrāntam a.dvijam |
M8.22c/ vinaśyaty āśu tat kṛtsnaṁ durbhikṣa.vyādhipīḍitam || 22 ||
8.1.3.4. 8.1.3.4. Judicial Conduct and Reasoning-I
[Note: [ O edn 662-663 :: O tr. 168]
M8.23a/ dharmāsanam adhiṣṭhāya saṁvīta.aṅgaḥ samāhitaḥ |
M8.23c/ praṇamya lokapālebhyaḥ kāryadarśanam ārabhet || 23 ||
M8.24a/ artha.anarthāv ubhau buddhvā dharma.adharmau ca kevalau |
M8.24c/ varṇakrameṇa sarvāṇi paśyet kāryāṇi kāryiṇām || 24 ||
M8.25a/ bāhyair vibhāvayet-liṅgair bhāvam antargataṁ nṛṇām |
M8.25c/ svara.varṇa.iṅgita.ākāraiś cakṣuṣā ceṣṭitena ca || 25 ||
M8.26a/ ākārair iṅgitair gatyā ceṣṭayā bhāṣitena ca |
M8.26c/ netra.vaktravikāraiś ca gṛhyate 'ntargataṁ manaḥ || 26 ||
8.1.3.5. 8.1.3.5. Excursus: Property and Minors and Women
[Note: [ O edn 663 :: O tr. 168]
M8.27a/ bāladāya.ādikaṁ rikthaṁ tāvad rājā-anupālayet |
M8.27c/ yāvat sa syāt samāvṛtto yāvat-ca-atīta.śaiśavaḥ] || 27 || [Note: M8.27cv/ M: yāvad vā-atīta.śaiśavaḥ]
[Page J 153 ]
M8.28a/ vaśā.aputrāsu ca-evaṁ syād rakṣaṇaṁ niṣ.kulāsu ca |
M8.28c/ pati.vratāsu ca strīṣu vidhavāsv āturāsu ca || 28 ||
M8.29a/ jīvantīnāṁ tu tāsāṁ ye tadd hareyuḥ svabāndhavāḥ |
M8.29c/ tān-śiṣyāt-cauradaṇḍena dhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ || 29 ||
8.1.3.6. 8.1.3.6. Excursus: Lost and Stolen Property
[Note: [ O edn 664-665 :: O tr. 168-169]
M8.30a/ praṇaṣṭa.svāmikaṁ rikthaṁ rājā tryabdaṁ nidhāpayet |
M8.30c/ arvāk tryabdādd haret svāmī pareṇa nṛpatir haret || 30 ||
M8.31a/ mama-idam iti yo brūyāt so 'nuyojyo yathāvidhi |
M8.31c/ saṁvādya rūpa.saṅkhyādīn svāmī tad dravyam arhati || 31 ||
M8.32a/ a.vedayāno naṣṭasya deśaṁ kālaṁ ca tattvataḥ |
M8.32c/ varṇaṁ rūpaṁ pramāṇaṁ ca tatsamaṁ daṇḍam arhati || 32 ||
M8.33a/ ādadīta-atha ṣaḍbhāgaṁ pranaṣṭa.adhigatān nṛpaḥ |
M8.33c/ daśamaṁ dvādaśaṁ vā-api satāṁ dharmam anusmaran || 33 ||
M8.34a/ pranaṣṭa.adhigataṁ dravyaṁ tiṣṭhed yuktair adhiṣṭhitam |
M8.34c/ yāṁs tatra caurān gṛhṇīyāt tān rājā-ibhena ghātayet || 34 ||
M8.35a/ mamāyam iti yo brūyān nidhiṁ satyena mānavaḥ |
M8.35c/ tasyādadīta ṣaḍbhāgaṁ rājā dvādaśam eva vā || 35 ||
M8.36a/ anṛtaṁ tu vadan daṇḍyaḥ svavittasya-aṁśam aṣṭamam |
M8.36c/ tasya-eva vā nidhānasya saṅkhyayā-alpīyasīṁ kalām || 36 ||
M8.37a/ vidvāṁs tu brāhmaṇo dṛṣṭvā pūrva.upanihitaṁ nidhim |
M8.37c/ aśeṣato 'py ādadīta sarvasya-adhipatir hi saḥ || 37 ||
[Page J 154 ]
M8.38a/ yaṁ tu paśyen nidhiṁ rājā purāṇaṁ nihitaṁ kṣitau |
M8.38c/ tasmād dvijebhyo dattvā-ardham ardhaṁ kośe praveśayet || 38 ||
M8.39a/ nidhīnāṁ tu purāṇānāṁ dhātūnām eva ca kṣitau |
M8.39c/ ardhabhāg rakṣaṇād rājā bhūmer adhipatir hi saḥ || 39 ||
M8.40a/ dātavyaṁ sarvavarṇebhyo rājñā caurair hṛtaṁ dhanam |
M8.40c/ rājā tad upayuñjānaś caurasya-āpnoti kilbiṣam || 40 ||
8.1.3.7. 8.1.3.7. Judicial Conduct and Reasoning-II
[Note: [ O edn 665-666 :: O tr. 169]
M8.41a/ jāti.jānapadān dharmān śreṇīdharmāṁś ca dharmavit |
M8.41c/ samīkṣya kuladharmāṁś ca svadharmaṁ pratipādayet || 41 ||
M8.42a/ svāni karmāṇi kurvāṇā dūre santo 'pi mānavāḥ |
M8.42c/ priyā bhavanti lokasya sve sve karmaṇy avasthitāḥ || 42 ||
M8.43a/ na-utpādayet svayaṁ kāryaṁ rājā na-apy asya puruṣaḥ |
M8.43c/ na ca prāpitam anyena grased arthaṁ kathaṁ cana || 43 || [Note: M8.43cv/ M: graseta-arthaṁ]
M8.44a/ yathā nayaty asṛkpātair mṛgasya mṛgayuḥ padam |
M8.44c/ nayet tathā-anumānena dharmasya nṛpatiḥ padam || 44 ||
M8.45a/ satyam arthaṁ ca sampaśyed ātmānam atha sākṣiṇaḥ | [Note: M8.45av/ M: sākṣiṇam]
M8.45c/ deśaṁ rūpaṁ ca kālaṁ ca vyavahāravidhau sthitaḥ || 45 ||
M8.46a/ sadbhir ācaritaṁ yat syād dhārmikaiś ca dvijātibhiḥ |
M8.46c/ tad deśa.kula.jātīnām a.viruddhaṁ prakalpayet || 46 ||

8.1.4. 8.1.4. Grounds for Litigation-I Non-payment of Debts

[Note: [ O edn 666-694 :: O tr. 169-176]
M8.47a/ adhamarṇārthasiddhyartham uttamarṇena coditaḥ |
M8.47c/ dāpayed dhanikasya-artham adhamarṇād vibhāvitam || 47 ||
[Page J 155 ]
M8.48a/ yair yair upāyair arthaṁ svaṁ prāpnuyād uttamarṇikaḥ |
M8.48c/ tair tair upāyaiḥ saṅgṛhya dāpayed adhamarṇikam || 48 ||
M8.49a/ dharmeṇa vyavahāreṇa chalena-ācaritena ca |
M8.49c/ prayuktaṁ sādhayed arthaṁ pañcamena balena ca || 49 ||
M8.50a/ yaḥ svayaṁ sādhayed artham uttamarṇo 'dhamarṇikāt |
M8.50c/ na sa rājñā-abhiyoktavyaḥ svakaṁ saṁsādhayan dhanam || 50 ||
M8.51a/ arthe 'pavyayamānaṁ tu karaṇena vibhāvitam |
M8.51c/ dāpayed dhanikasya-arthaṁ daṇḍaleśaṁ ca śaktitaḥ || 51 ||
M8.52a/ apahnave 'dhamarṇasya dehi-ity uktasya saṁsadi |
M8.52c/ abhiyoktā diśed deśyaṁ karaṇaṁ vā-anyad uddiśet || 52 ||
M8.53a/ adeśyaṁ yaś ca diśati nirdiśya-apahnute ca yaḥ |
M8.53c/ yaś ca-adhara.uttarān arthān vigītān na-avabudhyate || 53 ||
M8.54a/ apadiśya-apadeśyaṁ ca punar yas tv apadhāvati | [Note: M8.54av/ M: apadiśya-apadeśaṁ]
M8.54c/ samyak praṇihitaṁ ca-arthaṁ pṛṣṭaḥ san na-abhinandati || 54 ||
M8.55a/ a.sambhāṣye sākṣibhiś ca deśe sambhāṣate mithaḥ |
M8.55c/ nirucyamānaṁ praśnaṁ ca na-icched yaś ca-api niṣpatet || 55 ||
M8.56a/ brūhi-ity uktaś ca na brūyād uktaṁ ca na vibhāvayet |
M8.56c/ na ca pūrva.aparaṁ vidyāt tasmād arthāt sa hīyate || 56 ||
M8.57a/ sākṣiṇaḥ santi mety uktvā diśa-ity ukto diśen na yaḥ | [Note: M8.57av/ M: jñātāraḥ santi mety*] *{mety < ma ity ?}]
M8.57c/ dharmasthaḥ kāraṇair etair hīnaṁ tam api nirdiśet || 57 || [Note: M8.57cv/ M: tam iti nirdiśet]
[Page J 156 ]
M8.58a/ abhiyoktā na ced brūyād badhyo daṇḍyaś ca dharmataḥ | [Note: M8.58av/ M: bandhyo daṇḍyaś ca]
M8.58c/ na cet tripakṣāt prabrūyād dharmaṁ prati parājitaḥ || 58 ||
M8.59a/ yo yāvat-nihnuvīta-arthaṁ mithyā yāvati vā vadet |
M8.59c/ tau nṛpeṇa hy adharmajñau dāpyo taddviguṇaṁ damam || 59 ||
M8.60a/ pṛṣṭo 'pavyayamānas tu kṛta.avastho dhana.eṣiṇā |
M8.60c/ tryavaraiḥ sākṣibhir bhāvyo nṛpa.brāhmaṇasannidhau || 60 ||
M8.61a/ yādṛśā dhanibhiḥ kāryā vyavahāreṣu sākṣiṇaḥ |
M8.61c/ tādṛśān sampravakṣyāmi yathā vācyam ṛtaṁ ca taiḥ || 61 ||
8.1.4.1. 8.1.4.1. Qualification of Witnesses
[Note: [ O edn 670-672 :: O tr. 170]
M8.62a/ gṛhiṇaḥ putriṇo maulāḥ kṣatra.viś.śūdra.yonayaḥ |
M8.62c/ arthyuktāḥ sākṣyam arhanti na ye ke cid anāpadi || 62 ||
M8.63a/ āptāḥ sarveṣu varṇeṣu kāryāḥ kāryeṣu sākṣiṇaḥ |
M8.63c/ sarvadharmavido 'lubdhā viparītāṁs tu varjayet || 63 ||
M8.64a/ na-arthasambandhino na-āptā na sahāyā na vairiṇaḥ |
M8.64c/ na dṛṣṭadoṣāḥ kartavyā na vyādhyārtā na dūṣitāḥ || 64 ||
M8.65a/ na sākṣī nṛpatiḥ kāryo na kāruka.kuśīlavau |
M8.65c/ na śrotriyo na liṅgastho na saṅgebhyo vinirgataḥ || 65 ||
M8.66a/ na-adhyadhīno na vaktavyo na dasyur na vikarmakṛt |
M8.66c/ na vṛddho na śiśur na-eko na-antyo na vikala.indriyaḥ || 66 ||
M8.67a/ na-ārto na matto na-unmatto na kṣut.tṛṣṇā.upapīḍitaḥ |
M8.67c/ na śramārto na kāmārto na kruddho na-api taskaraḥ || 67 ||
[Page J 157 ]
M8.68a/ strīṇāṁ sākṣyaṁ striyaḥ kuryur dvijānāṁ sadṛśā dvijāḥ |
M8.68c/ śūdrāś ca santaḥ śūdrāṇām antyānām antya.yonayaḥ || 68 ||
M8.69a/ anubhāvī tu yaḥ kaś cit kuryāt sākṣyaṁ vivādinām |
M8.69c/ antarveśmany araṇye vā śarīrasya-api ca-atyaye || 69 ||
M8.70a/ striyā-apy asambhāve kāryaṁ bālena sthavireṇa vā |
M8.70c/ śiṣyeṇa bandhunā vā-api dāsena bhṛtakena vā || 70 ||
M8.71a/ bāla.vṛddha.āturāṇāṁ ca sākṣyeṣu vadatāṁ mṛṣā |
M8.71c/ jānīyād asthirāṁ vācam utsikta.manasāṁ tathā || 71 ||
M8.72a/ sāhaseṣu ca sarveṣu steya.saṅgrahaṇeṣu ca |
M8.72c/ vāg.daṇḍayoś ca pāruṣye na parīkṣeta sākṣiṇaḥ || 72 ||
8.1.4.2. 8.1.4.2. Assessing Testimony
[Note: [ O edn 672-673 :: O tr. 170-171]
M8.73a/ bahutvaṁ parigṛhṇīyāt sākṣidvaidhe narādhipaḥ |
M8.73c/ sameṣu tu guṇa.utkṛṣṭān guṇidvaidhe dvijottamān || 73 ||
M8.74a/ samakṣadarśanāt sākṣyaṁ śravaṇāc ca-eva sidhyati |
M8.74c/ tatra satyaṁ bruvan sākṣī dharma.arthābhyāṁ na hīyate || 74 ||
M8.75a/ sākṣī dṛṣṭa.śrutād anyad vibruvann āryasaṁsadi |
M8.75c/ avāṅ narakam abhyeti pretya svargāc ca hīyate || 75 ||
M8.76a/ yatra-anibaddho 'pīkṣeta śṛṇuyād vā-api kiṁ cana |
M8.76c/ pṛṣṭas tatra-api tad brūyād yathādṛṣṭaṁ yathāśrutam || 76 ||
M8.77a/ eko 'lubdhas tu sākṣī syād bahvyaḥ śucyo 'pi na striyaḥ | [Note: M8.77av/ M: tv asākṣī]
M8.77c/ strībuddher asthiratvāt tu doṣaiś ca-anye 'pi ye vṛtāḥ || 77 ||
[Page J 158 ]
M8.78a/ svabhāvena-eva yad brūyus tad grāhyaṁ vyāvahārikam |
M8.78c/ ato yad anyad vibrūyur dharmārthaṁ tad apārthakam || 78 ||
8.1.4.3. 8.1.4.3. Questioning of Witnesses
[Note: [ O edn 673-679 :: O tr. 171-172]
M8.79a/ sabhāntaḥ sākṣiṇaḥ prāptān arthi.pratyarthi.sannidhau |
M8.79c/ prāḍvivāko 'nuyuñjīta vidhinā-anena sāntvayan || 79 ||
M8.80a/ yad dvayor anayor vettha kārye 'smiṁś ceṣṭitaṁ mithaḥ |
M8.80c/ tad brūta sarvaṁ satyena yuṣmākaṁ hy atra sākṣitā || 80 ||
M8.81a/ satyaṁ sākṣye bruvan sākṣī lokān āpnoty puṣkalān | [Note: M8.81av/ M: āpnoty aninditān]
M8.81c/ iha ca-an.uttamāṁ kīrtiṁ vāg eṣā brahmapūjitā || 81 ||
M8.82a/ sākṣye 'nṛtaṁ vadan pāśair badhyate vāruṇair bhṛśam |
M8.82c/ vivaśaḥ śatam ājātīs tasmāt sākṣyaṁ vaded ṛtam || 82 ||
M8.83a/ satyena pūyate sākṣī dharmaḥ satyena vardhate |
M8.83c/ tasmāt satyaṁ hi vaktavyaṁ sarvavarṇeṣu sākṣibhiḥ || 83 ||
M8.84a/ ātmā-eva hy ātmanaḥ sākṣī gatir ātmā tathā-ātmanaḥ |
M8.84c/ mā-avamaṁsthāḥ svam ātmānaṁ nṛṇāṁ sākṣiṇam uttamam || 84 ||
M8.85a/ manyante vai pāpakṛto na kaś cit paśyati-iti naḥ |
M8.85c/ tāṁs tu devāḥ prapaśyanti svasya-eva-antarapūruṣaḥ || 85 ||
M8.86a/ dyaur bhūmir āpo hṛdayaṁ candra.arka.agni.yama.anilāḥ |
M8.86c/ rātriḥ sandhye ca dharmaś ca vṛttajñāḥ sarvadehinām || 86 ||
M8.87a/ deva.brāhmaṇasānnidhye sākṣyaṁ pṛcched ṛtaṁ dvijān |
M8.87c/ udaṅ.mukhān prāṅ.mukhān vā pūrvāhṇe vai śuciḥ śucīn || 87 ||
[Page J 159 ]
M8.88a/ brūhi-iti brāhmaṇaṁ pṛcchet satyaṁ brūhi-iti pārthivam |
M8.88c/ go.bīja.kāñcanair vaiśyaṁ śūdraṁ sarvais tu pātakaiḥ || 88 ||
M8.89a/ brahmaghno ye smṛtā lokā ye ca strī.bāla.ghātinaḥ |
M8.89c/ mitradruhaḥ kṛta.ghnasya te te syur bruvato mṛṣā || 89 ||
M8.90a/ janmaprabhṛti yat kiṁ cit puṇyaṁ bhadra tvayā kṛtam |
M8.90c/ tat te sarvaṁ śuno gacched yadi brūyās tvam anyathā || 90 ||
M8.91a/ eko 'ham asmi-ity ātmānaṁ yas tvaṁ kalyāṇa manyase |
M8.91c/ nityaṁ sthitas te hṛdy eṣa puṇya.pāpa.īkṣitā muniḥ || 91 ||
M8.92a/ yamo vaivasvato devo yas tava-eṣa hṛdi sthitaḥ |
M8.92c/ tena ced avivādas te mā gaṅgāṁ mā kurūn gamaḥ || 92 ||
M8.93a/ nagno muṇḍaḥ kapālena ca bhikṣārthī kṣut.pipāsitaḥ | [Note: M8.93av/ M: kapālī]
M8.93c/ andhaḥ śatrukulaṁ gacched yaḥ sākṣyam anṛtaṁ vadet || 93 ||
M8.94a/ avāk.śirās tamasy andhe kilbiṣī narakaṁ vrajet |
M8.94c/ yaḥ praśnaṁ vitathaṁ brūyāt pṛṣṭaḥ san dharmaniścaye || 94 ||
M8.95a/ andho matsyān iva-aśnāti sa naraḥ kaṇṭakaiḥ saha |
M8.95c/ yo bhāṣate 'rthavaikalyam a.pratyakṣaṁ sabhāṁ gataḥ || 95 ||
M8.96a/ yasya vidvān hi vadataḥ kṣetrajño na-abhiśaṅkate | [Note: M8.96av/ M: na-atiśaṅkate]
M8.96c/ tasmān na devāḥ śreyāṁsaṁ loke 'nyaṁ puruṣaṁ viduḥ || 96 ||
M8.97a/ yāvato bāndhavān yasmin hanti sākṣye 'nṛtaṁ vadan |
M8.97c/ tāvataḥ saṅkhyayā tasmin śṛṇu saumya-anupūrvaśaḥ || 97 ||
[Page J 160 ]
M8.98a/ pañca paśu.anṛte hanti daśa hanti gavānṛte |
M8.98c/ śatam aśvānṛte hanti sahasraṁ puruṣānṛte || 98 ||
M8.99a/ hanti jātān ajātāṁś ca hiraṇyārthe 'nṛtaṁ vadan |
M8.99c/ sarvaṁ bhūmi.anṛte hanti mā sma bhūmi.anṛtaṁ vadīḥ || 99 ||
M8.100a/ apsu bhūmivad ity āhuḥ strīṇāṁ bhoge ca maithune |
M8.100c/ abjeṣu ca-eva ratneṣu sarveṣv aśmamayeṣu ca || 100 ||
M8.101a/ etān doṣān avekṣya tvaṁ sarvān anṛtabhāṣaṇe |
M8.101c/ yathāśrutaṁ yathādṛṣṭaṁ sarvam eva-añjasā vada || 101 ||
M8.102a/ gorakṣakān vāṇijikāṁs tathā kāru.kuśīlavān | [Note: M8.102av/ M: vāṇijakāṁs]
M8.102c/ preṣyān vārdhuṣikāṁś ca-eva viprān śūdravad ācaret || 102 ||
8.1.4.4. 8.1.4.4. Excusable False Testimony
[Note: [ O edn 679-680 :: O tr. 172]
M8.103a/ tad vadan dharmato 'rtheṣu jānann apy anythā naraḥ |
M8.103c/ na svargāc cyavate lokād daivīṁ vācaṁ vadanti tām || 103 ||
M8.104a/ śūdra.viś.kṣatra.viprāṇāṁ yatra-ṛta.uktau bhaved vadhaḥ |
M8.104c/ tatra vaktavyam anṛtaṁ tadd hi satyād viśiṣyate || 104 ||
M8.105a/ vāc.daivatyaiś ca carubhir yajeraṁs te sarasvatīm |
M8.105c/ anṛtasya-enasas tasya kurvāṇā niṣkṛtiṁ parām || 105 ||
M8.106a/ kūṣmāṇḍair vā-api juhuyād ghṛtam agnau yathāvidhi | [Note: M8.106av/ TA10.3-5; VS20.14]
M8.106c/ ud ity ṛcā vā vāruṇyā tṛcena-ap.daivatena vā || 106 || [Note: M8.106cv/ RS1.24.15; 10.9.1-3; VS12.2; VS12.50]
8.1.4.5. 8.1.4.5. Failure to Give Evidence
[Note: [ O edn 680 :: O tr. 172]
M8.107a/ tripakṣād abruvan sākṣyam ṛṇādiṣu naro '.gadaḥ |
M8.107c/ tadṛṇaṁ prāpnuyāt sarvaṁ daśabandhaṁ ca sarvataḥ || 107 ||
8.1.4.6. 8.1.4.6. Signs of False Testimony
[Page J 161 ] [Note: [ O edn 680 :: O tr. 173]
M8.108a/ yasya dṛśyeta saptāhād ukta.vākyasya sākṣiṇaḥ |
M8.108c/ rogo 'gnir jñātimaraṇam ṛṇaṁ dāpyo damaṁ ca saḥ || 108 ||
8.1.4.7. 8.1.4.7. Oaths and Ordeals
[Note: [ O edn 681-682 :: O tr. 173]
M8.109a/ asākṣikeṣu tv artheṣu mitho vivādamānayoḥ |
M8.109c/ avindaṁs tattvataḥ satyaṁ śapathena-api lambhayet || 109 ||
M8.110a/ maharṣibhiś ca devaiś ca kāryārthaṁ śapathāḥ kṛtāḥ |
M8.110c/ vasiṣṭhaś ca-api śapathaṁ śepe paijavane nṛpe || 110 ||
M8.111a/ na vṛthā śapathaṁ kuryāt svalpe 'py arthe naro budhaḥ |
M8.111c/ vṛthā hi śapathaṁ kurvan pretya ca-iha ca naśyati || 111 ||
M8.112a/ kāminīṣu vivāheṣu gavāṁ bhakṣye tathā-indhane |
M8.112c/ brāhmaṇa.abhyupapattau ca śapathe na-asti pātakam || 112 ||
M8.113a/ satyena śāpayed vipraṁ kṣatriyaṁ vāhana.āyudhaiḥ |
M8.113c/ go.bīja.kāñcanair vaiśyaṁ śūdraṁ sarvais tu pātakaiḥ || 113 ||
M8.114a/ agniṁ vā-āhārayed enam apsu ca-enaṁ nimajjayet |
M8.114c/ putra.dārasya vā-apy enaṁ śirāṁsi sparśayet pṛthak || 114 ||
M8.115a/ yam iddho na dahaty agnir āpo na-unmajjayanti ca |
M8.115c/ na ca-ārtim ṛcchati kṣipraṁ sa jñeyaḥ śapathe śuciḥ || 115 ||
M8.116a/ vatsasya hy abhiśastasya purā bhrātrā yavīyasā |
M8.116c/ na-agnir dadāha roma-api satyena jagataḥ spaśaḥ || 116 ||
8.1.4.8. 8.1.4.8. False Testimony
[Note: [ O edn 682 :: O tr. 173]
M8.117a/ yasmin yasmin vivāde tu kauṭasākṣyaṁ kṛtaṁ bhavet |
M8.117c/ tat tat kāryaṁ nivarteta kṛtaṁ ca-apy akṛtaṁ bhavet || 117 ||
[Page J 162 ]
M8.118a/ lobhāt-mohād bhayāt-maitrāt kāmāt krodhāt tathā-eva ca |
M8.118c/ ajñānād bālabhāvāt-ca sākṣyaṁ vitatham ucyate || 118 ||
M8.119a/ eṣām anyatame sthāne yaḥ sākṣyam anṛtaṁ vadet |
M8.119c/ tasya daṇḍaviśeṣāṁs tu pravakṣyāmy anupūrvaśaḥ || 119 ||
8.1.4.9. 8.1.4.9. Punishment for Perjury
[Note: [ O edn 683 :: O tr. 173]
M8.120a/ lobhāt sahasraṁ daṇḍyas tu mohāt pūrvaṁ tu sāhasam |
M8.120c/ bhayād dvau madhyamau daṇḍau maitrāt pūrvaṁ caturguṇam || 120 ||
M8.121a/ kāmād daśaguṇaṁ pūrvaṁ krodhāt tu triguṇaṁ param |
M8.121c/ ajñānād dve śate pūrṇe bāliśyāt-śatam eva tu || 121 ||
M8.122a/ etān āhuḥ kauṭasākṣye proktān daṇḍān manīṣibhiḥ |
M8.122c/ dharmasya-avyabhicārārtham adharmaniyamāya ca || 122 ||
M8.123a/ kauṭasākṣyaṁ tu kurvāṇāṁs trīn varṇān dhārmiko nṛpaḥ |
M8.123c/ pravāsayed daṇḍayitvā brāhmaṇaṁ tu vivāsayet || 123 ||
8.1.4.10. 8.1.4.10. Varieties of Punishment
[Note: [ O edn 683-685 :: O tr. 173-174]
M8.124a/ daśa sthānāni daṇḍasya manuḥ svayambhuvo 'bravīt |
M8.124c/ triṣu varṇeṣu yāni syur akṣato brāhmaṇo vrajet || 124 ||
M8.125a/ upastham udaraṁ jihvā hastau pādau ca pañcamam |
M8.125c/ cakṣur nāsā ca karṇau ca dhanaṁ dehas tathā-eva ca || 125 ||
M8.126a/ anubandhaṁ parijñāya deśa.kālau ca tattvataḥ |
M8.126c/ sāra.aparādho ca-ālokya daṇḍaṁ daṇḍyeṣu pātayet || 126 ||
M8.127a/ adharmadaṇḍanaṁ loke yaśoghnaṁ kīrtināśanam |
M8.127c/ asvargyaṁ ca paratra-api tasmāt tat parivarjayet || 127 ||
[Page J 163 ]
M8.128a/ adaṇḍyān daṇḍayan rājā daṇḍyāṁś ca-eva-apy adaṇḍayan |
M8.128c/ ayaśo mahad āpnoti narakaṁ ca-eva gacchati || 128 ||
M8.129a/ vāgdaṇḍaṁ prathamaṁ kuryād dhigdaṇḍaṁ tadanantaram |
M8.129c/ tṛtīyaṁ dhanadaṇḍaṁ tu vadhadaṇḍam ataḥ param || 129 ||
M8.130a/ vadhena-api yadā tv etān nigrahītuṁ na śaknuyāt |
M8.130c/ tadā-eṣu sarvam apy etat prayuñjīta catuṣṭayam || 130 ||
M8.131a/ lokasaṁvyavahārārthaṁ yāḥ sañjñāḥ prathitā bhuvi |
M8.131c/ tāmra.rūpya.suvarṇānāṁ tāḥ pravakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ || 131 ||
8.1.4.11. 8.1.4.11. Weights
[Note: [ O edn 685-686 :: O tr. 174]
M8.132a/ jālāntaragate bhānau yat sūkṣmaṁ dṛśyate rajaḥ |
M8.132c/ prathamaṁ tat pramāṇānāṁ trasareṇuṁ pracakṣate || 132 ||
M8.133a/ trasareṇavo 'ṣṭau vijñeyā likṣā-ekā parimāṇataḥ |
M8.133c/ tā rājasarṣapas tisras te trayo gaurasarṣapaḥ || 133 ||
M8.134a/ sarṣapāḥ ṣaḍ yavo madhyas triyavaṁ tv ekakṛṣṇalam |
M8.134c/ pañcakṛṣṇalako māṣas te suvarṇas tu ṣoḍaśa || 134 ||
M8.135a/ palaṁ suvarṇāś catvāraḥ palāni dharaṇaṁ daśa |
M8.135c/ dve kṛṣṇale samadhṛte vijñeyo raupyamāṣakaḥ || 135 || [Note: M8.135cv/ M: rūpyamāṣakaḥ]
M8.136a/ te ṣoḍaśa syād dharaṇaṁ purāṇaś ca-eva rājataḥ |
M8.136c/ kārṣāpaṇas tu vijñeyas tāmrikaḥ kārṣikaḥ paṇaḥ || 136 ||
M8.137a/ dharaṇāni daśa jñeyaḥ śatamānas tu rājataḥ |
M8.137c/ catuḥsauvarṇiko niṣko vijñeyas tu pramāṇataḥ || 137 ||
8.1.4.12. 8.1.4.12. Fines
[Page J 164 ] [Note: [ O edn 686 :: O tr. 174]
M8.138a/ paṇānāṁ dve śate sārdhe prathamaḥ sāhasaḥ smṛtaḥ |
M8.138c/ madhyamaḥ pañca vijñeyaḥ sahasraṁ tv eva ca-uttamaḥ || 138 ||
M8.139a/ ṛṇe deye pratijñāte pañcakaṁ śatam arhati |
M8.139c/ apahnave taddviguṇaṁ tan manor anuśāsanam || 139 ||
8.1.4.13. 8.1.4.13. Rates of Interest-I
[Note: [ O edn 687 :: O tr. 174]
M8.140a/ vasiṣṭhavihitāṁ vṛddhiṁ sṛjed vittavivardhinīm |
M8.140c/ aśītibhāgaṁ gṛhṇīyān māsād vārdhuṣikaḥ śate || 140 ||
M8.141a/ dvikaṁ śataṁ vā gṛhṇīyāt satāṁ dharmam anusmaran |
M8.141c/ dvikaṁ śataṁ hi gṛhṇāno na bhavaty arthakilbiṣī || 141 ||
M8.142a/ dvikaṁ trikaṁ catuṣkaṁ ca pañcakaṁ ca śataṁ samam |
M8.142c/ māsasya vṛddhiṁ gṛhṇīyād varṇānām anupūrvaśaḥ || 142 ||
M8.143a/ na tv eva-ādhau sa.upakāre kausīdīṁ vṛddhim āpnuyāt |
M8.143c/ na ca-ādheḥ kālasaṁrodhāt-nisargo 'sti na vikrayaḥ || 143 ||
M8.144a/ na bhoktavyo balād ādhir bhuñjāno vṛddhim utsṛjet |
M8.144c/ mūlyena toṣayec ca-enam ādhisteno 'nyathā bhavet || 144 ||
8.1.4.14. 8.1.4.14. Pledges
[Note: [ O edn 687-688 :: O tr. 174-175]
M8.145a/ ādhiś ca-upanidhiś ca-ubhau na kālātyayam arhataḥ |
M8.145c/ avahāryau bhavetāṁ tau dīrghakālam avasthitau || 145 ||
M8.146a/ samprītyā bhujyamānāni na naśyanti kadā cana |
M8.146c/ dhenur uṣṭro vahann aśvo yaś ca damyaḥ prayujyate || 146 ||
M8.147a/ yat kiṁ cid daśavarṣāṇi sannidhau prekṣate dhanī |
M8.147c/ bhujyamānaṁ parais tūṣṇīṁ na sa tat-labdhum arhati || 147 ||
[Page J 165 ]
M8.148a/ ajaḍaś ced apogaṇḍo viṣaye ca-asya bhujyate |
M8.148c/ bhagnaṁ tad vyavahāreṇa bhoktā tad dravyam arhati || 148 || [Note: M8.148cv/ M: tad dhanam arhati]
M8.149a/ ādhiḥ sīmā bāladhanaṁ nikṣepa.upanidhiḥ striyaḥ | [Note: M8.149av/ M: nikṣepa.upanidhī]
M8.149c/ rājasvaṁ śrotriyasvaṁ ca na bhogena praṇaśyati || 149 ||
8.1.4.15. 8.1.4.15. Rates of Interest-II
[Note: [ O edn 688-690 :: O tr. 175]
M8.150a/ yaḥ svāminā-ananujñātam ādhiṁ bhūṅkte 'vicakṣaṇaḥ |
M8.150c/ tena-ardhavṛddhir moktavyā tasya bhogasya niṣkṛtiḥ || 150 ||
M8.151a/ kusīdavṛddhir dvaiguṇyaṁ na-atyeti sakṛd āhṛtā | [Note: M8.151av/ M: sakṛd āhitā]
M8.151c/ dhānye sade lave vāhye na-atikrāmati pañcatām || 151 ||
M8.152a/ kṛtānusārād adhikā vyatiriktā na sidhyati |
M8.152c/ kusīdapatham āhus taṁ pañcakaṁ śatam arhati || 152 ||
M8.153a/ na-ati.sāṁvatsarīṁ vṛddhiṁ na ca-adṛṣṭāṁ punar haret | [Note: M8.153av/ M: vinirharet]
M8.153c/ cakravṛddhiḥ kālavṛddhiḥ kāritā kāyikā ca yā || 153 ||
M8.154a/ ṛṇaṁ dātum aśakto yaḥ kartum icchet punaḥ kriyām |
M8.154c/ sa dattvā nirjitāṁ vṛddhiṁ karaṇaṁ parivartayet || 154 ||
M8.155a/ a.darśayitvā tatra-eva hiraṇyaṁ parivartayet |
M8.155c/ yāvatī sambhaved vṛddhis tāvatīṁ dātum arhati || 155 ||
M8.156a/ cakravṛddhiṁ samārūḍho deśa.kālavyavasthitaḥ |
M8.156c/ atikrāman deśa.kālau na tatphalam avāpnuyāt || 156 ||
M8.157a/ samudrayānakuśalā deśa.kāla.arthadarśinaḥ |
M8.157c/ sthāpayanti tu yāṁ vṛddhiṁ sā tatra-adhigamaṁ prati || 157 ||
8.1.4.16. 8.1.4.16. Surety
[Page J 166 ] [Note: [ O edn 690-691 :: O tr. 175]
M8.158a/ yo yasya pratibhūs tiṣṭhed darśanāya-iha mānavaḥ |
M8.158c/ a.darśayan sa taṁ tasya prayacchet svadhanād ṛṇam || 158 || [Note: M8.158cv/ M: tasya yateta]
M8.159a/ prātibhāvyaṁ vṛthādānam ākṣikaṁ saurikāṁ ca yat |
M8.159c/ daṇḍa.śulkāvaśeṣaṁ ca na putro dātum arhati || 159 ||
M8.160a/ darśanaprātibhāvye tu vidhiḥ syāt pūrvacoditaḥ |
M8.160c/ dānapratibhuvi prete dāyādān api dāpayet || 160 ||
M8.161a/ adātari punar dātā vijñātaprakṛtāv ṛṇam |
M8.161c/ paścāt pratibhuvi prete parīpset kena hetunā || 161 ||
M8.162a/ nirādiṣṭadhanaś cet tu pratibhūḥ syād alandhanaḥ |
M8.162c/ svadhanād eva tad dadyān nirādiṣṭa iti sthitiḥ || 162 ||
8.1.4.17. 8.1.4.17. Validity of Transactions
[Note: [ O edn 691-692 :: O tr. 175-176]
M8.163a/ matta.unmatta.ārta.adhyadhīnair bālena sthavireṇa vā |
M8.163c/ asambaddhakṛtaś ca-eva vyāvahāro na sidhyati || 163 ||
M8.164a/ satyā na bhāṣā bhavati yady api syāt pratiṣṭhitā |
M8.164c/ bahiś ced bhāṣyate dharmāt-niyatād vyavahārikāt || 164 ||
M8.165a/ yogādhamanavikrītaṁ yogadānapratigraham |
M8.165c/ yatra vā-apy upadhiṁ paśyet tat sarvaṁ vinivartayet || 165 ||
M8.166a/ grahītā yadi naṣṭaḥ syāt kuṭumbārthe kṛto vyayaḥ | [Note: M8.166av/ M: kuṭumbe ca]
M8.166c/ dātavyaṁ bāndhavais tat syāt pravibhaktair api svataḥ || 166 ||
M8.167a/ kuṭumbārthe 'dhyadhīno 'pi vyavahāraṁ yam ācaret |
M8.167c/ svadeśe vā videśe vā taṁ jyāyān na vicālayet || 167 ||
[Page J 167 ]
M8.168a/ balād dattaṁ balād bhuktaṁ balād yac ca-api lekhitam |
M8.168c/ sarvān balakṛtān arthān akṛtān manur abravīt || 168 ||
M8.169a/ trayaḥ parārthe kliśyanti sākṣiṇaḥ pratibhūḥ kulam |
M8.169c/ catvāras tu-upacīyante vipra āḍhyo vaṇiṅ nṛpaḥ || 169 ||
8.1.4.18. 8.1.4.18. Impartiality of the King
[Note: [ O edn 692-693 :: O tr. 176]
M8.170a/ an.ādeyaṁ na-ādadīta parikṣīṇo 'pi pārthivaḥ |
M8.170c/ na ca-ādeyaṁ samṛddho 'pi sūkṣmam apy artham utsṛjet || 170 ||
M8.171a/ an.ādeyasya ca-ādānād ādeyasya ca varjanāt |
M8.171c/ daurbalyaṁ khyāpyate rājñaḥ sa pretya-iha ca naśyati || 171 ||
M8.172a/ svādānād varṇasaṁsargāt tv abalānāṁ ca rakṣaṇāt |
M8.172c/ balaṁ sañjāyate rājñaḥ sa pretya-iha ca vardhate || 172 ||
M8.173a/ tasmād yama iva svāmī svayaṁ hitvā priya.apriye |
M8.173c/ varteta yāmyayā vṛttyā jita.krodho jita.indriyaḥ || 173 ||
M8.174a/ yas tv adharmeṇa kāryāṇi mohāt kuryān narādhipaḥ |
M8.174c/ acirāt taṁ dur.ātmānaṁ vaśe kurvanti śatravaḥ || 174 ||
M8.175a/ kāma.krodhau tu saṁyamya yo 'rthān dharmeṇa paśyati |
M8.175c/ prajās tam anuvartante samudram iva sindhavaḥ || 175 ||
8.1.4.19. 8.1.4.19. Recovery of Debt
[Note: [ O edn 693-694 :: O tr. 176]
M8.176a/ yaḥ sādhayantaṁ chandena vedayed dhanikaṁ nṛpe |
M8.176c/ sa rājñā tat-caturbhāgaṁ dāpyas tasya ca tad dhanam || 176 ||
M8.177a/ karmaṇā-api samaṁ kuryād dhanikāya-adhamarṇikaḥ |
M8.177c/ samo 'vakṛṣṭajātis tu dadyāt-śreyāṁs tu tat- śanaiḥ || 177 ||
8.1.4.20. 8.1.4.20. Conclusion
[Page J 168 ] [Note: [ O edn 694 :: O tr. 176]
M8.178a/ anena vidhinā rājā mitho vivadatāṁ nṛṇām |
M8.178c/ sākṣipratyayasiddhāni kāryāṇi samatāṁ nayet || 178 ||

8.1.5. 8.1.5. Grounds for Litigation-II Deposits

[Note: [ O edn 694-697 :: O tr. 176-177]
M8.179a/ kulaje vṛttasampanne dharmajñe satyavādini |
M8.179c/ mahāpakṣe dhaniny ārye nikṣepaṁ nikṣiped budhaḥ || 179 ||
M8.180a/ yo yathā nikṣipedd haste yam arthaṁ yasya mānavaḥ |
M8.180c/ sa tathā-eva grahītavyo yathā dāyas tathā grahaḥ || 180 ||
M8.181a/ yo nikṣepaṁ yācyamāno nikṣeptur na prayacchati |
M8.181c/ sa yācyaḥ prāḍvivākena tat-nikṣeptur asannidhau || 181 ||
M8.182a/ sākṣi.abhāve praṇidhibhir vayo.rūpa.samanvitaiḥ |
M8.182c/ apadeśaiś ca sannyasya hiraṇyaṁ tasya tattvataḥ || 182 ||
M8.183a/ sa yadi pratipadyeta yathānyastaṁ yathākṛtam |
M8.183c/ na tatra vidyate kiṁ cid yat parair abhiyujyate || 183 ||
M8.184a/ teṣāṁ na dadyād yadi tu tadd hiraṇyaṁ yathāvidhi |
M8.184c/ ubhau nigṛhya dāpyaḥ syād iti dharmasya dhāraṇā || 184 || [Note: M8.184cv/ M: sa nigṛhya-ubhayaṁ dāpya iti dharmasya dhāraṇā]
M8.185a/ nikṣepa.upanidhī nityaṁ na deyau pratyanantare |
M8.185c/ naśyato vinipāte tāv anipāte tv anāśinau || 185 ||
M8.186a/ svayam eva tu yau dadyān mṛtasya pratyanantare |
M8.186c/ na sa rājñā-abhiyoktavyo na nikṣeptuś ca bandhubhiḥ || 186 ||
M8.187a/ acchalena-eva ca-anvicchet tam arthaṁ prītipūrvakam |
M8.187c/ vicārya tasya vā vṛttaṁ sāmnā-eva parisādhayet || 187 ||
[Page J 169 ]
M8.188a/ nikṣepeṣv eṣu sarveṣu vidhiḥ syāt parisādhane |
M8.188c/ sa.mudre na-āpnuyāt kiṁ cid yadi tasmān na saṁharet || 188 ||
M8.189a/ caurair hṛtaṁ jalena-ūḍham agninā dagdham eva vā |
M8.189c/ na dadyād yadi tasmāt sa na saṁharati kiṁ cana || 189 ||
M8.190a/ nikṣepasya-apahartāram anikṣeptāram eva ca |
M8.190c/ sarvair upāyair anvicchet-śapathaiś ca-eva vaidikaiḥ || 190 ||
M8.191a/ yo nikṣepaṁ na-arpayati yaś ca-a.nikṣipya yācate |
M8.191c/ tāv ubhau cauravat-śāsyau dāpyau vā tatsamaṁ damam || 191 ||
M8.192a/ nikṣepasya-apahartāraṁ tatsamaṁ dāpayed damam |
M8.192c/ tathā-upanidhihartāram aviśeṣeṇa pārthivaḥ || 192 ||
M8.193a/ upadhābhiś ca yaḥ kaś cit paradravyaṁ haren naraḥ |
M8.193c/ sa.sahāyaḥ sa hantavyaḥ prakāśaṁ vividhair vadhaiḥ || 193 ||
M8.194a/ nikṣepo yaḥ kṛto yena yāvāṁś ca kulasannidhau |
M8.194c/ tāvān eva sa vijñeyo vibruvan daṇḍam arhati || 194 ||
M8.195a/ mitho dāyaḥ kṛto yena gṛhīto mitha eva vā |
M8.195c/ mitha eva pradātavyo yathā dāyas tathā grahaḥ || 195 ||
M8.196a/ nikṣiptasya dhanasya-evaṁ prītyā-upanihitasya ca |
M8.196c/ rājā vinirṇayaṁ kuryād akṣiṇvan nyāsadhāriṇam || 196 ||

8.1.6. 8.1.6. Grounds for Litigation-III Sale Without Ownership

[Note: [ O edn 697-699 :: O tr. 177-178]
M8.197a/ vikrīṇīte parasya svaṁ yo 'svāmī svāmyasammataḥ |
M8.197c/ na taṁ nayeta sākṣyaṁ tu stenam astenamāninam || 197 ||
[Page J 170 ]
M8.198a/ avahāryo bhavet-ca-eva sa.anvayaḥ ṣaṭśataṁ damam |
M8.198c/ nir.anvayo 'n.apasaraḥ prāptaḥ syāc caurakilbiṣam || 198 ||
M8.199a/ asvāminā kṛto yas tu dāyo vikraya eva vā |
M8.199c/ akṛtaḥ sa tu vijñeyo vyavahāre yathā sthitiḥ || 199 ||
M8.200a/ sambhogo dṛśyate yatra na dṛśyeta-āgamaḥ kva cit |
M8.200c/ āgamaḥ kāraṇaṁ tatra na sambhoga iti sthitiḥ || 200 ||
M8.201a/ vikrayād yo dhanaṁ kiṁ cid gṛhṇīyat kulasannidhau |
M8.201c/ krayeṇa sa viśuddhaṁ hi nyāyato labhate dhanam || 201 ||
M8.202a/ atha mūlam anāhāryaṁ prakāśakrayaśodhitaḥ |
M8.202c/ adaṇḍyo mucyate rājñā nāṣṭiko labhate dhanam || 202 ||
8.1.6.1. 8.1.6.1. Fraudulent Sales
[Note: [ O edn 699 :: O tr. 178]
M8.203a/ na-anyad anyena saṁsṛṣṭarūpaṁ vikrayam arhati |
M8.203c/ na ca-a.sāraṁ na ca nyūnaṁ na dūreṇa tirohitam || 203 || [Note: M8.203cv/ M: na sāvadyaṁ na ca nyūnaṁ na dūre na tirohitam]
M8.204a/ anyāṁ ced darśayitvā-anyā voḍhuḥ kanyā pradīyate |
M8.204c/ ubhe ta ekaśulkena vahed ity abravīn manuḥ || 204 ||
M8.205a/ na-unmattāyā na kuṣṭhinyā na ca yā spṛṣṭa.maithunā |
M8.205c/ pūrvaṁ doṣān abhikhyāpya pradātā daṇḍam arhati || 205 ||

8.1.7. 8.1.7. Grounds for Litigation-IV Partnerships

[Note: [ O edn 700-701 :: O tr. 178]
M8.206a/ ṛtvig yadi vṛto yajñe svakarma parihāpayet |
M8.206c/ tasya karmānurūpeṇa deyo 'ṁśaḥ sahakartṛbhiḥ || 206 ||
M8.207a/ dakṣiṇāsu ca dattāsu svakarma parihāpayan |
M8.207c/ kṛtsnam eva labheta-aṁśam anyena-eva ca kārayet || 207 ||
[Page J 171 ]
M8.208a/ yasmin karmaṇi yās tu syur uktāḥ pratyaṅgadakṣiṇāḥ |
M8.208c/ sa eva tā ādidīta bhajeran sarva eva vā || 208 ||
M8.209a/ rathaṁ haret ca-adhvaryur brahmā-ādhāne ca vājinam |
M8.209c/ hotā vā-api hared aśvam udgātā ca-apy anaḥ kraye || 209 ||
M8.210a/ sarveṣām ardhino mukhyās tadardhena-ardhino 'pare |
M8.210c/ tṛtīyinas tṛtīyāṁśāś caturthāṁśāś ca pādinaḥ || 210 ||
M8.211a/ sambhūya svāni karmāṇi kurvadbhir iha mānavaiḥ |
M8.211c/ anena vidhiyogena kartavyā-aṁśaprakalpanā || 211 ||

8.1.8. 8.1.8. Grounds for Litigation-V Non-delivery of Gifts

[Note: [ O edn 701 :: O tr. 178]
M8.212a/ dharmārthaṁ yena dattaṁ syāt kasmai cid yācate dhanam |
M8.212c/ paścāc ca na tathā tat syān na deyaṁ tasya tad bhavet || 212 ||
M8.213a/ yadi saṁsādhayet tat tu darpāt-lobhena vā punaḥ |
M8.213c/ rājñā dāpyaḥ suvarṇaṁ syāt tasya steyasya niṣkṛtiḥ || 213 ||
M8.214a/ dattasya-eṣā-uditā dharmyā yathāvad anapakriyā |
M8.214c/ ata ūrdhvaṁ pravakṣyāmi vetanasya-anapakriyām || 214 ||

8.1.9. 8.1.9. Grounds for Litigation-VI Non-payment of Wages

[Note: [ O edn 702 :: O tr. 178-179]
M8.215a/ bhṛto na-ārto na kuryād yo darpāt karma yathāa.uditam | [Note: M8.215av/ M: anārto]
M8.215c/ sa daṇḍyaḥ kṛṣṇalāny aṣṭau na deyaṁ ca-asya vetanam || 215 ||
M8.216a/ ārtas tu kuryāt svasthaḥ san yathābhāṣitam āditaḥ |
M8.216c/ sa dīrghasya-api kālasya tat-labheta(-eva vetanam || 216 ||
M8.217a/ yathā.uktam ārtaḥ sustho vā yas tat karma na kārayet |
M8.217c/ na tasya vetanaṁ deyam alpa.ūnasya-api karmaṇaḥ || 217 ||
[Page J 172 ]
M8.218a/ eṣa dharmo 'khilena-ukto vetanādānakarmaṇaḥ |
M8.218c/ ata ūrdhvaṁ pravakṣyāmi dharmaṁ samayabhedinām || 218 ||

8.1.10. 8.1.10. Grounds for Litigation-VII Breach of Contract

[Note: [ O edn 702-703 :: O tr. 179]
M8.219a/ yo grāma.deśa.saṅghānāṁ kṛtvā satyena saṁvidam |
M8.219c/ visaṁvaden naro lobhāt taṁ rāṣṭrād vipravāsayet || 219 ||
M8.220a/ nigṛhya dāpayec ca-enaṁ samayavyabhicāriṇam |
M8.220c/ catuḥsuvarṇān ṣaṇniṣkāṁś-śatamānaṁ ca rājakam || 220 ||
M8.221a/ etad daṇḍavidhiṁ kuryād dhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ |
M8.221c/ grāma.jāti.samūheṣu samayavyabhicāriṇām || 221 ||

8.1.11. 8.1.11. Grounds for Litigation-VIII Cancellation of Sale or Purchase

[Note: [ O edn 703-704 :: O tr. 179]
M8.222a/ krītvā vikrīya vā kiṁ cid yasya-ihānuśayo bhavet |
M8.222c/ so 'ntar daśāhāt tad dravyaṁ dadyāc ca-evādadīta vā || 222 ||
M8.223a/ pareṇa tu daśāhasya na dadyān nāpi dāpayet |
M8.223c/ ādadāno dadat ca-eva rājñā daṇḍyau śatāni ṣaṭ || 223 ||
M8.224a/ yas tu doṣavatīṁ kanyām anākhyāya prayacchati |
M8.224c/ tasya kuryān nṛpo daṇḍaṁ svayaṁ ṣaṇṇavatiṁ paṇān || 224 ||
M8.225a/ akanyā-iti tu yaḥ kanyāṁ brūyād dveṣeṇa mānavaḥ |
M8.225c/ sa śataṁ prāpnuyād daṇḍaṁ tasyā doṣam adarśayan || 225 ||
M8.226a/ pāṇigrahaṇikā mantrāḥ kanyāsv eva pratiṣṭhitāḥ |
M8.226c/ na-akanyāsu kva cin nṝṇāṁ lupta.dharmakriyā hi tāḥ || 226 ||
M8.227a/ pāṇigrahaṇikā mantrā niyataṁ dāralakṣaṇam |
M8.227c/ teṣāṁ niṣṭhā tu vijñeyā vidvadbhiḥ saptame pade || 227 ||
[Page J 173 ]
M8.228a/ yasmin yasmin kṛte kārye yasya-ihānuśayo bhavet |
M8.228c/ tam anena vidhānena dharmye pathi niveśayet || 228 ||

8.1.12. 8.1.12. Grounds for Litigation-IX Disputes between Owners and Herdsmen

[Note: [ O edn 704-708 :: O tr. 179-180]
M8.229a/ paśuṣu svāmināṁ ca-eva pālānāṁ ca vyatikrame |
M8.229c/ vivādaṁ sampravakṣyāmi yathāvad dharmatattvataḥ || 229 ||
8.1.12.1. 8.1.12.1. Safety of Herd
[Note: [ O edn 704-706 :: O tr. 179-180]
M8.230a/ divā vaktavyatā pāle rātrau svāmini tadgṛhe |
M8.230c/ yogakṣeme 'nyathā cet tu pālo vaktavyatām iyāt || 230 ||
M8.231a/ gopaḥ kṣīrabhṛto yas tu sa duhyād daśato varām |
M8.231c/ gosvāmyanumate bhṛtyaḥ sā syāt pāle 'bhṛte bhṛtiḥ || 231 ||
M8.232a/ naṣṭaṁ vinaṣṭaṁ kṛmibhiḥ śvahataṁ viṣame mṛtam |
M8.232c/ hīnaṁ puruṣakāreṇa pradadyāt pāla eva tu || 232 ||
M8.233a/ vighuṣya tu hṛtaṁ caurair na pālo dātum arhati |
M8.233c/ yadi deśe ca kāle ca svāminaḥ svasya śaṁsati || 233 ||
M8.234a/ karṇau carma ca vālāṁś ca bastiṁ snāyuṁ ca rocanām |
M8.234c/ paśuṣu svāmināṁ dadyān mṛteṣv aṅkāni darśayet || 234 || [Note: M8.234cv/ M: aṅkāṁś ca darśayet]
M8.235a/ aja.avike tu saṁruddhe vṛkaiḥ pāle tv an.āyati |
M8.235c/ yāṁ prasahya vṛko hanyāt pāle tat kilbiṣaṁ bhavet || 235 ||
M8.236a/ tāsāṁ ced avaruddhānāṁ carantīnāṁ mitho vane |
M8.236c/ yām utplutya vṛko hanyān na pālas tatra kilbiṣī || 236 ||
8.1.12.2. 8.1.12.2. Damage to Crops
[Note: [ O edn 706-708 :: O tr. 180]
M8.237a/ dhanuḥśataṁ parīhāro grāmasya syāt samantataḥ |
M8.237c/ śamyāpātās trayo vā-api triguṇo nagarasya tu || 237 ||
[Page J 174 ]
M8.238a/ tatra-aparivṛtaṁ dhānyaṁ vihiṁsyuḥ paśavo yadi |
M8.238c/ na tatra praṇayed daṇḍaṁ nṛpatiḥ paśurakṣiṇām || 238 ||
M8.239a/ vṛtiṁ tatra prakurvīta yām uṣtro na vilokayet |
M8.239c/ chidraṁ ca vārayet sarvaṁ śva.sūkaramukhānugam || 239 ||
M8.240a/ pathi kṣetre parivṛte grāmāntīye 'tha vā punaḥ |
M8.240c/ sa.pālaḥ śatadaṇḍa.arho vipālān vārayet paśūn || 240 ||
M8.241a/ kṣetreṣv anyeṣu tu paśuḥ sa.pādaṁ paṇam arhati |
M8.241c/ sarvatra tu sado deyaḥ kṣetrikasya-iti dhāraṇā || 241 ||
M8.242a/ a.nirdaśāhāṁ gāṁ sūtāṁ vṛṣān devapaśūṁs tathā |
M8.242c/ sa.pālān vā vi.pālān vā na daṇḍyān manur abravīt || 242 ||
M8.243a/ kṣetriyasya-atyaye daṇḍo bhāgād daśaguṇo bhavet | [Note: M8.243av/ M: kṣetrikasya-atyaye]
M8.243c/ tato 'rdhadaṇḍo bhṛtyānām ajñānāt kṣetrikasya tu || 243 ||
M8.244a/ etad vidhānam ātiṣṭhed dhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ |
M8.244c/ svāmināṁ ca paśūnāṁ ca pālānāṁ ca vyatikrame || 244 ||

8.1.13. 8.1.13. Grounds for Litigation-X Boundary Disputes

[Note: [ O edn 708-712 :: O tr. 180-181]
M8.245a/ sīmāṁ prati samutpanne vivāde grāmayor dvayoḥ |
M8.245c/ jyeṣṭhe māsi nayet sīmāṁ su.prakāśeṣu setuṣu || 245 ||
8.1.13.1. 8.1.13.1. Boundary Markers
[Note: [ O edn 708-709 :: O tr. 180-181]
M8.246a/ sīṁāvṛkṣāṁś ca kurvīta nyagrodha.aśvattha.kiṁśukān |
M8.246c/ śālmalīn sālatālāṁś ca kṣīriṇaś ca-eva pādapān || 246 ||
M8.247a/ gulmān veṇūṁś ca vividhān śamī.vallī.sthalāni ca |
M8.247c/ śarān kubjakagulmāṁś ca tathā sīmā na naśyati || 247 ||
[Page J 175 ]
M8.248a[M250a]/ taḍāgāny udapānāni vāpyaḥ prasravaṇāni ca |
M8.248c[M250c]/ sīmāsandhiṣu kāryāṇi devatāyatanāni ca || 248 ||
M8.249a/ upachannāni cānyāni sīmāliṅgāni kārayet |
M8.249c/ sīmājñāne nṛṇāṁ vīkṣya nityaṁ loke viparyayam || 249 ||
M8.250a[M248a]/ aśmano 'sthīni govālāṁs tuṣān bhasma kapālikāḥ |
M8.250c[M248c]/ karīṣam iṣṭakā.aṅgārāṁś-śarkarā vālukās tathā || 250 ||
M8.251a/ yāni ca-evamprakārāṇi kālād bhūmir na bhakṣayet |
M8.251c/ tāni sandhiṣu sīmāyām a.prakāśāni kārayet || 251 || [Note: M8.251cv/ M: sīmāyā]
8.1.13.2. 8.1.13.2. Settling Boundary Disputes
[Note: [ O edn 709-712 :: O tr. 181]
M8.252a/ etair liṅgair nayet sīmāṁ rājā vivadamānayoḥ |
M8.252c/ pūrvabhuktyā ca satatam udakasya-āgamena ca || 252 ||
M8.253a/ yadi sṁśaya eva syāt-liṅgānām api darśane |
M8.253c/ sākṣipratyaya eva syāt sīmāvādavinirṇayaḥ || 253 || [Note: M8.253cv/ M: sīmāvādaviniścayaḥ]
M8.254a/ grāmīyaka.kulānāṁ ca samakṣaṁ sīmni sākṣiṇaḥ | [Note: M8.254av/ M: grāmeyaka.]
M8.254c/ praṣṭavyāḥ sīmaliṅgāni tayoś ca-eva vivādinoḥ || 254 || [Note: M8.254cv/ M: sīmāliṅgāni]
M8.255a/ te pṛṣtās tu yathā brūyuḥ samastāḥ sīmni niścayam |
M8.255c/ nibadhnīyāt tathā sīmāṁ sarvāṁs tāṁś ca-eva nāmataḥ || 255 ||
M8.256a/ śirobhis te gṛhītvā-urvīṁ sragviṇo rakta.vāsasaḥ |
M8.256c/ sukṛtaiḥ śāpithāḥ svaiḥ svair nayeyus te samañjasam || 256 ||
M8.257a/ yathā.uktena nayantas te pūyante satyasākṣiṇaḥ |
M8.257c/ viparītaṁ nayantas tu dāpyāḥ syur dviśataṁ damam || 257 ||
[Page J 176 ]
M8.258a/ sākṣyabhāve tu catvāro grāmāḥ sāmantavāsinaḥ | [Note: M8.258av/ M: grāmasīmāntavāsinaḥ]
M8.258c/ sīmāvinirṇayaṁ kuryuḥ prayatā rājasannidhau || 258 ||
M8.259a/ sāmantānām abhāve tu maulānāṁ sīmni sākṣiṇām |
M8.259c/ imān apy anuyuñjīta puruṣān vana.gocarān || 259 ||
M8.260a/ vyādhān-śākunikān gopān kaivartān mūlakhānakān |
M8.260c/ vyālagrāhān uñchavṛttīn anyāṁś ca vanacāriṇaḥ || 260 ||
M8.261a/ te pṛṣṭās tu yathā brūyuḥ sīmāsandhiṣu lakṣaṇam |
M8.261c/ tat tathā sthāpayed rājā dharmeṇa grāmayor dvayoḥ || 261 ||
M8.262a/ kṣetra.kūpa.taḍāgānām ārāmasya gṛhasya ca |
M8.262c/ sāmantapratyayo jñeyaḥ sīmāsetuvinirṇayaḥ || 262 ||
M8.263a/ sāmantāś cet-mṛṣā brūyuḥ setau vivādatāṁ nṛṇām |
M8.263c/ sarve pṛthak pṛthag daṇḍyā rājñā madhyamasāhasam || 263 ||
M8.264a/ gṛhaṁ taḍāgam ārāmaṁ kṣetraṁ vā bhīṣayā haran |
M8.264c/ śatāni pañca daṇḍyaḥ syād ajñānād dviśato damaḥ || 264 ||
M8.265a/ sīmāyām a.viṣahyāyāṁ svayaṁ rājā-eva dharmavit |
M8.265c/ pradiśed bhūmim ekeṣām upakārād iti sthitiḥ || 265 ||
M8.266a/ eṣo 'khilena-abhihito dharmaḥ sīmāvinirṇaye |
M8.266c/ ata ūrdhvaṁ pravakṣyāmi vākpāruṣyavinirṇayam || 266 ||

8.1.14. 8.1.14. Grounds for Litigation-XI Verbal Assault

[Note: [ O edn 712-715 :: O tr. 181-182]
M8.267a/ śataṁ brāhmaṇam ākruśya kṣatriyo daṇḍam arhati |
M8.267c/ vaiśyo 'py ardhaśataṁ dve vā śūdras tu vadham arhati || 267 ||
[Page J 177 ]
M8.268a/ pañcāśad brāhmaṇo daṇḍyaḥ kṣatriyasya-abhiśaṁsane |
M8.268c/ vaiśye syād ardhapañcāśat-śūdre dvādaśako damaḥ || 268 ||
M8.269a/ samavarṇe dvijātīnāṁ dvādaśa-eva vyatikrame |
M8.269c/ vādeṣv a.vacanīyeṣu tad eva dviguṇaṁ bhavet || 269 ||
M8.270a/ ekajātir dvijātīṁs tu vācā dāruṇayā kṣipan |
M8.270c/ jihvāyāḥ prāpnuyāc chedaṁ jaghanya.prabhavo hi saḥ || 270 ||
M8.271a/ nāma.jātigrahaṁ tv eṣām abhidroheṇa kurvataḥ |
M8.271c/ nikṣepyo 'yomayaḥ śaṅkur jvalann āsye daśāṅgulaḥ || 271 ||
M8.272a/ dharma.upadeśaṁ darpeṇa viprāṇām asya kurvataḥ |
M8.272c/ taptam āsecayet tailaṁ vaktre śrotre ca pārthivaḥ || 272 || [Note: M8.272cv/ M: śrautre]
M8.273a/ śrutaṁ deśaṁ ca jātiṁ ca karma śarīram eva ca |
M8.273c/ vitathena bruvan darpād dāpyaḥ syād dviśataṁ damam || 273 ||
M8.274a/ kāṇaṁ vā-apy atha vā khañjam anyaṁ vā-api tathāvidham |
M8.274c/ tathyena-api bruvan dāpyo daṇḍaṁ kārṣāpaṇa.avaram || 274 ||
M8.275a/ mātaraṁ pitaraṁ jāyāṁ bhrātaraṁ tanayaṁ gurum |
M8.275c/ ākṣārayan-śataṁ dāpyaḥ panthānaṁ ca-adadad guroḥ || 275 ||
M8.276a/ brāhmaṇa.kṣatriyābhyāṁ tu daṇḍaḥ kāryo vijānatā |
M8.276c/ brāhmaṇe sāhasaḥ pūrvaḥ kṣatriye tv eva madhyamaḥ || 276 ||
M8.277a/ viś.śūdrayor evam eva svajātiṁ prati tattvataḥ |
M8.277c/ cheda.varjaṁ praṇayanaṁ daṇḍasya-iti viniścayaḥ || 277 ||
[Page J 178 ]
M8.278a/ eṣa daṇḍavidhiḥ prokto vākpāruṣyasya tattvataḥ |
M8.278c/ ata ūrdhvaṁ pravakṣyāmi daṇḍapāruṣyanirṇayam || 278 ||

8.1.15. 8.1.15. Grounds for Litigation-XII Physical Assault

[Note: [ O edn 715-720 :: O tr. 182-183]
8.1.15.1. 8.1.15.1. Personal Injury
[Note: [ O edn 715-717 :: O tr. 182]
M8.279a/ yena kena cid aṅgena hiṁsyāc cet-śreṣṭham antyajaḥ |
M8.279c/ chettavyaṁ tad tad eva-asya tan manor anuśāsanam || 279 ||
M8.280a/ pāṇim udyamya daṇḍaṁ vā pāṇicchedanam arhati |
M8.280c/ pādena praharan kopāt pādacchedanam arhati || 280 ||
M8.281a/ sahāsanam abhiprepsur utkṛṣṭasya-apakṛṣṭajaḥ |
M8.281c/ kaṭyāṁ kṛta.aṅko nirvāsyaḥ sphicaṁ vā-asya-avakartayet || 281 ||
M8.282a/ avaniṣṭhīvato darpād dvāv oṣṭhau chedayen nṛpaḥ |
M8.282c/ avamūtrayato meḍhram avaśardhayato gudam || 282 ||
M8.283a/ keśeṣu gṛhṇato hastau chedayed avicārayan |
M8.283c/ pādayor dāḍhikāyāṁ ca grīvāyāṁ vṛṣaṇeṣu ca || 283 ||
M8.284a/ tvagbhedakaḥ śataṁ daṇḍyo lohitasya ca darśakaḥ |
M8.284c/ māṁsabhettā tu ṣaṭ.niṣkān pravāsyas tv asthibhedakaḥ || 284 ||
M8.285a/ vanaspatīnāṁ sarveṣām upabhogo yathā yathā |
M8.285c/ yathā tathā damaḥ kāryo hiṁsāyām iti dhāraṇā || 285 ||
M8.286a/ manuṣyāṇāṁ paśūnāṁ ca duḥkhāya prahṛte sati |
M8.286c/ yathā yathā mahad duḥkhaṁ daṇḍaṁ kuryāt tathā tathā || 286 ||
M8.287a/ aṅgāvapīḍanāyāṁ ca vraṇa.śonitayos tathā | [Note: M8.287av/ M: prāṇa.śonitayos]
M8.287c/ samutthānavyayaṁ dāpyaḥ sarvadaṇḍam atha-api vā || 287 ||
8.1.15.2. 8.1.15.2. Damage to Property
[Page J 179 ] [Note: [ O edn 717 :: O tr. 182-183]
M8.288a/ dravyāṇi hiṁsyād yo yasya jñānato 'jñānato 'pi vā |
M8.288c/ sa tasya-utpādayet tuṣṭiṁ rājñe dadyāc ca tatsamam || 288 ||
M8.289a/ carma.cārmikabhāṇḍeṣu kāṣṭha.loṣṭamayeṣu |
M8.289c/ mūlyāt pañcaguṇo daṇḍaḥ puṣpa.mūla.phaleṣu ca || 289 ||
8.1.15.3. 8.1.15.3. Injuries Caused by Vehicles
[Note: [ O edn 717-719 :: O tr. 183]
M8.290a/ yānasya ca-eva yātuś ca yānasvāmina eva ca |
M8.290c/ daśātivartanāny āhuḥ śeṣe daṇḍo vidhīyate || 290 ||
M8.291a/ chinna.nāsye bhagna.yuge tiryak.pratimukha.āgate |
M8.291c/ akṣa.bhaṅge ca yānasya cakra.bhaṅge tathā-eva ca || 291 ||
M8.292a/ chedane ca-eva yantrāṇāṁ yoktra.raśmyos tathā-eva ca |
M8.292c/ ākrande ca-apy apaihi-iti na daṇḍaṁ manur abravīt || 292 ||
M8.293a/ yatra-apavartate yugyaṁ vaiguṇyāt prājakasya tu |
M8.293c/ tatra svāmī bhaved daṇḍyo hiṁsāyāṁ dviśataṁ damam || 293 ||
M8.294a/ prājakaś ced bhaved āptaḥ prājako daṇḍam arhati |
M8.294c/ yugyasthāḥ prājake 'nāpte sarve daṇḍyāḥ śataṁ śatam || 294 ||
M8.295a/ sa cet tu pathi saṁruddhaḥ paśubhir vā rathena vā |
M8.295c/ pramāpayet prāṇabhṛtas tatra daṇḍo 'vicāritaḥ || 295 ||
M8.296a/ manuṣyamāraṇe kṣipraṁ cauravat kilbiṣaṁ bhavet |
M8.296c/ prāṇabhṛtsu mahatsv ardhaṁ go.gaja.uṣṭra.hayādiṣu || 296 ||
M8.297a/ kṣudrakāṇāṁ paśūnāṁ tu hiṁsāyāṁ dviśato damaḥ |
M8.297c/ pañcāśat tu bhaved daṇḍaḥ śubheṣu mṛgapakṣiṣu || 297 ||
[Page J 180 ]
M8.298a/ gardhabha.aja.āvikānāṁ tu daṇḍaḥ syāt pañcamāṣikaḥ | [Note: M8.298av/ M: pāñcamāṣikaḥ]
M8.298c/ māṣikas tu bhaved daṇḍaḥ śva.sūkaranipātane || 298 ||
8.1.15.4. 8.1.15.4. Corporal Punishment
[Note: [ O edn 719-720 :: O tr. 183]
M8.299a/ bhāryā putraś ca dāsaś ca preṣyo bhrātrā ca sa.udaraḥ |
M8.299c/ prāpta.aparādhās tāḍyāḥ syū rajjvā veṇudalena vā || 299 ||
M8.300a/ pṛṣṭhatas tu śarīrasya na-uttamāṅge kathaṁ cana |
M8.300c/ ato 'nyathā tu praharan prāptaḥ syāc caurakilbiṣam || 300 ||
M8.301a/ eṣo 'khilena-abhihito daṇḍapāruṣyanirṇayaḥ |
M8.301c/ stenasya-ataḥ pravakṣyāmi vidhiṁ daṇḍavinirṇaye || 301 ||

8.1.16. 8.1.16. Grounds for Litigation-XIII Theft

[Note: [ O edn 720-728 :: O tr. 183-185]
8.1.16.1. 8.1.16.1. Suppression of Thieves
[Note: [ O edn 720 :: O tr. 183]
M8.302a/ paramaṁ yatnam ātiṣṭhet stenānāṁ nigrahe nṛpaḥ |
M8.302c/ stenānāṁ nigrahād asya yaśo rāṣṭraṁ ca vardhate || 302 ||
M8.303a/ abhayasya hi yo dātā sa pūjyaḥ satataṁ nṛpaḥ |
M8.303c/ sattraṁ hi vardhate tasya sadā-eva-abhaya.dakṣiṇam || 303 ||
8.1.16.2. 8.1.16.2. Obligation to Offer Protection
[Note: [ O edn 720-722 :: O tr. 183-184]
M8.304a/ sarvato dharmaṣaḍbhāgo rājño bhavati rakṣataḥ |
M8.304c/ adharmād api ṣaḍbhāgo bhavaty asya hy a.rakṣataḥ || 304 ||
M8.305a/ yad adhīte yad yajate yad dadāti yad arcati |
M8.305c/ tasya ṣaḍbhāgabhāg rājā samyag bhavati rakṣaṇāt || 305 ||
M8.306a/ rakṣan dharmeṇa bhūtāni rājā vadhyāṁś ca ghātayan |
M8.306c/ yajate 'har ahar yajñaiḥ sahasraśata.dakṣiṇaiḥ || 306 ||
M8.307a/ yo '.rakṣan balim ādatte karaṁ śulkaṁ ca pārthivaḥ |
M8.307c/ pratibhāgaṁ ca daṇḍaṁ ca sa sadyo narakaṁ vrajet || 307 ||
[Page J 181 ]
M8.308a/ arakṣitāram rājānaṁ baliṣaḍbhāga.hāriṇam | [Note: M8.308av/ K: arakṣitāraṁ attāraṁ]
M8.308c/ tam āhuḥ sarvalokasya samagramala.hārakam || 308 ||
M8.309a/ anapekṣita.maryādaṁ nāstikaṁ vipralumpakam | [Note: M8.309av/ M: anavekṣita.maryādaṁ]
M8.309c/ arakṣitāram attāraṁ nṛpaṁ vidyād adho.gatim || 309 ||
M8.310a/ adhārmikaṁ tribhir nyāyair nigṛhṇīyāt prayatnataḥ |
M8.310c/ nirodhanena bandhena vividhena vadhena ca || 310 ||
M8.311a/ nigraheṇa hi pāpānāṁ sādhūnāṁ saṅgraheṇa ca |
M8.311c/ dvijātaya iva-ijyābhiḥ pūyante satataṁ nṛpāḥ || 311 ||
M8.312a/ kṣantavyaṁ prabhuṇā nityaṁ kṣipatāṁ kāryiṇāṁ nṛṇām |
M8.312c/ bāla.vṛddha.āturāṇāṁ ca kurvatā hitam ātmanaḥ || 312 ||
M8.313a/ yaḥ kṣipto marṣayaty ārtais tena svarge mahīyate |
M8.313c/ yas tv aiśvaryān na kṣamate narakaṁ tena gacchati || 313 ||
8.1.16.3. 8.1.16.3. Punishment of Thieves
[Note: [ O edn 722-728 :: O tr. 184-185]
M8.314a/ rājā stenena gantavyo mukta.keśena dhāvatā | [Note: M8.314av/ M: dhīmatā]
M8.314c/ ācakṣāṇena tat steyam evaṅkarmā-asmi śādhi mām || 314 ||
M8.315a/ skandhena-ādāya musalaṁ laguḍaṁ vā-api khādiram | [Note: M8.315av/ M: muśalaṁ]
M8.315c/ śaktiṁ ca-ubhayatas tīkṣṇām āyasaṁ daṇḍam eva vā || 315 ||
M8.316a/ śāsanād vā vimokṣād vā stenaḥ steyād vimucyate |
M8.316c/ a.śāsitvā tu taṁ rājā stenasya-āpnoti kilbiṣam || 316 ||
M8.317a/ annāde bhrūṇahā mārṣṭi patyau bhāryā-apacāriṇī |
M8.317c/ gurau śiṣyaś ca yājyaś ca steno rājani kilbiṣam || 317 ||
[Page J 182 ]
M8.318a/ rājabhiḥ kṛtadaṇḍās tu kṛtvā pāpāni mānavāḥ | [Note: M8.318av/ M: rājabhir dhṛtadaṇḍās tu]
M8.318c/ nir.malāḥ svargam āyānti santaḥ sukṛtino yathā || 318 ||
M8.319a/ yas tu rajjuṁ ghaṭaṁ kūpādd hared bhindyāc ca yaḥ prapām |
M8.319c/ sa daṇḍaṁ prāpnuyān māṣaṁ tac ca tasmin samāharet || 319 ||
M8.320a/ dhānyaṁ daśabhyaḥ kumbhebhyo harato 'bhyadhikaṁ vadhaḥ |
M8.320c/ śeṣe 'py ekādaśaguṇaṁ dāpyas tasya ca tad dhanam || 320 ||
M8.321a/ tathā dharimameyānāṁ śatād abhyadhike vadhaḥ |
M8.321c/ suvarṇa.rajatādīnām uttamānāṁ ca vāsasām || 321 ||
M8.322a/ pañcāśatas tv abhyadhike hastacchedanam iṣyate |
M8.322c/ śeṣe tv ekādaśaguṇaṁ mūlyād daṇḍaṁ prakalpayet || 322 ||
M8.323a/ puruṣāṇāṁ kulīnānāṁ nārīṇāṁ ca viśeṣataḥ |
M8.323c/ mukhyānāṁ ca-eva ratnānāṁ haraṇe vadham arhati || 323 ||
M8.324a/ mahāpaśūnāṁ haraṇe śastrāṇām auṣadhasya ca |
M8.324c/ kālam āsādya kāryaṁ ca daṇḍaṁ rājā prakalpayet || 324 ||
M8.325a/ goṣu brāhmaṇasaṁsthāsu churikāyāś ca bhedane | [Note: M8.325av/ M: kharikāyāś ca]
M8.325c/ paśūnāṁ haraṇe ca-eva sadyaḥ kāryo 'rdhapādikaḥ || 325 ||
M8.326a/ sūtra.kārpāsa.kiṇvānāṁ gomayasya guḍasya ca |
M8.326c/ dadhnaḥ kṣīrasya takrasya pānīyasya tṛṇasya ca || 326 ||
M8.327a/ veṇuvaidalabhāṇḍānāṁ lavaṇānāṁ tathā-eva ca |
M8.327c/ mṛṇmayānāṁ ca haraṇe mṛdo bhasmana eva ca || 327 ||
[Page J 183 ]
M8.328a/ matsyānāṁ pakṣiṇāṁ ca-eva tailasya ca ghṛtasya ca |
M8.328c/ māṁsasya madhunaś ca-eva yac ca-anyat paśu.sambhavam || 328 ||
M8.329a/ anyeṣāṁ ca-evam.ādīnāṁ madyānām odanasya ca | [Note: M8.329av/ M: ca-evamādīnām adyānām]
M8.329c/ pakvānnānāṁ ca sarveṣāṁ tanmulyād dviguṇo damaḥ || 329 ||
M8.330a/ puṣpeṣu harite dhānye gulma.vallī.nageṣu ca |
M8.330c/ anyeṣv a.paripūteṣu daṇḍaḥ syāt pañcakṛṣṇalaḥ || 330 ||
M8.331a/ paripūteṣu dhānyeṣu śāka.mūla.phaleṣu ca |
M8.331c/ niranvaye śataṁ daṇḍaḥ sānvaye 'rdhaśataṁ damaḥ || 331 ||
M8.332a/ syāt sāhasaṁ tv anvayavat prasabhaṁ karma yat kṛtam |
M8.332c/ niranvayaṁ bhavet steyaṁ hṛtvā-apavyayate ca yat || 332 ||
M8.333a/ yas tv etāny upakḷptāni dravyāṇi stenayen naraḥ |
M8.333c/ tam ādyaṁ daṇḍayed rājā yaś cāgniṁ corayed gṛhāt || 333 || [Note: M8.333cv/ M: taṁ śataṁ]
M8.334a/ yena yena yathāṅgena steno nṛṣu viceṣṭate |
M8.334c/ tat tad eva haret tasya pratyādeśāya pārthivaḥ || 334 ||
M8.335a/ pitā-ācāryaḥ suhṛt-mātā bhāryā putraḥ purohitaḥ |
M8.335c/ na-adaṇḍyo nāma rājño 'sti yaḥ svadharme na tiṣṭhati || 335 ||
M8.336a/ kārṣāpaṇaṁ bhaved daṇḍyo yatra-anyaḥ prākṛto janaḥ |
M8.336c/ tatra rājā bhaved daṇḍyaḥ sahasram iti dhāraṇā || 336 ||
M8.337a/ aṣṭāpādyaṁ tu śūdrasya steye bhavati kilbiṣam |
M8.337c/ ṣoḍaśa-eva tu vaiśyasya dvātriṁśat kṣatriyasya ca || 337 ||
[Page J 184 ]
M8.338a/ brāhmaṇasya catuḥṣaṣṭiḥ pūrṇaṁ vā-api śataṁ bhavet |
M8.338c/ dviguṇā vā catuḥṣaṣṭis taddoṣaguṇavidd hi saḥ || 338 ||
M8.339a/ vānaspatyaṁ mūla.phalaṁ dāru-agny.arthaṁ tathā-eva ca |
M8.339c/ tṛṇaṁ ca gobhyo grāsa.artham asteyaṁ manur abravīt || 339 ||
M8.340a/ yo 'dattādāyino hastāt-lipseta brāhmaṇo dhanam |
M8.340c/ yājana.adhyāpanena-api yathā stenas tathā-eva saḥ || 340 ||
M8.341a/ dvijo 'dhvagaḥ kṣīṇa.vṛttir dvāv ikṣū dve ca mūlake |
M8.341c/ ādadānaḥ parakṣetrāt-na daṇḍaṁ dātum arhati || 341 ||
M8.342a/ a.sanditānāṁ sandātā sanditānāṁ ca mokṣakaḥ |
M8.342c/ dāsa.aśva.rathahartā ca prāptaḥ syāc corakilbiṣam || 342 ||
M8.343a/ anena vidhinā rājā kurvāṇaḥ stenanigraham |
M8.343c/ yaśo 'smin prāpnuyāt-loke pretya ca-anuttamaṁ sukham || 343 ||

8.1.17. 8.1.17. Grounds for Litigation-XIV Violence

[Note: [ O edn 728-729 :: O tr. 185-186]
M8.344a/ aindraṁ sthānam abhiprepsur yaśaś ca-akṣayam avyayam |
M8.344c/ na-upekṣeta kṣaṇam api rājā sāhasikaṁ naram || 344 ||
M8.345a/ vāgduṣṭāt taskarāc ca-eva daṇḍena-eva ca hiṁsataḥ |
M8.345c/ sāhasasya naraḥ kartā vijñeyaḥ pāpakṛttamaḥ || 345 ||
M8.346a/ sāhase vartamānaṁ tu yo marṣayati pārthivaḥ |
M8.346c/ sa vināśaṁ vrajaty āśu vidveṣaṁ ca-adhigacchati || 346 ||
M8.347a/ na mitrakāraṇād rājā vipulād vā dhanāgamāt |
M8.347c/ samutsṛjet sāhasikān sarvabhūtabhayāvahān || 347 ||
8.1.17.1. 8.1.17.1. Permissable Violence
[Page J 185 ] [Note: [ O edn 728-729 :: O tr. 185-186]
M8.348a/ śastraṁ dvijātibhir grāhyaṁ dharmo yatra-uparudhyate |
M8.348c/ dvijātīnāṁ ca varṇānāṁ viplave kālakārite || 348 ||
M8.349a/ ātmanaś ca paritrāṇe dakṣiṇānāṁ ca saṅgare |
M8.349c/ strī.viprābhyupapattau ca ghnan dharmeṇa na duṣyati || 349 ||
M8.350a/ guruṁ vā bāla.vṛddhau vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā bahu.śrutam |
M8.350c/ ātatāyinam āyāntaṁ hanyād eva-a.vicārayan || 350 ||
M8.351a/ na-ātatāyivadhe doṣo hantur bhavati kaś cana |
M8.351c/ prakāśaṁ vā-aprakāśaṁ vā manyus taṁ manyum ṛcchati || 351 ||

8.1.18. 8.1.18. Grounds for Litigation-XV Sexual Crimes Against Women

[Note: [ O edn 730-737 :: O tr. 186-187]
8.1.18.1. 8.1.18.1. Sexual Crimes against Married Women
[Note: [ O edn 730-732 :: O tr. 186]
M8.352a/ paradārābhimarśeṣu pravṛttān nṝn mahīpatiḥ |
M8.352c/ udvejanakarair daṇḍaiś chinnayitvā pravāsayet || 352 || [Note: M8.352cv/ M: cihnayitvā]
M8.353a/ tat.samuttho hi lokasya jāyate varṇasaṅkaraḥ |
M8.353c/ yena mūlaharo 'dharmaḥ sarvanāśāya kalpate || 353 ||
M8.354a/ parasya patnyā puruṣaḥ sambhāṣāṁ yojayan rahaḥ |
M8.354c/ pūrvam ākṣārito doṣaiḥ prāpnuyāt pūrvasāhasam || 354 ||
M8.355a/ yas tv an.ākṣāritaḥ pūrvam abhibhāṣate kāraṇāt |
M8.355c/ na doṣaṁ prāpnuyāt kiṁ cin na hi tasya vyatikramaḥ || 355 ||
M8.356a/ parastriyaṁ yo 'bhivadet tīrthe 'raṇye vane 'pi vā |
M8.356c/ nadīnāṁ vā-api sambhede sa saṅgrahaṇam āpnuyāt || 356 ||
M8.357a/ upacārakriyā keliḥ sparśo bhūṣaṇa.vāsasām | [Note: M8.357av/ M: upakārakriyā]
M8.357c/ saha khaṭvā-āsanaṁ ca-eva sarvaṁ saṅgrahaṇaṁ smṛtam || 357 ||
[Page J 186 ]
M8.358a/ striyaṁ spṛśed adeśe yaḥ spṛṣṭo vā marṣayet tayā |
M8.358c/ parasparasya-anumate sarvaṁ saṅgrahaṇaṁ smṛtam || 358 ||
M8.359a/ abrāhmaṇaḥ saṅgrahaṇe prāṇāntaṁ daṇḍam arhati |
M8.359c/ caturṇām api varṇānāṁ dārā rakṣyatamāḥ sadā || 359 ||
M8.360a/ bhikṣukā bandinaś ca-eva dīkṣitāḥ kāravas tathā |
M8.360c/ sambhāṣanaṁ saha strībhiḥ kuryur a.prativāritāḥ || 360 ||
M8.361a/ na sambhāṣāṁ parastrībhiḥ pratiṣiddhaḥ samācaret |
M8.361c/ niṣiddho bhāṣamāṇas tu suvarṇaṁ daṇḍam arhati || 361 ||
M8.362a/ na-eṣa cāraṇadāreṣu vidhir na-ātma.upajīviṣu |
M8.362c/ sajjayanti hi te nārīr nigūḍhāś cārayanti ca || 362 ||
M8.363a/ kiṁ cid eva tu dāpyaḥ syāt sambhāṣāṁ tābhir ācaran |
M8.363c/ praiṣyāsu ca-ekabhaktāsu rahaḥ pravrajitāsu ca || 363 || [Note: M8.363cv/ M: preṣyāsu]
8.1.18.2. 8.1.18.2. Male Sexual Assault
[Note: [ O edn 732-733 :: O tr. 186]
M8.364a/ yo '.kāmāṁ dūṣayet kanyāṁ sa sadyo vadham arhati |
M8.364c/ sa.kāmāṁ dūṣayaṁs tulyo na vadhaṁ prāpnuyān naraḥ || 364 ||
M8.365a/ kanyām bhajantīm utkṛṣṭaṁ na kiṁ cid api dāpayet |
M8.365c/ jaghanyaṁ sevamānāṁ tu saṁyatāṁ vāsayed gṛhe || 365 ||
M8.366a/ uttamāṁ sevamānas tu jaghanyo vadham arhati |
M8.366c/ śulkaṁ dadyāt sevamānaḥ samām icchet pitā yadi || 366 ||
M8.367a/ abhiṣahya tu yaḥ kanyāṁ kuryād darpeṇa mānavaḥ |
M8.367c/ tasya-āśu kartye aṅgulyau daṇḍaṁ ca-arhati ṣaṭśatam || 367 || [Note: M8.367cv/ M: kartyā aṅgulyo]
[Page J 187 ]
M8.368a/ sa.kāmāṁ dūṣayaṁs tulyo na-aṅgulichedam āpnuyāt |
M8.368c/ dviśataṁ tu damam dāpyaḥ prasaṅgavinivṛttaye || 368 ||
8.1.18.3. 8.1.18.3. Female Sexual Assault
[Note: [ O edn 733 :: O tr. 186-187]
M8.369a/ kanyā-eva kanyāṁ yā kuryāt tasyāḥ syād dviśato damaḥ |
M8.369c/ śulkaṁ ca dviguṇaṁ dadyāt-śiphāś ca-eva-āpnuyād daśa || 369 ||
M8.370a/ yā tu kanyāṁ prakuryāt strī sā sadyo mauṇḍyam arhati |
M8.370c/ aṅgulyor eva vā chedaṁ khareṇa-udvahanaṁ tathā || 370 ||
8.1.18.4. 8.1.18.4. Adultery
[Note: [ O edn 734-737 :: O tr. 187]
M8.371a/ bhartāraṁ laṅghayed yā tu strī jñāti.guṇadarpitā |
M8.371c/ tāṁ śvabhiḥ khādayed rājā saṁsthāne bahusaṁsthite || 371 ||
M8.372a/ pumāṁsaṁ dāhayet pāpaṁ śayane tapta āyase |
M8.372c/ abhyādadhyuś ca kāṣṭhāni tatra dahyeta pāpakṛt || 372 ||
M8.373a/ saṁvatsarābhiśastasya duṣṭasya dviguṇo damaḥ | [Note: M8.373av/ M: saṁvatsare 'bhiśastasya]
M8.373c/ vrātyayā saha saṁvāse cāṇḍālyā tāvad eva tu || 373 ||
M8.374a/ śūdro guptam aguptaṁ vā dvaijātaṁ varṇam āvasan |
M8.374c/ aguptam aṅga.sarvasvair guptaṁ sarveṇa hīyate || 374 || [Note: M8.374cv/ M: aṅga.sarvasvī]
M8.375a/ vaiśyaḥ sarvasva.daṇḍaḥ syāt saṁvatsaranirodhataḥ |
M8.375c/ sahasraṁ kṣatriyo daṇḍyo mauṇḍyaṁ mūtreṇa ca-arhati || 375 ||
M8.376a/ brāhmaṇīṁ yady aguptāṁ tu gacchetāṁ vaiśya.pārthivau |
M8.376c/ vaiśyaṁ pañcaśataṁ kuryāt kṣatriyaṁ tu sahasriṇam || 376 ||
M8.377a/ ubhāv api tu tāv eva brāhmaṇyā guptayā saha |
M8.377c/ viplutau śūdravad daṇḍyau dagdhavyau vā kaṭāgninā || 377 ||
[Page J 188 ]
M8.378a/ sahasraṁ brāhmaṇo daṇḍyo guptāṁ viprāṁ balād vrajan |
M8.378c/ śatāni pañca daṇḍyaḥ syād icchantyā saha saṅgataḥ || 378 ||
M8.379a/ mauṇḍyaṁ prāṇāntikaṁ daṇḍo brāhmaṇasya vidhīyate | [Note: M8.379av/ M: prāṇāntako. M's com. refers to the reading of ``prāṇāntika-''.]
M8.379c/ itareṣāṁ tu varṇānāṁ daṇḍaḥ prāṇāntiko bhavet || 379 || [Note: M8.379cv/ M: prāṇāntako]
M8.380a/ na jātu brāhmaṇaṁ hanyāt sarvapāpeṣv api sthitam |
M8.380c/ rāṣṭrād enaṁ bahiḥ kuryāt samagra.dhanam a.kṣatam || 380 ||
M8.381a/ na brāhmaṇavadhād bhūyān adharmo vidyate bhuvi |
M8.381c/ tasmād asya vadhaṁ rājā manasā-api na cintayet || 381 ||
M8.382a/ vaiśyaś cet kṣatriyāṁ guptāṁ vaiśyāṁ vā kṣatriyo vrajet |
M8.382c/ yo brāhmaṇyām aguptāyāṁ tāv ubhau daṇḍam arhataḥ || 382 ||
M8.383a/ sahasraṁ brāhmaṇo daṇḍaṁ dāpyo gupte tu te vrajan |
M8.383c/ śūdrāyāṁ kṣatriya.viśoḥ sāhasro vai bhaved damaḥ || 383 || [Note: M8.383cv/ M: śūdrāyā]
M8.384a/ kṣatriyāyām aguptāyāṁ vaiśye pañcaśataṁ damaḥ |
M8.384c/ mūtreṇa mauṇḍyam icchet tu kṣatriyo daṇḍam eva vā || 384 || [Note: M8.384cv/ M: ṛcchet tu]
M8.385a/ agupte kṣatriyā.vaiśye śūdrāṁ vā brāhmaṇo vrajan |
M8.385c/ śatāni pañca daṇḍyaḥ syāt sahasraṁ tv antyajastriyam || 385 ||

8.1.19. 8.1.19. Excursus

[Note: [ O edn 737-745 :: O tr. 187-189]
8.1.19.1. 8.1.19.1. Miscellanea
[Note: [ O edn 737-740 :: O tr. 187-188]
M8.386a/ yasya stenaḥ pure na-asti na-anyastrīgo na duṣṭa.vāk |
M8.386c/ na sāhasika.daṇḍaghno sa rājā śakralokabhāk || 386 ||
M8.387a/ eteṣāṁ nigraho rājñaḥ pañcānāṁ viṣaye svake |
M8.387c/ sāṁrājyakṛt sajātyeṣu loke ca-eva yaśaskaraḥ || 387 ||
[Page J 189 ]
M8.388a/ ṛtvijaṁ yas tyajed yājyo yājyaṁ ca rtvik tyajed yadi |
M8.388c/ śaktaṁ karmaṇy aduṣṭaṁ ca tayor daṇḍaḥ śataṁ śatam || 388 ||
M8.389a/ na mātā na pitā na strī na putras tyāgam arhati |
M8.389c/ tyajann apatitān etān rājñā daṇḍyaḥ śatāni ṣaṭ || 389 ||
M8.390a/ āśrameṣu dvijātīnāṁ kārye vivadatāṁ mithaḥ |
M8.390c/ na vibrūyān nṛpo dharmaṁ cikīrṣan hitam ātmanaḥ || 390 ||
M8.391a/ yathārham etān abhyarcya brāhmaṇaiḥ saha pārthivaḥ |
M8.391c/ sāntvena praśamayya-ādau svadharmaṁ pratipādayet || 391 ||
M8.392a/ prativeśya.anuveśyau ca kalyāṇe viṁśatidvije |
M8.392c/ arhāv a.bhojayan vipro daṇḍam arhati māṣakam || 392 ||
M8.393a/ śrotriyaḥ śrotriyaṁ sādhuṁ bhūtikṛtyeṣv a.bhojayan |
M8.393c/ tad.annaṁ dviguṇaṁ dāpyo hiraṇyaṁ ca-eva māṣakam || 393 || [Note: M8.393cv/ M: hairaṇyaṁ]
M8.394a/ andho jaḍaḥ pīṭhasarpī saptatyā sthaviraś ca yaḥ |
M8.394c/ śrotriyeṣūpakurvaṁś ca na dāpyāḥ kena cit karam || 394 ||
M8.395a/ śrotriyaṁ vyādhita.ārtau ca bāla.vṛddhāv a.kiñcanam |
M8.395c/ mahākulīnam āryaṁ ca rājā sampūjayet sadā || 395 ||
M8.396a/ śālmalīphalake ślakṣṇe nenijyān nejakaḥ śanaiḥ |
M8.396c/ na ca vāsāṁsi vāsobhir nirharen na ca vāsayet || 396 ||
M8.397a/ tantuvāyo daśapalaṁ dadyād ekapala.adhikam |
M8.397c/ ato 'nyathā vartamāno dāpyo dvādaśakaṁ damam || 397 ||
8.1.19.2. 8.1.19.2. Control of Trade
[Page J 190 ] [Note: [ O edn 740-741 :: O tr. 188]
M8.398a/ śulkasthāneṣu kuśalāḥ sarvapaṇya.vicakṣaṇāḥ |
M8.398c/ kuryur arghaṁ yathāpaṇyaṁ tato viṁśaṁ nṛpo haret || 398 ||
M8.399a/ rājñaḥ prakhyātabhāṇḍāni pratiṣiddhāni yāni ca |
M8.399c/ tāṇi nirharato lobhāt sarvahāraṁ haren nṛpaḥ || 399 ||
M8.400a/ śulkasthānaṁ pariharann akāle kraya.vikrayī |
M8.400c/ mithyāvādī ca saṅkhyāne dāpyo 'ṣṭaguṇam atyayam || 400 ||
M8.401a/ āgamaṁ nirgamaṁ sthānaṁ tathā vṛddhi.kṣayāv ubhau |
M8.401c/ vicārya sarvapaṇyānāṁ kārayet kraya.vikrayau || 401 ||
M8.402a/ pañcarātre pañcarātre pakṣe pakṣe 'tha vā gate |
M8.402c/ kurvīta ca-eṣāṁ pratyakṣam arghasaṁsthāpanaṁ nṛpaḥ || 402 ||
M8.403a/ tulāmānaṁ pratīmānaṁ sarvaṁ ca syāt sulakṣitam |
M8.403c/ ṣaṭsu ṣaṭsu ca māseṣu punar eva parīkṣayet || 403 ||
8.1.19.3. 8.1.19.3. Ferries and Tolls
[Note: [ O edn 741-742 :: O tr. 188-189]
M8.404a/ paṇaṁ yānaṁ tare dāpyaṁ pauruṣo 'rdhapaṇaṁ tare |
M8.404c/ pādaṁ paśuś ca yoṣit-ca pādārdhaṁ riktakaḥ pumān || 404 || [Note: M8.404cv/ M: pāde]
M8.405a/ bhāṇḍapūrṇāni yānāni tāryaṁ dāpyāni sārataḥ |
M8.405c/ riktabhāṇḍāni yat kiṁ cit pumāṁsaś c-aparicchadāḥ || 405 ||
M8.406a/ dīrghādhvani yathādeśaṁ yathākālaṁ taro bhavet |
M8.406c/ nadītīreṣu tad vidyāt samudre na-asti lakṣaṇam || 406 ||
M8.407a/ garbhiṇī tu dvimāsādis tathā pravrajito muniḥ |
M8.407c/ brāhmaṇā liṅginaś ca-eva na dāpyās tārikaṁ tare || 407 ||
[Page J 191 ]
M8.408a/ yan nāvi kiṁ cid dāśānāṁ viśīryeta-aparādhataḥ |
M8.408c/ tad dāśair eva dātavyaṁ samāgamya svato 'ṁśataḥ || 408 ||
M8.409a/ eṣa nauyāyinām ukto vyavahārasya nirṇayaḥ |
M8.409c/ dāśāparādhatas toye daivike na-asti nigrahaḥ || 409 ||
8.1.19.4. 8.1.19.4. Occupations of Social Classes
[Note: [ O edn 742-745 :: O tr. 189]
M8.410a/ vāṇijyaṁ kārayed vaiśyaṁ kusīdaṁ kṛṣim eva ca |
M8.410c/ paśūnāṁ rakṣaṇaṁ ca-eva dāsyaṁ śūdraṁ dvijanmanām || 410 ||
M8.411a/ kṣatriyaṁ ca-eva vaiśyaṁ ca brāhmaṇo vṛttikarśitau |
M8.411c/ bibhṛyād ānṛśaṁsyena svāni karmāṇi kārayet || 411 ||
M8.412a/ dāsyaṁ tu kārayan-lobhād brāhmaṇaḥ saṁskṛtān dvijān |
M8.412c/ anicchataḥ prābhavatyād rājñā daṇḍyaḥ śatāni ṣaṭ || 412 ||
M8.413a/ śūdraṁ tu kārayed dāsyaṁ krītam akrītam eva vā |
M8.413c/ dāsyāya-eva hi sṛṣṭo 'sau brāhmaṇasya svayambhuvā || 413 ||
M8.414a/ na svāminā nisṛṣṭo 'pi śūdro dāsyād vimucyate |
M8.414c/ nisargajaṁ hi tat tasya kas tasmāt tad apohati || 414 ||
M8.415a/ dhvajāhṛto bhaktadāso gṛhajaḥ krīta.dattrimau |
M8.415c/ paitriko daṇḍadāsaś ca sapta-ete dāsayonayaḥ || 415 ||
M8.416a/ bhāryā putraś ca dāsaś ca traya eva-a.dhanāḥ smṛtāḥ |
M8.416c/ yat te samadhigacchanti yasya te tasya tad dhanam || 416 ||
M8.417a/ visrabdhaṁ brāhmaṇaḥ śūdrād dravya.upādānam ācaret |
M8.417c/ na hi tasya-asti kiṁ cit svaṁ bhartṛhārya.dhano hi saḥ || 417 ||
[Page J 192 ]
M8.418a/ vaiśya.śūdrau prayatnena svāni karmāṇi kārayet |
M8.418c/ tau hi cyutau svakarmabhyaḥ kṣobhayetām idaṁ jagat || 418 ||
M8.419a/ ahany ahany avekṣeta karmāntān vāhanāni ca |
M8.419c/ āya.vyayau ca niyatāv ākarān kośam eva ca || 419 ||
M8.420a/ evaṁ sarvān imān rājā vyavahārān samāpayan |
M8.420c/ vyapohya kilbiṣaṁ sarvaṁ prāpnoti paramāṁ gatim || 420 ||

9. Chapter 9

[Page J 193 ] [Note: [ O edn 746-809 :: O tr. 190-207]

9.1. 9.1. The Justice System (cont.

[Note: [ O edn 746-807 :: O tr. 190-206]

9.1.1. 9.1.1. Grounds of Litigation-XVI Law Concerning Husband and Wife

[Note: [ O edn 746-765 :: O tr. 190-195]
M9.01a/ puruṣasya striyāś ca-eva dharme vartmani tiṣṭhatoḥ | [Note: M9.01av/ M: dharmye]
M9.01c/ saṁyoge viprayoge ca dharmān vakṣyāmi śāśvatān || 1 ||
9.1.1.1. 9.1.1.1. Guarding the Wife
[Note: [ O edn 746-750 :: O tr. 190-191]
M9.02a/ asvatantrāḥ striyaḥ kāryāḥ puruṣaiḥ svair divā.niśam |
M9.02c/ viṣayeṣu ca sajjantyaḥ saṁsthāpyā ātmano vaśe || 2 ||
M9.03a/ pitā rakṣati kaumāre bhartā rakṣati yauvane |
M9.03c/ rakṣanti sthavire putrā na strī svātantryam arhati || 3 ||
M9.04a/ kāle '.dātā pitā vācyo vācyaś ca-an.upayan patiḥ |
M9.04c/ mṛte bhartari putras tu vācyo mātur arakṣitā || 4 ||
M9.05a/ sūkṣmebhyo 'pi prasaṅgebhyaḥ striyo rakṣyā viśeṣataḥ | [Note: M9.05av/ M: striyā]
M9.05c/ dvayor hi kulayoḥ śokam āvaheyur a.rakṣitāḥ || 5 ||
M9.06a/ imaṁ hi sarvavarṇānāṁ paśyanto dharmam uttamam |
M9.06c/ yatante rakṣituṁ bhāryāṁ bhartāro durbalā api || 6 ||
M9.07a/ svāṁ prasūtiṁ caritraṁ ca kulam ātmānam eva ca |
M9.07c/ svaṁ ca dharmaṁ prayatnena jāyāṁ rakṣan hi rakṣati || 7 ||
[Page J 194 ]
M9.08a/ patir bhāryāṁ sampraviśya garbho bhūtvā-iha jāyate |
M9.08c/ jāyāyās tadd hi jāyātvaṁ yad asyāṁ jāyate punaḥ || 8 ||
M9.09a/ yādṛśaṁ bhajate hi strī sutaṁ sūte tathāvidham |
M9.09c/ tasmāt prajāviśuddhi.arthaṁ striyaṁ rakṣet prayatnataḥ || 9 ||
M9.10a/ na kaś cid yoṣitaḥ śaktaḥ prasahya parirakṣitum |
M9.10c/ etair upāyayogais tu śakyās tāḥ parirakṣitum || 10 ||
M9.11a/ arthasya saṅgrahe ca-enāṁ vyaye ca-eva niyojayet |
M9.11c/ śauce dharme 'nnapaktyāṁ ca pāriṇāhyasya vekṣaṇe || 11 ||
M9.12a/ a.rakṣitā gṛhe ruddhāḥ puruṣair āptakāribhiḥ |
M9.12c/ ātmānam ātmanā yās tu rakṣeyus tāḥ surakṣitāḥ || 12 ||
M9.13a/ pānaṁ durjanasaṁsargaḥ patyā ca viraho 'ṭanam |
M9.13c/ svapno 'nyagehavāsaś ca nārīsandūṣaṇāni ṣaṭ || 13 ||
M9.14a/ na-etā rūpaṁ parīkṣante na-āsāṁ vayasi saṁsthitiḥ |
M9.14c/ surūpaṁ vā virūpaṁ vā pumān ity eva bhuñjate || 14 ||
M9.15a/ pauṁścalyāc calacittāc ca naisnehyāc ca svabhāvataḥ | [Note: M9.15av/ M: naiḥsnehyāc]
M9.15c/ rakṣitā yatnato 'pi-iha bhartṛṣv etā vikurvate || 15 ||
M9.16a/ evaṁ svabhāvaṁ jñātvā-āsāṁ prajāpatinisargajam |
M9.16c/ paramaṁ yatnam ātiṣṭhet puruṣo rakṣaṇaṁ prati || 16 ||
M9.17a/ śayyā.āsanam alaṅkāraṁ kāmaṁ krodham anārjavam | [Note: M9.17av/ M: anāryatām]
M9.17c/ drohabhāvaṁ kucaryāṁ ca strībhyo manur akalpayat || 17 || [Note: M9.17cv/ M: drogdhṛbhāvaṁ]
[Page J 195 ]
M9.18a/ na-asti strīṇāṁ kriyā mantrair iti dharme vyavasthitiḥ
M9.18c/ nir.indriyā hy a.mantrāś ca strībhyo 'nṛtam iti sthitiḥ || 18 || [Note: M9.18cv/ M: striyo]
M9.19a/ tathā ca śrutayo bahvyo nigītā nigameṣv api |
M9.19c/ svālakṣaṇyaparīkṣārthaṁ tāsāṁ śṛṇuta niṣkṛtīḥ || 19 ||
M9.20a/ yan me mātā pralulubhe vicaranty a.pativratā |
M9.20c/ tan me retaḥ pitā vṛṅktām ity asya-etan nidarśanam || 20 ||
M9.21a/ dhyāyaty aniṣṭaṁ yat kiṁ cit pāṇigrāhasya cetasā |
M9.21c/ tasya-eṣa vyabhicārasya nihnavaḥ samyag ucyate || 21 ||
9.1.1.2. 9.1.1.2. Elevation of Wife to Husbands's Status
[Note: [ O edn 750-751 :: O tr. 191]
M9.22a/ yādṛg.guṇena bhartrā strī saṁyujyeta yathāvidhi |
M9.22c/ tādṛg.guṇā sā bhavati samudreṇa-iva nimnagā || 22 ||
M9.23a/ akṣamālā vasiṣṭhena saṁyuktā-adhamayonijā |
M9.23c/ śāraṅgī mandapālena jagāma-abhyarhaṇīyatām || 23 ||
M9.24a/ etāś ca-anyāś ca loke 'sminn apakṛṣṭaprasūtayaḥ | [Note: M9.24av/ M: avakṛṣṭaprasūtayaḥ]
M9.24c/ utkarṣaṁ yoṣitaḥ prāptāḥ svaiḥ svair bhartṛguṇaiḥ śubhaiḥ || 24 ||
M9.25a/ eṣā-uditā lokayātrā nityaṁ strī.puṁsayoḥ śubhā |
M9.25c/ pretya-iha ca sukha.udarkān prajādharmān nibodhata || 25 ||
9.1.1.3. 9.1.1.3. Importance of Wife
[Note: [ O edn 751-752 :: O tr. 191]
M9.26a/ prajanārthaṁ mahā.bhāgāḥ pūja.arhā gṛhadīptayaḥ |
M9.26c/ striyaḥ śriyaś ca geheṣu na viśeṣo 'sti kaś cana || 26 ||
M9.27a/ utpādanam apatyasya jātasya paripālanam |
M9.27c/ pratyahaṁ lokayātrāyāḥ pratyakṣaṁ strī nibandhanam || 27 || [Note: M9.27cv/ M: pratyarthaṁ]
[Page J 196 ]
M9.28a/ apatyaṁ dharmakāryāṇi śuśrūṣā ratir uttamā |
M9.28c/ dārā.adhīnas tathā svargaḥ pitṝṇām ātmanaś ca ha || 28 ||
M9.29a/ patiṁ yā na-abhicarati mano.vāg.dehasaṁyatā |
M9.29c/ sā bhartṛlokān āpnoti sadbhiḥ sādhvī-iti ca-ucyate || 29 ||
M9.30a/ vyabhicārāt tu bhartuḥ strī loke prāpnoti nindyatām |
M9.30c/ sṛgālayoniṁ ca-āpnoti pāparogaiś ca pīḍyate || 30 || [Note: M9.30cv/ M: śṛgālayoniṁ]
M9.31a/ putraṁ pratyuditaṁ sadbhiḥ pūrvajaiś ca maharṣibhiḥ |
M9.31c/ viśvajanyam imaṁ puṇyam upanyāsaṁ nibodhata || 31 ||
9.1.1.4. 9.1.1.4. To Whom Belongs a Son?
[Note: [ O edn 752-756 :: O tr. 191-193]
M9.32a/ bhartari putraṁ vijānanti śrutidvaidhaṁ tu kartari | [Note: M9.32av/ M: bhartuḥ]
M9.32c/ āhur utpādakaṁ ke cid apare kṣetriṇaṁ viduḥ || 32 ||
M9.33a/ kṣetrabhūtā smṛtā nārī bījabhūtaḥ smṛtaḥ pumān |
M9.33c/ kṣetra.bījasamāyogāt sambhavaḥ sarvadehinām || 33 ||
M9.34a/ viśiṣṭaṁ kutra cid bījaṁ strīyonis tv eva kutra cit |
M9.34c/ ubhayaṁ tu samaṁ yatra sā prasūtiḥ praśasyate || 34 ||
M9.35a/ bījasya ca-eva yonyāś ca bījam utkṛṣṭam ucyate |
M9.35c/ sarvabhūtaprasūtir hi bījalakṣaṇalakṣitā || 35 ||
M9.36a/ yādṛśaṁ tu-upyate bījaṁ kṣetre kāla.upapādite |
M9.36c/ tādṛg rohati tat tasmin bījaṁ svair vyañjitaṁ guṇaiḥ || 36 ||
M9.37a/ iyaṁ bhūmir hi bhūtānāṁ śāśvatī yonir ucyate |
M9.37c/ na ca yoniguṇān kāṁś cid bījaṁ puṣyati puṣṭiṣu || 37 ||
[Page J 197 ]
M9.38a/ bhūmāv apy ekakedāre kāla.uptāni kṛṣīvalaiḥ |
M9.38c/ nānārūpāṇi jāyante bījāni-iha svabhāvataḥ || 38 ||
M9.39a/ vrīhayaḥ śālayo mudgās tilā māṣās tathā yavāḥ |
M9.39c/ yathābījaṁ prarohanti laśunāni-ikṣavas tathā || 39 ||
M9.40a/ anyad uptaṁ jātam anyad ity etat-na-upapadyate |
M9.40c/ upyate yadd hi yad bījaṁ tat tad eva prarohati || 40 ||
M9.41a/ tat prājñena vinītena jñāna.vijñānavedinā |
M9.41c/ āyuṣkāmena vaptavyaṁ na jātu parayoṣiti || 41 ||
M9.42a/ atra gāthā vāyugītāḥ kīrtayanti purāvidaḥ |
M9.42c/ yathā bījaṁ na vaptavyaṁ puṁsā paraparigrahe || 42 ||
M9.43a/ naśyati-iṣur yathā viddhaḥ khe viddham anuvidhyataḥ |
M9.43c/ tathā naśyati vai kṣipraṁ bījaṁ paraparigrahe || 43 || [Note: M9.43cv/ M: kṣiptaṁ]
M9.44a/ pṛthor api-imāṁ pṛthivīṁ bhāryāṁ pūrvavido viduḥ |
M9.44c/ sthāṇu.cchedasya kedāram āhuḥ śālyavato mṛgam || 44 ||
M9.45a/ etāvān eva puruṣo yat-jāyā-ātmā prajā-iti ha |
M9.45c/ viprāḥ prāhus tathā ca-etad yo bhartā sā smṛta.aṅganā || 45 ||
M9.46a/ na niṣkraya.visargābhyāṁ bhartur bhāryā vimucyate |
M9.46c/ evaṁ dharmaṁ vijānīmaḥ prāk prajāpatinirmitam || 46 ||
M9.47a/ sakṛd aṁśo nipatati sakṛt kanyā pradīyate |
M9.47c/ sakṛd āha dadāni-iti trīṇy etāni satāṁ sakṛt || 47 || [Note: M9.47cv/ M: dadāmi-iti]
[Page J 198 ]
M9.48a/ yathā go.'śva.uṣṭra.dāsīṣu mahiṣy.ajā.avikāsu ca |
M9.48c/ na-utpādakaḥ prajābhāgī tathā-eva-anyāṅganāsv api || 48 ||
M9.49a/ ye 'kṣetriṇo bījavantaḥ parakṣetrapravāpiṇaḥ |
M9.49c/ te vai sasyasya jātasya na labhante phalaṁ kva cit || 49 ||
M9.50a/ yad anyagoṣu vṛṣabho vatsānāṁ janayet-śatam |
M9.50c/ gominām eva te vatsā moghaṁ skanditam ārṣabham || 50 ||
M9.51a/ tathā-eva-akṣetriṇo bījaṁ parakṣetrapravāpiṇaḥ |
M9.51c/ kurvanti kṣetriṇām arthaṁ na bījī labhate phalam || 51 ||
M9.52a/ phalaṁ tv an.abhisandhāya kṣetriṇāṁ bījinām tathā |
M9.52c/ pratyakṣaṁ kṣetriṇām artho bījād yonir galīyasī || 52 || [Note: M9.52cv/ M: barīyasī]
M9.53a/ kriyābhyupagamāt tv etad bījārthaṁ yat pradīyate |
M9.53c/ tasya-iha bhāginau dṛṣṭau bījī kṣetrika eva ca || 53 ||
M9.54a/ ogha.vātāhṛtaṁ bījaṁ yasya kṣetre prarohati |
M9.54c/ kṣetrikasya-eva tad bījaṁ na vaptā labhate phalam || 54 || [Note: M9.54cv/ M: na bījī labhate phalam]
M9.55a/ eṣa dharmo gava.aśvasya dāsy.uṣṭra.aja.avikasya ca |
M9.55c/ vihaṅga.mahiṣīṇāṁ ca vijñeyaḥ prasavaṁ prati || 55 ||
M9.56a/ etad vaḥ sāraphalgutvaṁ bīja.yonyoḥ prakīrtitam |
M9.56c/ ataḥ paraṁ pravakṣyāmi yoṣitāṁ dharmam āpadi || 56 ||
9.1.1.5. 9.1.1.5. Levirate
[Note: [ O edn 756-758 :: O tr. 193]
M9.57a/ bhrātur jyeṣṭhasya bhāryā yā gurupatny anujasya sā |
M9.57c/ yavīyasas tu yā bhāryā snuṣā jyeṣṭhasya sā smṛtā || 57 ||
[Page J 199 ]
M9.58a/ jyeṣṭho yavīyaso bhāryāṁ yavīyān vā-agrajastriyam |
M9.58c/ patitau bhavato gatvā niyuktāv apy anāpadi || 58 ||
M9.59a/ devarād vā sapiṇḍād vā striyā samyak-niyuktayā |
M9.59c/ prajā-īpsitāa-adhigantavyā santānasya parikṣaye || 59 ||
M9.60a/ vidhavāyāṁ niyuktas tu ghṛtākto vāgyato niśi |
M9.60c/ ekam utpādayet putraṁ na dvitīyaṁ kathaṁ cana || 60 ||
M9.61a/ dvitīyam eke prajanaṁ manyante strīṣu tadvidaḥ |
M9.61c/ a.nirvṛtaṁ niyogārthaṁ paśyanto dharmatas tayoḥ || 61 || [Note: M9.61cv/ M: a.nirvṛttaṁ]
M9.62a/ vidhavāyāṁ niyogārthe nirvṛtte tu yathāvidhi | [Note: M9.62av/ M: nivṛtte]
M9.62c/ guruvat-ca snuṣāvat-ca varteyātāṁ parasparam || 62 ||
M9.63a/ niyuktau yau vidhiṁ hitvā varteyātāṁ tu kāmataḥ |
M9.63c/ tāv ubhau patitau syātāṁ snuṣāga.gurutalpagau || 63 ||
M9.64a/ na-anyasmin vidhavā nārī niyoktavyā dvijātibhiḥ |
M9.64c/ anyasmin hi niyuñjānā dharmaṁ hanyuḥ sanātanam || 64 ||
M9.65a/ na-udvāhikeṣu mantreṣu niyogaḥ kīrtyate kva cit |
M9.65c/ na vivāhavidhāv uktaṁ vidhavāvedanaṁ punaḥ || 65 ||
M9.66a/ ayaṁ dvijair hi vidvadbhiḥ paśudharmo vigarhitaḥ |
M9.66c/ manuṣyāṇām api prokto vene rājyaṁ praśāsati || 66 ||
M9.67a/ sa mahīm akhilāṁ bhuñjan rājarṣipravaraḥ purā |
M9.67c/ varṇānāṁ saṅkaraṁ cakre kāma.upahata.cetanaḥ || 67 ||
[Page J 200 ]
M9.68a/ tataḥ prabhṛti yo mohāt pramīta.patikāṁ striyam |
M9.68c/ niyojayaty apatyārthaṁ taṁ vigarhanti sādhavaḥ || 68 ||
M9.69a/ yasyā mriyeta kanyāyā vācā satye kṛte patiḥ |
M9.69c/ tām anena vidhānena nijo vindeta devaraḥ || 69 ||
M9.70a/ yathāvidhi-adhigamya-enāṁ śukla.vastrāṁ śuci.vratām |
M9.70c/ mitho bhajeta-ā prasavāt sakṛt.sakṛd ṛtāv.ṛtau || 70 ||
9.1.1.6. 9.1.1.6. Contract of Betrothal
[Note: [ O edn 759 :: O tr. 193]
M9.71a/ na dattvā kasya cit kanyāṁ punar dadyād vicakṣaṇaḥ |
M9.71c/ dattvā punaḥ prayacchan hi prāpnoti puruṣānṛtam || 71 ||
M9.72a/ vidhivat pratigṛhya-api tyajet kanyāṁ vigarhitām |
M9.72c/ vyādhitāṁ vipraduṣṭāṁ vā chadmanā ca-upapāditām || 72 ||
M9.73a/ yas tu doṣavatīṁ kanyām an.ākhyāya-upapādayet |
M9.73c/ tasya tad vitathaṁ kuryāt kanyādātur durātmanaḥ || 73 ||
9.1.1.7. 9.1.1.7. Absence of Husband
[Note: [ O edn 759 :: O tr. 193-194]
M9.74a/ vidhāya vṛttiṁ bhāryāyāḥ pravaset kāryavān naraḥ |
M9.74c/ avṛttikarśitā hi strī praduṣyet sthitimaty api || 74 ||
M9.75a/ vidhāya proṣite vṛttiṁ jīven niyamam āsthitā |
M9.75c/ proṣite tv a.vidhāya-eva jīvet-śilpair agarhitaiḥ || 75 ||
M9.76a/ proṣito dharmakāryārthaṁ pratīkṣyo 'ṣṭau naraḥ samāḥ |
M9.76c/ vidyārthaṁ ṣaḍ yaśo.'rthaṁ vā kāmārthaṁ trīṁs tu vatsarān || 76 ||
9.1.1.8. 9.1.1.8. Repudiation of a Wife
[Note: [ O edn 760-761 :: O tr. 194]
M9.77a/ saṁvatsaraṁ pratīkṣeta dviṣantīṁ yoṣitaṁ patiḥ | [Note: M9.77av/ M: dviṣāṇāṁ]
M9.77c/ ūrdhvaṁ saṁvatsarāt tv enāṁ dāyaṁ hṛtvā na saṁvaset || 77 ||
[Page J 201 ]
M9.78a/ atikrāmet pramattaṁ yā mattaṁ rogārtam eva vā |
M9.78c/ sā trīn māsān parityājyā vibhūṣaṇa.paricchadā || 78 ||
M9.79a/ unmattaṁ patitaṁ klībam a.bījaṁ pāparogiṇam |
M9.79c/ na tyāgo 'sti dviṣantyāś ca na ca dāyāpavartanam || 79 ||
M9.80a/ madyapā-asādhuvṛttā ca pratikūlā ca yā bhavet | [Note: M9.80av/ M: madyapa.asatyavṛttā]
M9.80c/ vyādhitā vā-adhivettavyā hiṁsrā-arthaghnī ca sarvadā || 80 ||
M9.81a/ vandhyāṣṭame 'dhivedyā-'bde daśame tu mṛta.prajā |
M9.81c/ ekādaśe strījananī sadyas tv apriyavādinī || 81 ||
M9.82a/ yā rogiṇī syāt tu hitā sampannā ca-eva śīlataḥ |
M9.82c/ sā-anujñāpya-adhivettavyā na-avamānyā ca karhi cit || 82 ||
M9.83a/ adhivinnā tu yā nārī nirgacched ruṣitā gṛhāt |
M9.83c/ sā sadyaḥ sanniroddhavyā tyājyā vā kulasannidhau || 83 ||
M9.84a/ pratiṣiddhā-api ced yā tu madyam abhyudayeṣv api | [Note: M9.84av/ M: pratiṣedhe pibed yā tu]
M9.84c/ prekṣā.samājaṁ gacched vā sā daṇḍyā kṛṣṇalāni ṣaṭ || 84 ||
9.1.1.9. 9.1.1.9. Seniority among Wives
[Note: [ O edn 761-762 :: O tr. 194]
M9.85a/ yadi svāś ca-aparāś ca-eva vinderan yoṣito dvijāḥ |
M9.85c/ tāsāṁ varṇakrameṇa syāj jyeṣṭhyaṁ pūjā ca veśma ca || 85 ||
M9.86a/ bhartuḥ śarīraśuśrūṣāṁ dharmakāryaṁ ca naityakam |
M9.86c/ svā ca-eva kuryāt sarveṣāṁ na-asvajātiḥ kathaṁ cana || 86 || [Note: M9.86cv/ M: svā svā-eva]
M9.87a/ yas tu tat kārayen mohāt sa.jātyā sthitayā-anyayā |
M9.87c/ yathā brāhmaṇacāṇḍālaḥ pūrvadṛṣṭas tathā-eva saḥ || 87 ||
9.1.1.10. 9.1.1.10. Marriage of Daughters
[Page J 202 ] [Note: [ O edn 762-765 :: O tr. 194-195]
M9.88a/ utkṛṣṭāya-abhirūpāya varāya sadṛśāya ca |
M9.88c/ aprāptām api tāṁ tasmai kanyāṁ dadyād yathāvidhi || 88 ||
M9.89a/ kāmam ā maraṇāt tiṣṭhed gṛhe kanyā-ṛtumaty api |
M9.89c/ na ca-eva-enāṁ prayaccet tu guṇa.hīnāya karhi cit || 89 ||
M9.90a/ trīṇi varṣāṇy udīkṣeta kumāry ṛtumatī satī |
M9.90c/ ūrdhvaṁ tu kālād etasmād vindeta sadṛśaṁ patim || 90 ||
M9.91a/ a.dīyamānā bhartāram adhigacched yadi svayam |
M9.91c/ na-enaḥ kiṁ cid avāpnoti na ca yaṁ sā-adhigacchati || 91 ||
M9.92a/ alaṅkāraṁ na-ādadīta pitryaṁ kanyā svayaṁvarā |
M9.92c/ mātṛkaṁ bhrātṛdattaṁ vā stenā syād yadi taṁ haret || 92 ||
M9.93a/ pitre na dadyāt-śulkaṁ tu kanyām ṛtumatīṁ haran |
M9.93c/ sa ca svāmyād atikrāmed ṛtūnāṁ pratirodhanāt || 93 ||
M9.94a/ triṁśadvarṣo vahet kanyāṁ hṛdyāṁ dvādaśavārṣikīm |
M9.94c/ tryaṣṭavarṣo 'ṣṭavarṣāṁ vā dharme sīdati satvaraḥ || 94 ||
M9.95a/ devadattāṁ patir bhāryāṁ vindate na-icchayā-ātmanaḥ |
M9.95c/ tāṁ sādhvīṁ bibhṛyān nityaṁ devānāṁ priyam ācaran || 95 ||
M9.96a/ prajanārthaṁ striyaḥ sṛṣṭāḥ santānārthaṁ ca mānavaḥ |
M9.96c/ tasmāt sādhāraṇo dharmaḥ śrutau patnyā saha.uditaḥ || 96 ||
M9.97a/ kanyāyāṁ datta.śulkāyāṁ mriyeta yadi śulkadaḥ |
M9.97c/ devarāya pradātavyā yadi kanyā-anumanyate || 97 ||
[Page J 203 ]
M9.98a/ ādadīta na śūdro 'pi śulkaṁ duhitaraṁ dadan |
M9.98c/ śulkaṁ hi gṛhṇan kurute channaṁ duhitṛvikrayam || 98 ||
M9.99a/ etat tu na pare cakrur na-apare jātu sādhavaḥ |
M9.99c/ yad anyasya pratijñāya punar anyasya dīyate || 99 ||
M9.100a/ na-anuśuśruma jātu-etat pūrveṣv api hi janmasu |
M9.100c/ śulka.sañjñena mūlyena channaṁ duhitṛvikrayam || 100 ||
M9.101a/ anyonyasya-avyabhicāro bhaved ā.maraṇāntikaḥ |
M9.101c/ eṣa dharmaḥ samāsena jñeyaḥ strī.puṁsayoḥ paraḥ || 101 ||
M9.102a/ tathā nityaṁ yateyātāṁ strī.puṁsau tu kṛta.kriyau |
M9.102c/ yathā nābhicaretāṁ tau viyuktāv itaretaram || 102 || [Note: M9.102cv/ M: na-aticaretāṁ]
M9.103a/ eṣa strī.puṁsayor ukto dharmo vo ratisaṁhitaḥ |
M9.103c/ āpady apatyaprāptiś ca dāyadharmaṁ nibodhata || 103 ||

9.1.2. 9.1.2. Grounds of Litigation-XVII Partition of Inheritance

[Note: [ O edn 765-787 :: O tr. 195-201]
M9.104a/ ūrdhvaṁ pituś ca mātuś ca sametya bhrātaraḥ samam |
M9.104c/ bhajeran paitṛkaṁ riktham anīśās te hi jīvatoḥ || 104 ||
9.1.2.1. 9.1.2.1. Primogeniture
[Note: [ O edn 766 :: O tr. 195]
M9.105a/ jyeṣṭha eva tu gṛhṇīyāt pitryaṁ dhanam aśeṣataḥ |
M9.105c/ śeṣās tam upajīveyur yathā-eva pitaraṁ tathā || 105 ||
M9.106a/ jyeṣṭhena jātamātreṇa putrī bhavati mānavaḥ |
M9.106c/ pitṝṇām an.ṛṇaś ca-eva sa tasmāt sarvam arhati || 106 ||
M9.107a/ yasminn ṛṇaṁ sannayati yena ca-anantyam aśnute |
M9.107c/ sa eva dharmajaḥ putraḥ kāmajān itarān viduḥ || 107 ||
[Page J 204 ]
M9.108a/ pitā-iva pālayet pūtrān jyeṣṭho bhrātṝṇ yavīyasaḥ |
M9.108c/ putravat-ca-api varteran jyeṣṭhe bhrātari dharmataḥ || 108 ||
M9.109a/ jyeṣṭhaḥ kulaṁ vardhayati vināśayati vā punaḥ |
M9.109c/ jyeṣṭhaḥ pūjyatamo loke jyeṣṭhaḥ sadbhir a.garhitaḥ || 109 ||
M9.110a/ yo jyeṣṭho jyeṣṭha.vṛttiḥ syān mātā-iva sa pitā-iva saḥ |
M9.110c/ a.jyeṣṭhavṛttir yas tu syāt sa sampūjyas tu bandhuvat || 110 ||
9.1.2.2. 9.1.2.2. Partition and Seniority
[Note: [ O edn 767-768 :: O tr. 195-196]
M9.111a/ evaṁ saha vaseyur vā pṛthag vā dharmakāmyayā |
M9.111c/ pṛthag vivardhate dharmas tasmād dharmyā pṛthakkriyā || 111 ||
M9.112a/ jyeṣṭhasya viṁśa uddhāraḥ sarvadravyāc ca yad varam |
M9.112c/ tato 'rdhaṁ madhyamasya syāt turīyaṁ tu yavīyasaḥ || 112 ||
M9.113a/ jyeṣṭhaś ca-eva kaniṣṭhaś ca saṁharetāṁ yathā.uditam |
M9.113c/ ye 'nye jyeṣṭha.kaniṣṭhābhyāṁ teṣāṁ syān madhyamaṁ dhanam || 113 ||
M9.114a/ sarveṣāṁ dhanajātānām ādadīta-agryam agrajaḥ |
M9.114c/ yac ca sātiśayaṁ kiṁ cid daśataś ca-āpnuyād varam || 114 ||
M9.115a/ uddhāro na daśasv asti sampannānāṁ svakarmasu |
M9.115c/ yat kiṁ cid eva deyaṁ tu jyāyase māna.vardhanam || 115 ||
M9.116a/ evaṁ samuddhṛta.uddhāre samān aṁśān prakalpayet |
M9.116c/ uddhāre 'n.uddhṛte tv eṣām iyaṁ syād aṁśakalpanā || 116 ||
M9.117a/ ekādhikaṁ harej jyeṣṭhaḥ putro 'dhyardhaṁ tato 'nujaḥ |
M9.117c/ aṁśam aṁśaṁ yavīyāṁsa iti dharmo vyavasthitaḥ || 117 ||
[Page J 205 ]
M9.118a/ svebhyo 'ṁśebhyas tu kanyābhyaḥ pradadyur bhrātaraḥ pṛthak | [Note: M9.118av/ M: svābhyaḥ svābhyas tu]
M9.118c/ svāt svād aṁśāc caturbhāgaṁ patitāḥ syur aditsavaḥ || 118 ||
M9.119a/ aja.āvikaṁ sa.ekaśaphaṁ na jātu viṣamaṁ bhajet | [Note: M9.119av/ M: aja.āvikaṁ ca-ekaśaphaṁ]
M9.119c/ aja.āvikaṁ tu viṣamaṁ jyeṣṭhasya-eva vidhīyate || 119 ||
9.1.2.3. 9.1.2.3. Seniority of Leviratic Sons
[Note: [ O edn 768 :: O tr. 196]
M9.120a/ yavīyān-jyeṣṭhabhāryāyāṁ putram utpādayed yadi |
M9.120c/ samas tatra vibhāgaḥ syād iti dharmo vyavasthitaḥ || 120 ||
M9.121a/ upasarjanaṁ pradhānasya dharmato na-upapadyate |
M9.121c/ pitā pradhānaṁ prajane tasmād dharmeṇa taṁ bhajet || 121 ||
9.1.2.4. 9.1.2.4. Seniority among Sons of Different Wives
[Note: [ O edn 768-769 :: O tr. 196]
M9.122a/ putraḥ kaniṣṭho jyeṣṭhāyāṁ kaniṣṭhāyāṁ ca pūrvajaḥ |
M9.122c/ kathaṁ tatra vibhāgaḥ syād iti cet saṁśayo bhavet || 122 ||
M9.123a/ ekaṁ vṛṣabham uddhāraṁ saṁhareta sa pūrvajaḥ |
M9.123c/ tato 'pare jyeṣṭhavṛṣās tad.ūnānāṁ svamātṛtaḥ || 123 ||
M9.124a/ jyeṣṭhas tu jāto jyeṣṭhāyāṁ hared vṛṣabha.ṣoḍaśāḥ |
M9.124c/ tataḥ svamātṛtaḥ śeṣā bhajerann iti dhāraṇā || 124 ||
M9.125a/ sadṛśastrīṣu jātānāṁ putrāṇām aviśeṣataḥ |
M9.125c/ na mātṛto jyaiṣṭhyam asti janmato jyaiṣṭhyam ucyate || 125 ||
M9.126a/ janmajyeṣṭhena ca-āhvānaṁ subrahmaṇyāsv api smṛtam |
M9.126c/ yamayoś ca-eva garbheṣu janmato jyeṣṭhatā smṛtā || 126 ||
9.1.2.5. 9.1.2.5. ``Female-Son'' and Her Sons
[Note: [ O edn 769-772 :: O tr. 196-197]
M9.127a/ a.putro 'nena vidhinā sutāṁ kurvīta putrikām |
M9.127c/ yad apatyaṁ bhaved asyāṁ tan mama syāt svadhākaram || 127 ||
[Page J 206 ]
M9.128a/ anena tu vidhānena purā cakre 'tha putrikāḥ |
M9.128c/ vivṛddhyarthaṁ svavaṁśasya svayaṁ dakṣaḥ prajāpatiḥ || 128 ||
M9.129a/ dadau sa daśa dharmāya kaśyapāya trayodaśa |
M9.129c/ somāya rājñe satkṛtya prīta.ātmā saptaviṁśatim || 129 ||
M9.130a/ yathā-eva-ātmā tathā putraḥ putreṇa duhitā samā |
M9.130c/ tasyām ātmani tiṣṭhantyāṁ katham anyo dhanaṁ haret || 130 ||
M9.131a/ mātus tu yautakaṁ yat syāt kumārībhāga eva saḥ |
M9.131c/ dauhitra eva ca hared a.putrasya-akhilaṁ dhanam || 131 ||
M9.132a/ dauhitro hy a.khilaṁ riktham a.putrasya pitur haret |
M9.132c/ sa eva dadyād dvau piṇḍau pitre mātāmahāya ca || 132 ||
M9.133a/ pautra.dauhitrayor loke na viśeṣo 'sti dharmataḥ |
M9.133c/ tayor hi mātā.pitarau sambhūtau tasya dehataḥ || 133 ||
M9.134a/ putrikāyāṁ kṛtāyāṁ tu yadi putro 'nujāyate |
M9.134c/ samas tatra vibhāgaḥ syāt-jyeṣṭhatā na-asti hi striyāḥ || 134 ||
M9.135a/ a.putrāyāṁ mṛtāyāṁ tu putrikāyāṁ kathaṁ cana |
M9.135c/ dhanaṁ tat putrikābhartā hareta-eva-a.vicārayan || 135 ||
M9.136a/ akṛtā vā kṛtā vā-api yaṁ vindet sadṛśāt sutam |
M9.136c/ pautrī mātāmahas tena dadyāt piṇḍaṁ hared dhanam || 136 ||
M9.137a/ putreṇa lokān-jayati pautreṇa-ānantyam aśnute |
M9.137c/ atha putrasya pautreṇa bradhnasya-āpnoti viṣṭapam || 137 ||
[Page J 207 ]
M9.138a/ put.nāmno narakād yasmāt trāyate pitaraṁ sutaḥ |
M9.138c/ tasmāt putra iti proktaḥ svayam eva svayambhuvā || 138 ||
M9.139a/ pautra.dauhitrayor loke viśeṣo na-upapadyate |
M9.139c/ dauhitro 'pi hy amutra-enaṁ santārayati pautravat || 139 ||
M9.140a/ mātuḥ prathamataḥ piṇḍaṁ nirvapet putrikāsutaḥ |
M9.140c/ dvitīyaṁ tu pitus tasyās tṛtīyaṁ tatpituḥ pituḥ || 140 ||
9.1.2.6. 9.1.2.6. Adopted Son
[Note: [ O edn 772 :: O tr. 197]
M9.141a/ upapanno guṇaiḥ sarvaiḥ putro yasya tu dattrimaḥ |
M9.141c/ sa hareta-eva tadrikthaṁ samprāpto 'py anyagotrataḥ || 141 ||
M9.142a/ gotra.rikthe janayitur na hared dattrimaḥ kva cit |
M9.142c/ gotra.rikthānugaḥ piṇḍo vyapaiti dadataḥ svadhā || 142 ||
9.1.2.7. 9.1.2.7. Leviratic Sons
[Note: [ O edn 772-773 :: O tr. 197]
M9.143a/ aniyuktāsutaś ca-eva putriṇyā-āptaś ca devarāt |
M9.143c/ ubhau tau na-arhato bhāgaṁ jārajātaka.kāmajau || 143 ||
M9.144a/ niyuktāyām api pumān nāryāṁ jāto 'vidhānataḥ |
M9.144c/ na-eva-arhaḥ paitṛkaṁ rikthaṁ patita.utpādito hi saḥ || 144 ||
M9.145a/ haret tatra niyuktāyāṁ jātaḥ putro yathā-aurasaḥ |
M9.145c/ kṣetrikasya tu tad bījaṁ dharmataḥ prasavaś ca saḥ || 145 ||
M9.146a/ dhanaṁ yo bibhṛyād bhrātur mṛtasya striyam eva ca |
M9.146c/ so 'patyaṁ bhrātur utpādya dadyāt tasya-eva taddhanam || 146 ||
M9.147a/ yā niyuktā-anyataḥ putraṁ devarād vā-apy avāpnuyāt |
M9.147c/ taṁ kāmajam a.rikthīyaṁ vṛthā.utpannaṁ pracakṣate || 147 || [Note: M9.147cv/ M: mithyā.utpannaṁ]
[Page J 208 ]
M9.148a/ etad vidhānaṁ vijñeyaṁ vibhāgasya-ekayoniṣu |
M9.148c/ bahvīṣu ca-ekajātānāṁ nānāstrīṣu nibodhata || 148 ||
9.1.2.8. 9.1.2.8. Sons by Wives of Different Castes
[Note: [ O edn 773-775 :: O tr. 198]
M9.149a/ brāhmaṇasya-anupūrvyeṇa catasras tu yadi striyaḥ |
M9.149c/ tāsāṁ putreṣu jāteṣu vibhāge 'yaṁ vidhiḥ smṛtaḥ || 149 ||
M9.150a/ kīnāśo govṛṣo yānam alaṅkāraś ca veśma ca |
M9.150c/ viprasya-auddhārikaṁ deyam ekāṁśaś ca pradhānataḥ || 150 ||
M9.151a/ tryaṁśaṁ dāyādd hared vipro dvāv aṁśau kṣatriyāsutaḥ |
M9.151c/ vaiśyājaḥ sa.ardham eva-aṁśam aṁśaṁ śūdrāsuto haret || 151 ||
M9.152a/ sarvaṁ vā rikthajātaṁ tad daśadhā parikalpya ca |
M9.152c/ dharmyaṁ vibhāgaṁ kurvīta vidhinā-anena dharmavit || 152 ||
M9.153a/ caturo 'ṁśān hared vipras trīn aṁśān kṣatriyāsutaḥ |
M9.153c/ vaiśyāputro hared dvyaṁśaṁ aṁśaṁ śūdrāsuto haret || 153 ||
M9.154a/ yady api syāt tu sat.putro 'py asat.putro 'pi vā bhavet | [Note: M9.154av/ M: yady api syāt tu sat.putro yady a.putro 'pi vā bhavet]
M9.154c/ na-adhikaṁ daśamād dadyāt-śūdrāputrāya dharmataḥ || 154 ||
M9.155a/ brāhmaṇa.kṣatriya.viśāṁ śūdrāputro na rikthabhāk |
M9.155c/ yad eva-asya pitā dadyāt tad eva-asya dhanaṁ bhavet || 155 ||
M9.156a/ sama.varṇāsu vā jātāḥ sarve putrā dvijanmanām |
M9.156c/ uddhāraṁ jyāyase dattvā bhajerann itare samam || 156 ||
M9.157a/ śūdrasya tu savarṇā-eva na-anyā bhāryā vidhīyate |
M9.157c/ tasyāṁ jātāḥ sama.aṁśāḥ syur yadi putraśataṁ bhavet || 157 ||
9.1.2.9. 9.1.2.9. Twelve Types of Sons
[Page J 209 ] [Note: [ O edn 775-780 :: O tr. 198-199]
M9.158a/ putrān dvādaśa yān āha nṝṇāṁ svāyambhuvo manuḥ |
M9.158c/ teṣāṁ ṣaḍ bandhu.dāyādāḥ ṣaḍ adāyāda.bāndhavāḥ || 158 ||
M9.159a/ aurasaḥ kṣetrajaś ca-eva dattaḥ kṛtrima eva ca |
M9.159c/ gūḍha.utpanno 'paviddhaś ca dāyādā bāndhavāś ca ṣaṭ || 159 ||
M9.160a/ kānīnaś ca sahoḍhaś ca krītaḥ paunarbhavas tathā |
M9.160c/ svayandattaś ca śaudraś ca ṣaḍ adāyāda.bāndhavāḥ || 160 ||
M9.161a/ yādṛśaṁ phalam āpnoti kuplavaiḥ santaran-jalam |
M9.161c/ tādṛśaṁ phalam āpnoti kuputraiḥ santaraṁs tamaḥ || 161 ||
M9.162a/ yady ekarikthinau syātām aurasa.kṣetrajau sutau |
M9.162c/ yasya yat paitṛkaṁ rikthaṁ sa tad gṛhṇīta na-itaraḥ || 162 ||
M9.163a/ eka eva-aurasaḥ putraḥ pitryasya vasunaḥ prabhuḥ |
M9.163c/ śeṣāṇām ānṛśaṁsyārthaṁ pradadyāt tu prajīvanam || 163 ||
M9.164a/ ṣaṣṭhaṁ tu kṣetrajasya-aṁśaṁ pradadyāt paitṛkād dhanāt |
M9.164c/ auraso vibhajan dāyaṁ pitryaṁ pañcamam eva vā || 164 ||
M9.165a/ aurasa.kṣetrajau putrau pitṛrikthasya bhāginau |
M9.165c/ daśa-apare tu kramaśo gotra.rikthāṁśabhāginaḥ || 165 ||
M9.166a/ svakṣetre saṁskṛtāyāṁ tu svayam utpādayedd hi yam |
M9.166c/ tam aurasaṁ vijānīyāt putraṁ prāthamakalpikam || 166 ||
M9.167a/ yas talpajaḥ pramītasya klībasya vyādhitasya vā |
M9.167c/ svadharmeṇa niyuktāyāṁ sa putraḥ kṣetrajaḥ smṛtaḥ || 167 ||
[Page J 210 ]
M9.168a/ mātā pitā vā dadyātāṁ yam adbhiḥ putram āpadi |
M9.168c/ sadṛśaṁ prītisaṁyuktaṁ sa jñeyo dattrimaḥ sutaḥ || 168 ||
M9.169a/ sadṛśaṁ tu prakuryād yaṁ guṇa.doṣa.vicakṣaṇam |
M9.169c/ putraṁ putraguṇair yuktaṁ sa vijñeyaś ca kṛtrimaḥ || 169 ||
M9.170a/ utpadyate gṛhe yas tu na ca jñāyeta kasya saḥ |
M9.170c/ sa gṛhe gūḍha utpannas tasya syād yasya talpajaḥ || 170 ||
M9.171a/ mātā.pitṛbhyām utsṛṣṭaṁ tayor anyatareṇa vā |
M9.171c/ yaṁ putraṁ parigṛhṇīyād apaviddhaḥ sa ucyate || 171 ||
M9.172a/ pitṛveśmani kanyā tu yaṁ putraṁ janayed rahaḥ |
M9.172c/ taṁ kānīnaṁ vaden nāmnā voḍhuḥ kanyā.samudbhavam || 172 ||
M9.173a/ yā garbhiṇī saṁskriyate jñātā.ajñātā-api vā satī |
M9.173c/ voḍhuḥ sa garbho bhavati sahoḍha iti ca-ucyate || 173 ||
M9.174a/ krīṇīyād yas tv apatyārthaṁ mātā.pitror yam antikāt |
M9.174c/ sa krītakaḥ sutas tasya sadṛśo 'sadṛśo 'pi vā || 174 ||
M9.175a/ yā patyā vā parityaktā vidhavā vā svayā-icchayā |
M9.175c/ utpādayet punar bhūtvā sa paunarbhava ucyate || 175 ||
M9.176a/ sā ced akṣata.yoniḥ syād gata.pratyāgatā-api vā |
M9.176c/ paunarbhavena bhartrā sā punaḥ saṁskāram arhati || 176 ||
M9.177a/ mātā.pitṛ.vihīno yas tyakto vā syād akāraṇāt |
M9.177c/ ātmānam arpayed yasmai svayandattas tu sa smṛtaḥ || 177 ||
[Page J 211 ]
M9.178a/ yaṁ brāhmaṇas tu śūdrāyāṁ kāmād utpādayet sutam |
M9.178c/ sa pārayann eva śavas tasmāt pāraśavaḥ smṛtaḥ || 178 ||
M9.179a/ dāsyāṁ vā dāsadāsyāṁ vā yaḥ śūdrasya suto bhavet |
M9.179c/ so 'nujñāto hared aṁśam iti dharmo vyavasthitaḥ || 179 ||
M9.180a/ kṣetraja.ādīn sutān etān ekādaśa yathā.uditān |
M9.180c/ putrapratinidhīn āhuḥ kriyālopān manīṣiṇaḥ || 180 ||
M9.181a/ ya ete 'bhihitāḥ putrāḥ prasaṅgād anyabījajāḥ |
M9.181c/ yasya te bījato jātās tasya te na-itarasya tu || 181 ||
M9.182a/ bhrātṝṇām ekajātānām ekaś cet putravān bhavet |
M9.182c/ sarvāṁs tāṁs tena putreṇa putriṇo manur abravīt || 182 ||
M9.183a/ sarvāsām eka.patnīnām ekā cet putriṇī bhavet |
M9.183c/ sarvās tās tena putreṇa prāha putravatīr manuḥ || 183 ||
M9.184a/ śreyasaḥ śreyaso 'lābhe pāpīyān riktham arhati |
M9.184c/ bahavaś cet tu sadṛśāḥ sarve rikthasya bhāginaḥ || 184 ||
M9.185a/ na bhrātaro na pitaraḥ putrā rikthaharāḥ pituḥ |
M9.185c/ pitā hared a.putrasya rikthaṁ bhrātara eva ca || 185 ||
9.1.2.10. 9.1.2.10. Alternative Heirs
[Note: [ O edn 781-782 :: O tr. 199-200]
M9.186a/ trayāṇām udakaṁ kāryaṁ triṣu piṇḍaḥ pravartate |
M9.186c/ caturthaḥ sampradātā-eṣāṁ pañcamo na-upapadyate || 186 ||
M9.187a/ anantaraḥ sapiṇḍād yas tasya tasya dhanaṁ bhavet |
M9.187c/ ata ūrdhvaṁ sakulyaḥ syād ācāryaḥ śiṣya eva vā || 187 ||
[Page J 212 ]
M9.188a/ sarveṣām apy abhāve tu brāhmaṇā rikthabhāginaḥ |
M9.188c/ traividyāḥ śucayo dāntās tathā dharmo na hīyate || 188 ||
M9.189a/ a.hāryaṁ brāhmaṇadravyaṁ rājñā nityam iti sthitiḥ |
M9.189c/ itareṣāṁ tu varṇānāṁ sarva.abhāve haren nṛpaḥ || 189 ||
M9.190a/ saṁsthitasya-an.apatyasya sagotrāt putram āharet |
M9.190c/ tatra yad rikthajātaṁ syāt tat tasmin pratipādayet || 190 ||
M9.191a/ dvau tu yau vivadeyātāṁ dvābhyāṁ jātau striyā dhane |
M9.191c/ tayor yad yasya pitryaṁ syāt tat sa gṛhṇīta na-itaraḥ || 191 ||
9.1.2.11. 9.1.2.11. Women's Property
[Note: [ O edn 782-783 :: O tr. 200]
M9.192a/ jananyāṁ saṁsthitāyāṁ tu samaṁ sarve saha.udarāḥ |
M9.192c/ bhajeran mātṛkaṁ rikthaṁ bhaginyaś ca sa.nābhayaḥ || 192 ||
M9.193a/ yās tāsāṁ syur duhitaras tāsām api yathārhataḥ | [Note: M9.193av/ H. tasyāṁ]
M9.193c/ mātāmahyā dhanāt kiṁ cit pradeyaṁ prītipūrvakam || 193 ||
M9.194a/ adhyagni.adhyāvāhanikaṁ dattaṁ ca prītikarmaṇi |
M9.194c/ bhrātṛ.mātṛ.pitṛprāptaṁ ṣaḍvidhaṁ strīdhanaṁ smṛtam || 194 ||
M9.195a/ anvādheyaṁ ca yad dattaṁ patyā prītena ca-eva yat |
M9.195c/ patyau jīvati vṛttāyāḥ prajāyās tad dhanaṁ bhavet || 195 ||
M9.196a/ brāhma.daiva.ārṣa.gāndharva.prājāpatyeṣu yad vasu |
M9.196c/ a.prajāyām atītāyāṁ bhartur eva tad iṣyate || 196 ||
M9.197a/ yat tv asyāḥ syād dhanaṁ dattaṁ vivāheṣv āsura.ādiṣu |
M9.197c/ a.prajāyām atītāyāṁ mātā.pitros tad iṣyate || 197 ||
[Page J 213 ]
M9.198a/ striyāṁ tu yad bhaved vittaṁ pitrā dattaṁ kathaṁ cana |
M9.198c/ brāhmaṇī tadd haret kanyā tadapatyasya vā bhavet || 198 ||
M9.199a/ na nirhāraṁ striyaḥ kuryuḥ kuṭumbād bahumadhyagāt |
M9.199c/ svakād api ca vittādd hi svasya bhartur anājñayā || 199 ||
M9.200a/ patyau jīvati yaḥ strībhir alaṅkāro dhṛto bhavet |
M9.200c/ na taṁ bhajeran dāyādā bhajamānāḥ patanti te || 200 ||
9.1.2.12. 9.1.2.12. Disqualification from Inheritance
[Note: [ O edn 783-784 :: O tr. 200]
M9.201a/ an.aṁśau klība.patitau jātyandha.badhirau tathā |
M9.201c/ unmatta.jaḍa.mūkāś ca ye ca ke cin nir.indriyāḥ || 201 ||
M9.202a/ sarveṣām api tu nyāyyaṁ dātuṁ śaktyā manīṣiṇā |
M9.202c/ grāsa.ācchādanam atyantaṁ patito hy a.dadad bhavet || 202 ||
M9.203a/ yady arthitā tu dāraiḥ syāt klībādīnāṁ kathaṁ cana |
M9.203c/ teṣām utpanna.tantūnām apatyaṁ dāyam arhati || 203 ||
9.1.2.13. 9.1.2.13. Partition of Non-ancestral Property
[Note: [ O edn 784-785 :: O tr. 200-201]
M9.204a/ yat kiṁ cit pitari prete dhanaṁ jyeṣṭho 'dhigacchati |
M9.204c/ bhāgo yavīyasāṁ tatra yadi vidyānupālinaḥ || 204 ||
M9.205a/ a.vidyānāṁ tu sarveṣāṁ īhātaś ced dhanaṁ bhavet |
M9.205c/ samas tatra vibhāgaḥ syād apitrya iti dhāraṇā || 205 ||
M9.206a/ vidyādhanaṁ tu yady asya tat tasya-eva dhanaṁ bhavet |
M9.206c/ maitryam audvāhikaṁ ca-eva mādhuparkikam eva ca || 206 ||
M9.207a/ bhrātṝṇāṁ yas tu na-īheta dhanaṁ śaktaḥ svakarmaṇā |
M9.207c/ sa nirbhājyaḥ svakād aṁśāt kiṁ cid dattvā-upajīvanam || 207 ||
[Page J 214 ]
M9.208a/ an.upaghnan pitṛdravyaṁ śrameṇa yad upārjitam |
M9.208c/ svayam īhitalabdhaṁ tan na-a.kāmo dātum arhati || 208 ||
M9.209a/ paitṛkaṁ tu pitā dravyam anavāptaṁ yad āpnuyāt |
M9.209c/ na tat putrair bhajet sārdham a.kāmaḥ svayam arjitam || 209 ||
9.1.2.14. 9.1.2.14. Miscellaneous Rules of Partition
[Note: [ O edn 785-787 :: O tr. 201]
M9.210a/ vibhaktāḥ saha jīvanto vibhajeran punar yadi |
M9.210c/ samas tatra vibhāgaḥ syāj jyaiṣṭhyaṁ tatra na vidyate || 210 ||
M9.211a/ yeṣāṁ jyeṣṭhaḥ kaniṣṭho vā hīyeta-aṁśapradānataḥ |
M9.211c/ mriyeta-anyataro vā-api tasya bhāgo na lupyate || 211 ||
M9.212a/ sodaryā vibhajeraṁs taṁ sametya sahitāḥ samam |
M9.212c/ bhrātaro ye ca saṁsṛṣṭā bhāginyaś ca sa.nābhayaḥ || 212 ||
M9.213a/ yo jyeṣṭho vinikurvīta lobhād bhrātṝn yavīyasaḥ |
M9.213c/ so 'jyeṣṭhaḥ syād a.bhāgaś ca niyantavyaś ca rājabhiḥ || 213 ||
M9.214a/ sarva eva vikarmasthā na-arhanti bhrātaro dhanam |
M9.214c/ na ca-a.dattvā kaniṣṭhebhyo jyeṣṭhaḥ kurvīta yautakam || 214 ||
M9.215a/ bhrātṝṇām a.vibhaktānāṁ yady utthānaṁ bhavet saha |
M9.215c/ na putrabhāgaṁ viṣamaṁ pitā dadyāt kathaṁ cana || 215 ||
M9.216a/ ūrdhvaṁ vibhāgāt-jātas tu pitryam eva hared dhanam |
M9.216c/ saṁsṛṣṭās tena vā ye syur vibhajeta sa taiḥ saha || 216 ||
M9.217a/ an.apatyasya putrasya mātā dāyam avāpnuyāt |
M9.217c/ mātary api ca vṛttāyāṁ pitur mātā hared dhanam || 217 ||
[Page J 215 ]
M9.218a/ ṛṇe dhane ca sarvasmin pravibhakte yathāvidhi |
M9.218c/ paścād dṛśyeta yat kiṁ cit tat sarvaṁ samatāṁ nayet || 218 ||
M9.219a/ vastraṁ patram alaṅkāraṁ kṛtānnam udakaṁ striyaḥ |
M9.219c/ yogakṣemaṁ pracāraṁ ca na vibhājyaṁ pracakṣate || 219 ||
M9.220a/ ayam ukto vibhāgo vaḥ putrāṇāṁ ca kriyāvidhiḥ |
M9.220c/ kramaśaḥ kṣetrajādīnāṁ dyūtadharmaṁ nibodhata || 220 ||

9.1.3. 9.1.3. Grounds of Litigation-XVIII Gambling and Betting

[Note: [ O edn 787-788 :: O tr. 201-202]
M9.221a/ dyūtaṁ samāhvayaṁ ca-eva rājā rāṣṭrāt-nivārayet |
M9.221c/ rājāntakaraṇāv etau dvau doṣau pṛthivīkṣitām || 221 ||
M9.222a/ prakāśam etat tāskaryaṁ yad devana.samāhvayau |
M9.222c/ tayor nityaṁ pratīghāte nṛpatir yatnavān bhavet || 222 ||
M9.223a/ aprāṇibhir yat kriyate tat-loke dyūtam ucyate |
M9.223c/ prāṇibhiḥ kriyate yas tu sa vijñeyaḥ samāhvayaḥ || 223 ||
M9.224a/ dyūtaṁ samāhvayaṁ ca-eva yaḥ kuryāt kārayeta vā |
M9.224c/ tān sarvān ghātayed rājā śūdrāṁś ca dvijaliṅginaḥ || 224 ||
M9.225a/ kitavān kuśīlavān krūrān pāṣaṇḍasthāṁś ca mānavān |
M9.225c/ vikarmasthān śauṇḍikāṁś ca kṣipraṁ nirvāsayet purāt || 225 ||
M9.226a/ ete rāṣṭre vartamānā rājñaḥ prachannataskarāḥ |
M9.226c/ vikarmakriyayā nityaṁ bādhante bhadrikāḥ prajāḥ || 226 ||
M9.227a/ dyūtam etat purā kalpe dṛṣṭaṁ vairakaraṁ mahat |
M9.227c/ tasmād dyūtaṁ na seveta hāsyārtham api buddhimān || 227 ||
[Page J 216 ]
M9.228a/ pracchannaṁ vā prakāśaṁ vā tat-niṣeveta yo naraḥ |
M9.228c/ tasya daṇḍavikalpaḥ syād yathā.iṣṭaṁ nṛpates tathā || 228 ||

9.1.4. 9.1.4. Excursus: Types of Punishment

[Note: [ O edn 788-793 :: O tr. 202-203]
M9.229a/ kṣatra.viś.śūdrayonis tu daṇḍaṁ dātum aśaknuvan |
M9.229c/ ānṛṇyaṁ karmaṇā gacched vipro dadyāt-śanaiḥ śanaiḥ || 229 ||
M9.230a/ strī.bāla.unmatta.vṛddhānāṁ daridrāṇāṁ ca rogiṇām |
M9.230c/ śiphā.vidala.rajju.ādyair vidadhyāt-nṛpatir damam || 230 ||
M9.231a/ ye niyuktās tu kāryeṣu hanyuḥ kāryāṇi kāryiṇām |
M9.231c/ dhana.uṣmaṇā pacyamānās tān niḥ.svān kārayen nṛpaḥ || 231 ||
M9.232a/ kūṭaśāsanakartṝṁś ca prakṛtīnāṁ ca dūṣakān |
M9.232c/ strī.bāla.brāhmaṇaghnāṁś ca hanyād dviṣ.sevinas tathā || 232 ||
M9.233a/ tīritaṁ ca-anuśiṣṭaṁ ca yatra kva cana yad bhavet |
M9.233c/ kṛtaṁ tad dharmato vidyāt-na tad bhūyo nivartayet || 233 ||
M9.234a/ amātyāḥ prāḍvivāko vā yat kuryuḥ kāryam anyathā |
M9.234c/ tat svayaṁ nṛpatiḥ kuryāt tān sahasraṁ ca daṇḍayet || 234 || [Note: M9.234cv/ M: taṁ]
9.1.4.1. 9.1.4.1. Grievous Sins Causing Loss of Caste
[Note: [ O edn 790-793 :: O tr. 202-203]
M9.235a/ brahmahā ca surāpaś ca steyī ca gurutalpagaḥ | [Note: M9.235av/ M: taskaro gurutalpagaḥ]
M9.235c/ ete sarve pṛthag jñeyā mahāpātakino narāḥ || 235 ||
M9.236a/ caturṇām api ca-eteṣāṁ prāyaścittam a.kurvatām |
M9.236c/ śārīraṁ dhanasaṁyuktaṁ daṇḍaṁ dharmyaṁ prakalpayet || 236 ||
M9.237a/ gurutalpe bhagaḥ kāryaḥ surāpāne surādhvajaḥ |
M9.237c/ steye ca śvapadaṁ kāryaṁ brahmahaṇy a.śirāḥ pumān || 237 || [Note: M9.237cv/ M: taskare śvapadaṁ kāryaṁ]
[Page J 217 ]
M9.238a/ a.sambhojyā hy a.saṁyājyā a.sampāṭhyā '.vivāhinaḥ |
M9.238c/ careyuḥ pṛthivīṁ dīnāḥ sarvadharmabahiṣkṛtāḥ || 238 ||
M9.239a/ jñāti.sambandhibhis tv ete tyaktavyāḥ kṛta.lakṣaṇāḥ |
M9.239c/ nir.dayā nir.namaskārās tan manor anuśāsanam || 239 ||
M9.240a/ prāyaścittaṁ tu kurvāṇāḥ sarvavarṇā yathoditam | [Note: M9.240av/ M: pūrve varṇā yathā.uditam]
M9.240c/ na-aṅkyā rājñā lalāṭe syur dāpyās tu-uttamasāhasam || 240 ||
M9.241a/ āgaḥsu brāhmaṇasya-eva kāryo madhyamasāhasaḥ |
M9.241c/ vivāsyo vā bhaved rāṣṭrāt sa.dravyaḥ sa.paricchadaḥ || 241 ||
M9.242a/ itare kṛtavantas tu pāpāny etāny akāmataḥ |
M9.242c/ sarvasvahāram arhanti kāmatas tu pravāsanam || 242 ||
M9.243a/ na-ādadīta nṛpaḥ sādhur mahāpātakino dhanam |
M9.243c/ ādadānas tu tat-lobhāt tena doṣeṇa lipyate || 243 ||
M9.244a/ apsu praveśya taṁ daṇḍaṁ varuṇāya-upapādayet |
M9.244c/ śruta.vṛtta.upapanne vā brāhmaṇe pratipādayet || 244 ||
M9.245a/ īśo daṇḍasya varuṇo rājñāṁ daṇḍadharo hi saḥ |
M9.245c/ īśaḥ sarvasya jagato brāhmaṇo vedapāragaḥ || 245 ||
M9.246a/ yatra varjayate rājā pāpakṛdbhyo dhanāgamam |
M9.246c/ tatra kālena jāyante mānavā dīrghajīvinaḥ || 246 ||
M9.247a/ niṣpadyante ca sasyāni yathā.uptāni viśāṁ pṛthak |
M9.247c/ bālāś ca na pramīyante vikṛtaṁ ca na jāyate || 247 ||
[Page J 218 ]
M9.248a/ brāhmaṇān bādhamānaṁ tu kāmād avaravarṇajam |
M9.248c/ hanyāc citrair vadha.upāyair udvejanakarair nṛpaḥ || 248 ||
M9.249a/ yāvān a.vadhyasya vadhe tāvān vadhyasya mokṣaṇe |
M9.249c/ adharmo nṛpater dṛṣṭo dharmas tu viniyacchataḥ || 249 ||

9.1.5. 9.1.5. Conclusion of Grounds for Litigation

[Note: [ O edn 793 :: O tr. 203]
M9.250a/ udito 'yaṁ vistaraśo mitho vivādamānayoḥ |
M9.250c/ aṣṭādaśasu mārgeṣu vyavahārasya nirṇayaḥ || 250 ||
M9.251a/ evaṁ dharmyāṇi kāryāṇi samyak kurvan mahīpatiḥ |
M9.251c/ deśān alabdhān-lipseta labdhāṁś ca paripālayet || 251 ||

9.1.6. 9.1.6. Eradication of Thorns

[Note: [ O edn 793-807 :: O tr. 203-206]
M9.252a/ samyak.niviṣṭa.deśas tu kṛta.durgaś ca śāstrataḥ |
M9.252c/ kaṇṭaka.uddharaṇe nityam ātiṣṭhed yatnam uttamam || 252 ||
M9.253a/ rakṣanād āryavṛttānāṁ kaṇṭakānāṁ ca śodhanāt |
M9.253c/ narendrās tridivaṁ yānti prajāpālana.tatparāḥ || 253 ||
M9.254a/ a.śāsaṁs taskarān yas tu baliṁ gṛhṇāti pārthivaḥ |
M9.254c/ tasya prakṣubhyate rāṣṭraṁ svargāc ca parihīyate || 254 ||
M9.255a/ nirbhayaṁ tu bhaved yasya rāṣṭraṁ bāhu.balāśritam |
M9.255c/ tasya tad vardhate nityaṁ sicyamāna iva drumaḥ || 255 ||
M9.256a/ dvividhāṁs taskarān vidyāt paradravyāpahārakān |
M9.256c/ prakāśāṁś ca-aprakāśāṁś ca cāra.cakṣur mahīpatiḥ || 256 ||
M9.257a/ prakāśavañcakās teṣāṁ nānāpaṇya-upajīvinaḥ |
M9.257c/ pracchannavañcakās tv ete ye stena.aṭavikādayaḥ || 257 ||
[Page J 219 ]
M9.258a/ utkocakāś ca-aupadhikā vañcakāḥ kitavās tathā |
M9.258c/ maṅgalādeśa.vṛttāś ca bhadrāś ca-īkṣaṇikaiḥ saha || 258 || [Note: M9.258cv/ M: bhadraprekṣaṇikaiḥ saha]
M9.259a/ asamyakkāriṇaś ca-eva mahāmātrāś cikitsakāḥ |
M9.259c/ śilpa.upacārayuktāś ca nipuṇāḥ paṇyayoṣitaḥ || 259 ||
M9.260a/ evamādīn vijānīyāt prakāśāṁl lokakaṇṭakān | [Note: M9.260av/ M: evamādyān]
M9.260c/ nigūḍhacāriṇaś ca-anyān anāryān āryaliṅginaḥ || 260 ||
M9.261a/ tān viditvā sucaritair gūḍhais tatkarmakāribhiḥ |
M9.261c/ cāraiś ca-aneka.saṁsthānaiḥ protsādya vaśam ānayet || 261 ||
M9.262a/ teṣāṁ doṣān abhikhyāpya sve sve karmaṇi tattvataḥ |
M9.262c/ kurvīta śāsanaṁ rājā samyak sāra.aparādhataḥ || 262 ||
M9.263a/ na hi daṇḍād ṛte śakyaḥ kartuṁ pāpa.vinigrahaḥ |
M9.263c/ stenānāṁ pāpabuddhīnāṁ nibhṛtaṁ caratāṁ kṣitau || 263 ||
M9.264a/ sabhā.prapā.apūpa.śālāveśa.madya.anna.vikrayāḥ |
M9.264c/ catuṣpathāṁś caityavṛkṣāḥ samājāḥ prekṣaṇāni ca || 264 ||
M9.265a/ jīrṇa.udyānāny araṇyāni kārukāveśanāni ca |
M9.265c/ śūnyāni ca-apy agārāṇi vanāny upavanāni ca || 265 ||
M9.266a/ evaṁvidhān nṛpo deśān gulmaiḥ sthāvara.jaṅgamaiḥ |
M9.266c/ taskarapratiṣedhārthaṁ cāraiś ca-apy anucārayet || 266 ||
M9.267a/ tatsahāyair anugatair nānākarmapravedibhiḥ |
M9.267c/ vidyād utsādayec ca-eva nipuṇaiḥ pūrvataskaraiḥ || 267 ||
[Page J 220 ]
M9.268a/ bhakṣya.bhojya.upadeśaiś ca brāhmaṇānāṁ ca darśanaiḥ |
M9.268c/ śauryakarmāpadeśaiś ca kuryus teṣāṁ samāgamam || 268 ||
M9.269a/ ye tatra na-upasarpeyur mūlapraṇihitāś ca ye |
M9.269c/ tān prasahya nṛpo hanyāt sa.mitra.jñāti.bāndhavān || 269 ||
M9.270a/ na ha-ūḍhena vinā cauraṁ ghātayed dhārmiko nṛpaḥ |
M9.270c/ saha-ūḍhaṁ sa.upakaraṇaṁ ghātayed a.vicārayan || 270 ||
M9.271a/ grāmeṣv api ca ye ke cic caurāṇāṁ bhaktadāyakāḥ |
M9.271c/ bhāṇḍa.avakāśadāś ca-eva sarvāṁs tān api ghātayet || 271 ||
M9.272a/ rāṣṭreṣu rakṣādhikṛtān sāmantāṁś ca-eva coditān |
M9.272c/ abhyāghāteṣu madhyasthāñ śiṣyāc caurān iva drutam || 272 ||
M9.273a/ yaś ca-api dharmasamayāt pracyuto dharma.jīvanaḥ |
M9.273c/ daṇḍena-eva tam apy oṣet svakād dharmādd hi vicyutam || 273 ||
M9.274a/ grāmaghāte hitābhaṅge pathi moṣābhidarśane |
M9.274c/ śaktito na-abhidhāvanto nirvāsyāḥ sa.paricchadāḥ || 274 ||
M9.275a/ rājñaḥ kośāpahartṝṁś ca pratikūleṣu ca sthitān | [Note: M9.275av/ M: prātikūlyeṣv avasthitān]
M9.275c/ ghātayed vividhair daṇḍair arīṇāṁ ca-upajāpakān || 275 ||
M9.276a/ sandhiṁ chittvā tu ye cauryaṁ rātrau kurvanti taskarāḥ | [Note: M9.276av/ M: sandhiṁ bhittvā]
M9.276c/ teṣāṁ chittvā nṛpo hastau tīkṣṇe śūle niveśayet || 276 ||
M9.277a/ aṅgulīr granthibhedasya chedayet prathame grahe |
M9.277c/ dvitīye hasta.caraṇau tṛtīye vadham arhati || 277 ||
[Page J 221 ]
M9.278a/ agnidān bhaktadāṁś ca-eva tathā śastra.avakāśadān |
M9.278c/ sannidhātṝṁś ca moṣasya hanyāc cauram iva-īśvaraḥ || 278 ||
M9.279a/ taḍāgabhedakaṁ hanyād apsu śuddhavadhena vā |
M9.279c/ yad vā-api pratisaṁskuryād dāpyas tu-uttamasāhasam || 279 ||
M9.280a/ koṣṭhāgāra.āyudhāgāra.devatāgāra.bhedakān |
M9.280c/ hasti.aśva.rathahartṝṁś ca hanyād eva-a.vicārayan || 280 ||
M9.281a/ yas tu pūrvaniviṣṭasya taḍāgasya-udakaṁ haret |
M9.281c/ āgamaṁ vā-apy apāṁ bhindyāt sa dāpyaḥ pūrvasāhasam || 281 ||
M9.282a/ samutsṛjed rājamārge yas tv amedhyam anāpadi |
M9.282c/ sa dvau kārṣāpaṇau dadyād amedhyaṁ ca-āśu śodhayet || 282 ||
M9.283a/ āpadgato 'tha vā vṛddhā garbhiṇī bāla eva vā |
M9.283c/ paribhāṣaṇam arhanti tac ca śodhyam iti sthitiḥ || 283 ||
M9.284a/ cikitsakānāṁ sarveṣāṁ mithyāpracaratāṁ damaḥ |
M9.284c/ amānuṣeṣu prathamo mānuṣeṣu tu madhyamaḥ || 284 ||
M9.285a/ saṅkrama.dhvaja.yaṣṭīnāṁ pratimānāṁ ca bhedakaḥ |
M9.285c/ pratikuryāc ca tat sarvaṁ pañca dadyāt-śatāni ca || 285 ||
M9.286a/ adūṣitānāṁ dravyāṇāṁ dūṣaṇe bhedane tathā |
M9.286c/ maṇīnām apavedhe ca daṇḍaḥ prathamasāhasaḥ || 286 ||
M9.287a/ samair hi viṣamaṁ yas tu cared vai mūlyato 'pi vā |
M9.287c/ samāpnuyād damaṁ pūrvaṁ naro madhyamam eva vā || 287 ||
[Page J 222 ]
M9.288a/ bandhanāni ca sarvāṇi rājā mārge niveśayet | [Note: M9.288av/ M: rājamārge]
M9.288c/ duḥkhitā yatra dṛśyeran vikṛtāḥ pāpakāriṇah || 288 ||
M9.289a/ prākārasya ca bhettāraṁ parikhāṇāṁ ca pūrakam |
M9.289c/ dvārāṇāṁ ca-eva bhaṅktāraṁ kṣipram eva pravāsayet || 289 ||
M9.290a/ abhicāreṣu sarveṣu kartavyo dviśato damaḥ |
M9.290c/ mūlakarmaṇi ca-anāpteḥ kṛtyāsu vividhāsu ca || 290 || [Note: M9.290cv/ M: ca-anāptaiḥ]
M9.291a/ abījavikrayī ca-eva bīja.utkṛṣṭā tathā-eva ca |
M9.291c/ maryādābhedakaś ca-eva vikṛtaṁ prāpnuyād vadham || 291 ||
M9.292a/ sarvakaṇṭakapāpiṣṭhaṁ hemakāraṁ tu pārthivaḥ |
M9.292c/ pravartamānam anyāye chedayet-lavaśaḥ kṣuraiḥ || 292 || [Note: M9.292cv/ M: chedayet khaṇḍaśaḥ kṣuraiḥ]
M9.293a/ sītā.dravyāpaharaṇe śastrāṇām auṣadhasya ca |
M9.293c/ kālam āsādya kāryaṁ ca rājā daṇḍaṁ prakalpayet || 293 ||
9.1.6.1. 9.1.6.1. Excursus: Constituents of a Kingdom
[Note: [ O edn 801-802 :: O tr. 205]
M9.294a/ svāmy.amātyau puraṁ rāṣṭraṁ kośa.daṇḍau suhṛt tathā |
M9.294c/ sapta prakṛtayo hy etāḥ saptāṅgaṁ rājyam ucyate || 294 ||
M9.295a/ saptānāṁ prakṛtīnāṁ tu rājyasya-āsāṁ yathākramam |
M9.295c/ pūrvaṁ pūrvaṁ gurutaraṁ jānīyād vyasanaṁ mahat || 295 ||
M9.296a/ sapta.aṅgasya-iha rājyasya viṣṭabdhasya tridaṇḍavat |
M9.296c/ anyonyaguṇavaiśeṣyāt-na kiṁ cid atiricyate || 296 ||
M9.297a/ teṣu teṣu tu kṛtyeṣu tat tad aṅgaṁ viśiṣyate |
M9.297c/ yena yat sādhyate kāryaṁ tat tasmin-śreṣṭham ucyate || 297 ||
9.1.6.2. 9.1.6.2. Excursus: Activities of the King
[Page J 223 ] [Note: [ O edn 802-805 :: O tr. 205-206]
M9.298a/ cāreṇa-utsāhayogena kriyayā-eva ca karmaṇām |
M9.298c/ svaśaktiṁ paraśaktiṁ ca nityaṁ vidyāt-mahīpatiḥ || 298 || [Note: M9.298cv/ M: vidyāt para.ātmanoḥ]
M9.299a/ pīḍanāni ca sarvāṇi vyasanāni tathā-eva ca |
M9.299c/ ārabheta tataḥ kāryaṁ sañcintya guru.lāghavam || 299 ||
M9.300a/ ārabheta-eva karmāṇi śrāntaḥ śrāntaḥ punaḥ punaḥ |
M9.300c/ karmāṇy ārabhamāṇaṁ hi puruṣaṁ śrīr niṣevate || 300 ||
M9.301a/ kṛtaṁ tretāyugaṁ ca-eva dvāparaṁ kalir eva ca |
M9.301c/ rājño vṛttāni sarvāṇi rājā hi yugam ucyate || 301 ||
M9.302a/ kaliḥ prasupto bhavati sa jāgrad dvāparaṁ yugam |
M9.302c/ karmasv abhyudyatas tretā vicaraṁs tu kṛtaṁ yugam || 302 ||
M9.303a/ indrasya-arkasya vāyoś ca yamasya varuṇasya ca |
M9.303c/ candrasya-agneḥ pṛthivyāś ca tejovṛttaṁ nṛpaś caret || 303 ||
M9.304a/ vārṣikāṁś caturo māsān yathā-indro 'bhipravarṣati |
M9.304c/ tathā-abhivarṣet svaṁ rāṣṭraṁ kāmair indravrataṁ caran || 304 ||
M9.305a/ aṣṭau māsān yathā-ādityas toyaṁ harati raśmibhiḥ |
M9.305c/ tathā haret karaṁ rāṣṭrāt-nityam arkavrataṁ hi tat || 305 ||
M9.306a/ praviśya sarvabhūtāni yathā carati mārutaḥ |
M9.306c/ tathā cāraiḥ praveṣṭavyaṁ vratam etadd hi mārutam || 306 ||
M9.307a/ yathā yamaḥ priya.dveṣyau prāpte kāle niyacchati |
M9.307c/ tathā rājñā niyantavyāḥ prajās tadd hi yamavratam || 307 ||
[Page J 224 ]
M9.308a/ varuṇena yathā pāśair baddha eva-abhidṛśyate |
M9.308c/ tathā pāpān nigṛhṇīyād vratam etadd hi vāruṇam || 308 ||
M9.309a/ paripūrṇaṁ yathā candraṁ dṛṣṭvā hṛṣyanti mānavāḥ |
M9.309c/ tathā prakṛtayo yasmin sa cāndravratiko nṛpaḥ || 309 ||
M9.310a/ pratāpayuktas tejasvī nityaṁ syāt pāpakarmasu |
M9.310c/ duṣṭasāmantahiṁsraś ca tad āgneyaṁ vrataṁ smṛtam || 310 ||
M9.311a/ yathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni dharā dhārayate samam |
M9.311c/ tathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni bibhrataḥ pārthivaṁ vratam || 311 ||
M9.312a/ etair upāyair anyaiś ca yukto nityam atandritaḥ |
M9.312c/ stenān rājā nigṛhṇīyāt svarāṣṭre para eva ca || 312 ||
9.1.6.3. 9.1.6.3. Excursus on Brahmins
[Note: [ O edn 805-807 :: O tr. 206]
M9.313a/ parām apy āpadaṁ prāpto brāhmaṇān na prakopayet |
M9.313c/ te hy enaṁ kupitā hanyuḥ sadyaḥ sa.bala.vāhanam || 313 ||
M9.314a/ yaiḥ kṛtaḥ sarvabhakṣyo 'gnir apeyaś ca mahodadhiḥ | [Note: M9.314av/ M: sarvabhakṣo]
M9.314c/ kṣayī ca-āpyāyitaḥ somaḥ ko na naśyet prakopya tān || 314 ||
M9.315a/ lokān anyān sṛjeyur ye lokapālāṁś ca kopitāḥ |
M9.315c/ devān kuryur adevāṁś ca kaḥ kṣiṇvaṁs tān samṛdhnuyāt || 315 ||
M9.316a/ yān upāśritya tiṣṭhanti lokā devāś ca sarvadā |
M9.316c/ brahma ca-eva dhanaṁ yeṣāṁ ko hiṁsyāt tāñ jijīviṣuḥ || 316 ||
[Page J 225 ]
M9.317a/ a.vidvāṁś ca-eva vidvāṁś ca brāhmaṇo daivataṁ mahat |
M9.317c/ praṇītaś ca-a.praṇītaś ca yathā-agnir daivataṁ mahat || 317 ||
M9.318a/ śmaśāneṣv api tejasvī pāvako na-eva duṣyati |
M9.318c/ hūyamānaś ca yajñeṣu bhūya eva-abhivardhate || 318 ||
M9.319a/ evaṁ yady apy aniṣṭeṣu vartante sarvakarmasu |
M9.319c/ sarvathā brāhmaṇāḥ pūjyāḥ paramaṁ daivatam hi tat || 319 ||
M9.320a/ kṣatrasya-atipravṛddhasya brāhmaṇān prati sarvaśaḥ |
M9.320c/ brahma-eva sanniyantṛ syāt kṣatraṁ hi brahma.sambhavam || 320 ||
M9.321a/ adbhyo 'gnir brahmataḥ kṣatram aśmano loham utthitam |
M9.321c/ teṣāṁ sarvatragaṁ tejaḥ svāsu yoniṣu śāmyati || 321 ||
M9.322a/ na-a.brahma kṣatram ṛdhnoti na-a.kṣatraṁ brahma vardhate |
M9.322c/ brahma kṣatraṁ ca sampṛktam iha ca-amutra vardhate || 322 ||
M9.323a/ dattvā dhanaṁ tu viprebhyaḥ sarvadaṇḍasamutthitam |
M9.323c/ putre rājyaṁ samāsṛjya kurvīta prāyaṇaṁ raṇe || 323 || [Note: M9.323cv/ M: samāsādya]

9.1.7. 9.1.7. Conclusion of the Rules for Kings

[Note: [ O edn 807 :: O tr. 206]
M9.324a/ evaṁ caran sadā yukto rājadharmeṣu pārthivaḥ |
M9.324c/ hiteṣu ca-eva lokasya sarvān bhṛtyān niyojayet || 324 || [Note: M9.324cv/ M: hiteṣu ca-eva lokebhyaḥ]
M9.325a/ eṣo '.khilaḥ karmavidhir ukto rājñaḥ sanātanaḥ |
M9.325c/ imaṁ karmavidhiṁ vidyāt kramaśo vaiśya.śūdrayoḥ || 325 ||

9.2. 9.2. Rules of Action for Vaiśyas and Śūdras

[Page J 226 ] [Note: [ O edn 807-809 :: O tr. 207]

9.2.1. 9.2.1. Rules for Vaiśyas

[Note: [ O edn 807-808 :: O tr. 207]
M9.326a/ vaiśyas tu kṛta.saṁskāraḥ kṛtvā dāraparigraham |
M9.326c/ vārtāyāṁ nityayuktaḥ syāt paśūnāṁ ca-eva rakṣaṇe || 326 ||
M9.327a/ prajāpatir hi vaiśyāya sṛṣṭvā paridade paśūn |
M9.327c/ brāhmaṇāya ca rājñe ca sarvāḥ paridade prajāḥ || 327 ||
M9.328a/ na ca vaiśyasya kāmaḥ syān na rakṣeyaṁ paśūn iti |
M9.328c/ vaiśye ca-icchati na-anyena rakṣitavyāḥ kathaṁ cana || 328 ||
M9.329a/ maṇi.muktā.pravālānāṁ lohānāṁ tāntavasya ca |
M9.329c/ gandhānāṁ ca rasānāṁ ca vidyād argha.bala.abalam || 329 ||
M9.330a/ bījānām uptivid-ca syāt kṣetradoṣa.guṇasya ca |
M9.330c/ mānayogaṁ ca jānīyāt tulāyogāṁś ca sarvaśaḥ || 330 ||
M9.331a/ sāra.asāraṁ ca bhāṇḍānāṁ deśānāṁ ca guṇa.aguṇān |
M9.331c/ lābha.alābhaṁ ca paṇyānāṁ paśūnāṁ parivardhanam || 331 ||
M9.332a/ bhṛtyānāṁ ca bhṛtiṁ vidyād bhāṣāś ca vividhā nṛṇāṁ |
M9.332c/ dravyāṇāṁ sthāna.yogāṁś ca kraya.vikrayam eva ca || 332 ||
M9.333a/ dharmeṇa ca dravyavṛddhāv ātiṣṭhed yatnam uttamam |
M9.333c/ dadyāc ca sarvabhūtānām annam eva prayatnataḥ || 333 ||

9.2.2. 9.2.2. Rules for Śūdras

[Note: [ O edn 808-809 :: O tr. 207]
M9.334a/ viprāṇāṁ vedaviduṣāṁ gṛhasthānāṁ yaśasvinām |
M9.334c/ śuśrūṣā-eva tu śūdrasya dharmo naiśreyasaḥ paraḥ || 334 || [Note: M9.334cv/ K: param]
[Page J 227 ]
M9.335a/ śucir utkṛṣṭaśuśrūṣur mṛdu.vāg an.ahaṅkṛtaḥ |
M9.335c/ brāhmaṇādi.āśrayo nityam utkṛṣṭāṁ jātim aśnute || 335 || [Note: M9.335cv/ M: brāhmaṇa.apāśrayo]

9.3. 9.3. Conclusion of the Law Outside Times of Adversity

[Note: [ O edn 809 :: O tr. 207]
M9.336a/ eṣo 'nāpadi varṇānām uktaḥ karmavidhiḥ śubhaḥ |
M9.336c/ āpady api hi yas teṣāṁ kramaśas tan nibodhata || 336 ||

10. Chapter 10

[Page J 228 ] [Note: [ O edn 810-836 :: O tr. 208-214]

10.1. 10.1. Rules for Times of Adversity

[Note: [ O edn 810-836 :: O tr. 208-214]

10.1.1. 10.1.1. Mixed Classes

[Note: [ O edn 810-826 :: O tr. 208-211]
10.1.1.1. 10.1.1.1. The Four Classes
[Note: [ O edn 810-811 :: O tr. 208]
M10.01a/ adhīyīraṁs trayo varṇāḥ svakarmasthā dvijātayaḥ |
M10.01c/ prabrūyād brāhmaṇas tv eṣāṁ na-itarāv iti niścayaḥ || 1 ||
M10.02a/ sarveṣāṁ brāhmaṇo vidyād vṛttyupāyān yathāvidhi |
M10.02c/ prabrūyād itarebhyaś ca svayaṁ ca-eva tathā bhavet || 2 ||
M10.03a/ vaiśeṣyāt prakṛtiśraiṣṭhyāt-niyamasya ca dhāraṇāt |
M10.03c/ saṁskārasya viśeṣāc ca varṇānāṁ brāhmaṇaḥ prabhuḥ || 3 ||
M10.04a/ brāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyo vaiśyas trayo varṇā dvijātayaḥ |
M10.04c/ caturtha ekajātis tu śūdro na-asti tu pañcamaḥ || 4 ||
M10.05a/ sarvavarṇeṣu tulyāsu patnīṣv akṣata.yoniṣu |
M10.05c/ ānulomyena sambhūtā jātyā jñeyās ta eva te || 5 ||
M10.06a/ strīṣv anantarajātāsu dvijair utpāditān sutān |
M10.06c/ sadṛśān eva tān āhur mātṛdoṣavigarhitān || 6 ||
M10.07a/ anantarāsu jātānāṁ vidhir eṣa sanātanaḥ |
M10.07c/ dvi.ekāntarāsu jātānāṁ dharmyaṁ vidyād imaṁ vidhim || 7 ||
10.1.1.2. 10.1.1.2. Mixed Classes: First Discourse
[Page J 229 ] [Note: [ O edn 811-812 :: O tr. 208-209]
M10.08a/ brāhmaṇād vaiśyakanyāyām ambaṣṭho nāma jāyate |
M10.08c/ niṣādaḥ śūdrakanyāyāṁ yaḥ pāraśava ucyate || 8 ||
M10.09a/ kṣatriyāt-śūdrakanyāyāṁ krūrācāravihāravān |
M10.09c/ kṣatra.śūdra.vapur jantur ugro nāma prajāyate || 9 ||
M10.10a/ viprasya triṣu varṇeṣu nṛpater varṇayor dvayoḥ |
M10.10c/ vaiśyasya varṇe ca-ekasmin ṣaḍ ete 'pasadāḥ smṛtāḥ || 10 ||
M10.11a/ kṣatriyād viprakanyāyāṁ sūto bhavati jātitaḥ |
M10.11c/ vaiśyān māgadha.vaidehau rāja.vipra.aṅganāsutau || 11 ||
M10.12a/ śūdrād āyogavaḥ kṣattā caṇḍālaś ca-adhamo nṛṇām |
M10.12c/ vaiśya.rājanya.viprāsu jāyante varṇasaṅkarāḥ || 12 ||
M10.13a/ ekāntare tv ānulomyād ambaṣṭha.ugrau yathā smṛtau |
M10.13c/ kṣattṛ.vaidehakau tadvat prātilomye 'pi janmani || 13 ||
M10.14a/ putrā ye 'nantarastrījāḥ krameṇa-uktā dvijanmanām |
M10.14c/ tān anantara.nāmnas tu mātṛdoṣāt pracakṣate || 14 ||
10.1.1.3. 10.1.1.3. Mixed Classes: Second Discourse
[Note: [ O edn 812-814 :: O tr. 209]
M10.15a/ brāhmaṇād ugrakanyāyām āvṛto nāma jāyate |
M10.15c/ ābhīro 'mbaṣṭhakanyāyām āyogavyāṁ tu dhigvaṇaḥ || 15 ||
M10.16a/ āyogavaś ca kṣattā ca caṇḍālaś ca-adhamo nṛṇām |
M10.16c/ prātilomyena jāyante śūdrād apasadās trayaḥ || 16 ||
M10.17a/ vaiśyān māgadha.vaidehau kṣatriyāt sūta eva tu |
M10.17c/ pratīpam ete jāyante pare 'py apasadās trayaḥ || 17 ||
[Page J 230 ]
M10.18a/ jāto niṣādāt-śūdrāyāṁ jātyā bhavati pukkasaḥ |
M10.18c/ śūdrāj jāto niṣādyāṁ tu sa vai kukkuṭakaḥ smṛtaḥ || 18 ||
M10.19a/ kṣattur jātas tathā-ugrāyāṁ śvapāka iti kīrtyate |
M10.19c/ vaidehakena tv ambaṣṭhyām utpanno veṇa ucyate || 19 ||
M10.20a/ dvijātayaḥ savarṇāsu janayanty a.vratāṁs tu yān |
M10.20c/ tān sāvitrīparibhraṣṭān vrātyān iti vinirdiśet || 20 ||
M10.21a/ vrātyāt tu jāyate viprāt pāpa.ātmā bhūrjakaṇṭakaḥ| [Note: M10.21av/ M: bhṛjjakaṇṭakaḥ]
M10.21c/ āvantya.vāṭadhānau ca puṣpadhaḥ śaikha eva ca || 21 ||
M10.22a/ jhallo mallaś ca rājanyād vrātyāt-nicchivir eva ca | [Note: M10.22av/ M: vrātyāt-licchavir eva ca]
M10.22c/ naṭaś ca karaṇaś ca-eva khaso draviḍa eva ca || 22 ||
M10.23a/ vaiśyāt tu jāyate vrātyāt sudhanvā-ācārya eva ca |
M10.23c/ kāruṣaś ca vijanmā ca maitraḥ sātvata eva ca || 23 ||
10.1.1.4. 10.1.1.4. Mixed Classes: Third Discourse
[Note: [ O edn 814-819 :: O tr. 209-210]
M10.24a/ vyabhicāreṇa varṇānām avedyāvedanena ca |
M10.24c/ svakarmaṇāṁ ca tyāgena jāyante varṇasaṅkarāḥ || 24 ||
M10.25a/ saṅkīrṇa.yonayo ye tu pratiloma.anuloma.jāḥ |
M10.25c/ anyonyavyatiṣaktāś ca tān pravakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ || 25 ||
M10.26a/ sūto vaidehakaś ca-eva caṇḍālaś ca narādhamaḥ |
M10.26c/ māgadhaḥ tathā-āyogava eva ca kṣatrajātiś ca || 26 || [Note: M10.26cv/ M: kṣattṛjātiś ca]
M10.27a/ ete ṣaṭ sadṛśān varṇāñ janayanti svayoniṣu |
M10.27c/ mātṛjātyāṁ prasūyante pravārāsu ca yoniṣu || 27 || [Note: M10.27cv/ M: mātṛjātyāḥ]
[Page J 231 ]
M10.28a/ yathā trayāṇāṁ varṇānāṁ dvayor ātmā-asya jāyate |
M10.28c/ ānantaryāt svayonyāṁ tu tathā bāhyeṣv api kramāt || 28 || [Note: M10.28cv/ M: kramaḥ]
M10.29a/ te ca-api bāhyān subahūṁs tato 'py adhikadūṣitān |
M10.29c/ parasparasya dāreṣu janayanti vigarhitān || 29 ||
M10.30a/ yathā-eva śūdro brāhmaṇyāṁ bāhyaṁ jantuṁ prasūyate |
M10.30c/ tathā bāhyataraṁ bāhyaś cāturvarṇye prasūyate || 30 ||
M10.31a/ pratikūlaṁ vartamānā bāhyā bāhyatarān punaḥ |
M10.31c/ hīnā hīnān prasūyante varṇān pañcadaśa-eva tu || 31 ||
M10.32a/ prasādhana.upacārajñam adāsaṁ dāsajīvanam | [Note: M10.32av/ M: dāsyajīvinam]
M10.32c/ sairindhraṁ vāgurā.vṛttiṁ sūte dasyur ayogave || 32 || [Note: M10.32cv/ M: sairandhraṁ]
M10.33a/ maitreyakaṁ tu vaideho mādhūkaṁ samprasūyate |
M10.33c/ nṝn praśaṁsaty ajasraṁ yo ghaṇṭātāḍo 'ruṇa.udaye || 33 ||
M10.34a/ niṣādo mārgavaṁ sūte dāsaṁ naukarmajīvinam |
M10.34c/ kaivartam iti yaṁ prāhur āryāvartanivāsinaḥ || 34 ||
M10.35a/ mṛtavastrabhṛtsv nārīṣu garhita.anna.aśanāsu ca | [Note: M10.35av/ M: anāryāṣu]
M10.35c/ bhavanty āyogavīṣv ete jātihīnāḥ pṛthak trayaḥ || 35 ||
M10.36a/ kārāvaro niṣādāt tu carmakāraḥ prasūyate | [Note: M10.36av/ M: carmakāraṁ]
M10.36c/ vaidehikād andhra.medau bahirgrāma.pratiśrayau || 36 ||
M10.37a/ caṇḍālāt pāṇḍusopākas tvaksāravyavahāravān |
M10.37c/ āhiṇḍiko niṣādena vaidehyām eva jāyate || 37 ||
[Page J 232 ]
M10.38a/ caṇḍālena tu sopāko mūlavyasanavṛttimān |
M10.38c/ pukkasyāṁ jāyate pāpaḥ sadā sajjanagarhitaḥ || 38 || [Note: M10.38cv/ M: pulkasyāṁ]
M10.39a/ niṣādastrī tu caṇḍālāt putram antyāvasāyinam |
M10.39c/ śmaśāna.gocaraṁ sūte bāhyānām api garhitam || 39 ||
M10.40a/ saṅkare jātayas tv etāḥ pitṛ.mātṛ.pradarśitāḥ |
M10.40c/ prachannā vā prakāśā vā veditavyāḥ svakarmabhiḥ || 40 ||
M10.41a/ svajātija.anantarajāḥ ṣaṭ sutā dvijadharmiṇaḥ |
M10.41c/ śūdrāṇāṁ tu sa.dharmāṇaḥ sarve 'padhvaṁsajāḥ smṛtāḥ || 41 ||
M10.42a/ tapo.bīja.prabhāvais tu te gacchanti yuge yuge |
M10.42c/ utkarṣaṁ ca-apakarṣaṁ ca manuṣyeṣv iha janmataḥ || 42 ||
M10.43a/ śanakais tu kriyālopād imāḥ kṣatriya.jātayaḥ |
M10.43c/ vṛṣalatvaṁ gatā loke brāhmaṇādarśanena ca || 43 || [Note: M10.43cv/ M: brāhmaṇātikrameṇa ca]
M10.44a/ pauṇḍrakāś cauḍra.draviḍāḥ kāmbojā yavanāḥ śakāḥ | [Note: M10.44av/ M: puṇḍrakāś coḍa.draviḍāḥ]
M10.44c/ pāradā.pahlavāś cīnāḥ kirātā daradāḥ khaśāḥ || 44 ||
M10.45a/ mukha.bāhu.ūru.pad.jānāṁ yā loke jātayo bahiḥ |
M10.45c/ mleccha.vācaś ca-ārya.vācaḥ sarve te dasyavaḥ smṛtāḥ || 45 ||
10.1.1.5. 10.1.1.5. Occupations, Residence, and Dress
[Note: [ O edn 819-820 :: O tr. 210]
M10.46a/ ye dvijānām apasadā ye ca-apadhvaṁsajāḥ smṛtāḥ |
M10.46c/ te ninditair vartayeyur dvijānām eva karmabhiḥ || 46 ||
M10.47a/ sūtānām aśva.sārathyam ambaṣṭhānāṁ cikitsanam |
M10.47c/ vaidehakānāṁ strīkāryaṁ māgadhānāṁ vaṇikpathaḥ || 47 ||
[Page J 233 ]
M10.48a/ matsyaghāto niṣādānāṁ tvaṣṭis tv āyogavasya ca |
M10.48c/ meda.andhra.cuñcu.madgūnām āraṇyapaśuhiṁsanam || 48 ||
M10.49a/ kṣattṛ.ugra.pukkasānāṁ tu bilaukovadha.bandhanam |
M10.49c/ dhigvaṇānāṁ carmakāryaṁ veṇānāṁ bhāṇḍavādanam || 49 ||
M10.50a/ caityadruma.śmaśāneṣu śaileṣu-upavaneṣu ca |
M10.50c/ vaseyur ete vijñātā vartayantaḥ svakarmabhiḥ || 50 ||
10.1.1.6. 10.1.1.6. Cāṇḍālas and Śvapācas
[Note: [ O edn 820-821 :: O tr. 210]
M10.51a/ caṇḍāla.śvapacānāṁ tu bahir grāmāt pratiśrayaḥ |
M10.51c/ apapātrāś ca kartavyā dhanam eṣāṁ śva.gardabham || 51 ||
M10.52a/ vāsāṁsi mṛtacailāni bhinnabhāṇḍeṣu bhojanam |
M10.52c/ kārṣṇāyasam alaṅkāraḥ parivrajyā ca nityaśaḥ || 52 ||
M10.53a/ na taiḥ samayam anvicchet puruṣo dharmam ācaran |
M10.53c/ vyavahāro mithas teṣāṁ vivāhaḥ sadṛśaiḥ saha || 53 ||
M10.54a/ annam eṣāṁ parādhīnaṁ deyaṁ syād bhinnabhājane |
M10.54c/ rātrau na vicareyus te grāmeṣu nagareṣu ca || 54 ||
M10.55a/ divā careyuḥ kāryārthaṁ cihnitā rājaśāsanaiḥ |
M10.55c/ a.bāndhavaṁ śavaṁ ca-eva nirhareyur iti sthitiḥ || 55 ||
M10.56a/ vadhyāṁś ca hanyuḥ satataṁ yathāśāstraṁ nṛpājñayā |
M10.56c/ vadhyavāsāṁsi gṛhṇīyuḥ śayyāś ca-ābharaṇāni ca || 56 ||
10.1.1.7. 10.1.1.7. Further Discourse on Mixed Classes
[Note: [ O edn 821-822 :: O tr. 211]
M10.57a/ varṇāpetam avijñātaṁ naraṁ kaluṣayonijam |
M10.57c/ ārya.rūpam iva-anāryaṁ karmabhiḥ svair vibhāvayet || 57 ||
[Page J 234 ]
M10.58a/ anāryatā niṣṭhuratā krūratā niṣkriyātmatā |
M10.58c/ puruṣaṁ vyañjayanti-iha loke kaluṣayonijam || 58 ||
M10.59a/ pitryaṁ vā bhajate śīlaṁ mātur vā-ubhayam eva vā |
M10.59c/ na kathaṁ cana duryoniḥ prakṛtiṁ svāṁ niyacchati || 59 ||
M10.60a/ kule mukhye 'pi jātasya yasya syād yonisaṅkaraḥ |
M10.60c/ saṁśrayaty eva tat.śīlaṁ naro 'lpam api vā bahu || 60 ||
M10.61a/ yatra tv ete paridhvaṁsāj jāyante varṇadūṣakāḥ |
M10.61c/ rāṣṭrikaiḥ saha tad rāṣṭraṁ kṣipram eva vinaśyati || 61 || [Note: M10.61cv/ M: rāṣṭriyaiḥ]
10.1.1.8. 10.1.1.8. Advance to Higher Classes
[Note: [ O edn 822-825 :: O tr. 211]
M10.62a/ brāhmaṇārthe gavārthe vā dehatyāgo 'n.upaskṛtaḥ |
M10.62c/ strī.bālābhyupapattau ca bāhyānāṁ siddhikāraṇam || 62 || [Note: M10.62cv/ M: strī.bālābhyavapattau ca]
M10.63a/ ahiṁsā satyam asteyaṁ śaucam indriyanigrahaḥ |
M10.63c/ etaṁ sāmāsikaṁ dharmaṁ cāturvarṇye 'bravīn manuḥ || 63 ||
M10.64a/ śūdrāyāṁ brāhmaṇāj jātaḥ śreyasā cet prajāyate |
M10.64c/ aśreyān śreyasīṁ jātiṁ gacchaty ā saptamād yugāt || 64 ||
M10.65a/ śūdro brāhmaṇatām eti brāhmaṇaś ca-eti śūdratām |
M10.65c/ kṣatriyāj jātam evaṁ tu vidyād vaiśyāt tathā-eva ca || 65 ||
M10.66a/ anāryāyāṁ samutpanno brāhmaṇāt tu yadṛcchayā |
M10.66c/ brāhmaṇyām apy anāryāt tu śreyastvaṁ kva-iti ced bhavet || 66 || [Note: M10.66cv/ M: kasya cid bhavet]
M10.67a/ jāto nāryām anāryāyām āryād āryo bhaved guṇaiḥ |
M10.67c/ jāto 'py anāryād āryāyām anārya iti niścayaḥ || 67 ||
[Page J 235 ]
M10.68a/ tāv ubhāv apy asaṁskāryāv iti dharmo vyavasthitaḥ |
M10.68c/ vaiguṇyāj janmanaḥ pūrva uttaraḥ pratilomataḥ || 68 || [Note: M10.68cv/ M: janmataḥ]
M10.69a/ subījaṁ ca-eva sukṣetre jātaṁ sampadyate yathā |
M10.69c/ tathā-āryāj jāta āryāyāṁ sarvaṁ saṁskāram arhati || 69 ||
M10.70a/ bījam eke praśaṁsanti kṣetram anye manīṣiṇaḥ |
M10.70c/ bīja.kṣetre tathā-eva-anye tatra-iyaṁ tu vyavasthitiḥ || 70 ||
M10.71a/ akṣetre bījam utsṛṣṭam antarā-eva vinaśyati |
M10.71c/ a.bījakam api kṣetraṁ kevalaṁ sthaṇḍilaṁ bhavet || 71 ||
M10.72a/ yasmād bījaprabhāveṇa tiryagjā ṛṣayo 'bhavan |
M10.72c/ pūjitāś ca praśastāś ca tasmād bījaṁ praśasyate || 72 || [Note: M10.72cv/ M: viśiṣyate]
M10.73a/ anāryam ārya.karmāṇam āryaṁ ca-anāryakarmiṇam |
M10.73c/ sampradhārya-abravīd dhātā na samau na-asamāv iti || 73 ||

10.1.2. 10.1.2. Occupations of the Four Classes

[Note: [ O edn 825-826 :: O tr. 211-212]
M10.74a/ brāhmaṇā brahmayonisthā ye svakarmaṇy avasthitāḥ |
M10.74c/ te samyag upajīveyuḥ ṣaṭ karmāṇi yathākramam || 74 ||
M10.75a/ adhyāpanam adhyayanaṁ yajanaṁ yājanaṁ tathā |
M10.75c/ dānaṁ pratigrahaś ca-eva ṣaṭ karmāṇy agrajanmanaḥ || 75 ||
M10.76a/ ṣaṇṇāṁ tu karmaṇām asya trīṇi karmāṇi jīvikā |
M10.76c/ yājana.adhyāpane ca-eva viśuddhāc ca pratigrahaḥ || 76 ||
M10.77a/ trayo dharmā nivartante brāhmaṇāt kṣatriyaṁ prati |
M10.77c/ adhyāpanaṁ yājanaṁ ca tṛtīyaś ca pratigrahaḥ || 77 ||
[Page J 236 ]
M10.78a/ vaiśyaṁ prati tathā-eva-ete nivarterann iti sthitiḥ |
M10.78c/ na tau prati hi tān dharmān manur āha prajāpatiḥ || 78 || [Note: M10.78cv/ M: prati hitān dharmān]
M10.79a/ śastra.astrabhṛttvaṁ kṣatrasya vaṇik.paśu.kṛṣir viṣaḥ |
M10.79c/ ājīvanārthaṁ dharmas tu dānam adhyayanaṁ yajiḥ || 79 ||
M10.80a/ vedābhyāso brāhmaṇasya kṣatriyasya ca rakṣaṇam |
M10.80c/ vārtākarma-eva vaiśyasya viśiṣṭāni svakarmasu || 80 ||

10.1.3. 10.1.3. Occupations in Times of Adversity

[Note: [ O edn 826-835 :: O tr. 212-214]
10.1.3.1. 10.1.3.1. Brahmins
[Note: [ O edn 826-829 :: O tr. 212]
M10.81a/ a.jīvaṁs tu yathā.uktena brāhmaṇaḥ svena karmaṇā |
M10.81c/ jīvet kṣatriyadharmeṇa sa hy asya praty anantaraḥ || 81 ||
M10.82a/ ubhābhyām apy a.jīvaṁs tu kathaṁ syād iti ced bhavet |
M10.82c/ kṛṣi.gorakṣam āsthāya jīved vaiśyasya jīvikām || 82 ||
M10.83a/ vaiśyavṛttyā-api jīvaṁs tu brāhmaṇaḥ ksatriyo 'pi vā |
M10.83c/ hiṁsā.prāyāṁ parādhīnāṁ kṛṣiṁ yatnena varjayet || 83 ||
M10.84a/ kṛṣiṁ sādhu-iti manyante sā vṛttiḥ sadvigarhitāḥ |
M10.84c/ bhūmiṁ bhūmiśayāṁś ca-eva hanti kāṣṭham ayo.mukham || 84 ||
M10.85a/ idaṁ tu vṛttivaikalyāt tyajato dharmanaipuṇaṁ |
M10.85c/ viś.paṇyam uddhṛta.uddhāraṁ vikreyaṁ vittavardhanam || 85 ||
M10.86a/ sarvān rasān apoheta kṛtānnaṁ ca tilaiḥ saha |
M10.86c/ aśmano lavaṇaṁ ca-eva paśavo ye ca mānuṣāḥ || 86 ||
M10.87a/ sarvaṁ ca tāntavaṁ raktaṁ śāṇa.kṣauma.āvikāni ca |
M10.87c/ api cet syur araktāni phala.mūle tathā-oṣadhīḥ || 87 ||
[Page J 237 ]
M10.88a/ apaḥ śastraṁ viṣaṁ māṁsaṁ somaṁ gandhāṁś ca sarvaśaḥ |
M10.88c/ kṣīraṁ kṣaudraṁ dadhi ghṛtaṁ tailaṁ madhu guḍaṁ kuśān || 88 ||
M10.89a/ āraṇyāṁś ca paśūn sarvān daṁṣṭriṇaś ca vayāṁsi ca |
M10.89c/ madyaṁ nīliṁ ca lākṣāṁ ca sarvāṁś ca-eka.śaphāṁs tathā || 89 || [Note: M10.89cv/ M: nīlīṁ]
M10.90a/ kāmam utpādya kṛṣyāṁ tu svayam eva kṛṣīvalaḥ |
M10.90c/ vikrīṇīta tilān-śūdrān dharmārtham acirasthitān || 90 || [Note: M10.90cv/ M: tilān-śuddhān]
M10.91a/ bhojana.abhyañjanād dānād yad anyat kurute tilaiḥ |
M10.91c/ kṛmibhūtaḥ śvaviṣṭhāyāṁ pitṛbhiḥ saha majjati || 91 ||
M10.92a/ sadyaḥ patati māṁsena lākṣayā lavaṇena ca |
M10.92c/ tryaheṇa śūdro bhavati brāhmaṇaḥ kṣīravikrayāt || 92 ||
M10.93a/ itareṣāṁ tu paṇyānāṁ vikrayād iha kāmataḥ |
M10.93c/ brāhmaṇaḥ saptarātreṇa vaiśyabhāvaṁ niyacchati || 93 ||
M10.94a/ rasā rasair nimātavyā na tv eva lavaṇaṁ rasaiḥ |
M10.94c/ kṛtānnaṁ ca kṛtānnena tilā dhānyena tatsamāḥ || 94 ||
10.1.3.2. 10.1.3.2. Kṣatriyas
[Note: [ O edn 829 :: O tr. 212-213]
M10.95a/ jīved etena rājanyaḥ sarveṇa-apy anayaṁ gataḥ |
M10.95c/ na tv eva jyāyaṁsīṁ vṛttim abhimanyeta karhi cit || 95 ||
M10.96a/ yo lobhād adhamo jātyā jīved utkṛṣṭa.karmabhiḥ |
M10.96c/ taṁ rājā nirdhanaṁ kṛtvā kṣipram eva pravāsayet || 96 ||
M10.97a/ varaṁ svadharmo viguṇo na pārakyaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ | [Note: M10.97av/ M: viguṇaḥ paradharmāt svadhiṣṭhitāt]
M10.97c/ paradharmeṇa jīvan hi sadyaḥ patati jātitaḥ || 97 ||
10.1.3.3. 10.1.3.3. Vaiśyas
[Page J 238 ] [Note: [ O edn 829 :: O tr. 213]
M10.98a/ vaiśyo '.jīvan svadharmeṇa śūdravṛttyā-api vartayet |
M10.98c/ an.ācarann a.kāryāṇi nivarteta ca śaktimān || 98 ||
10.1.3.4. 10.1.3.4. Śūdras
[Note: [ O edn 830 :: O tr. 213]
M10.99a/ a.śaknuvaṁs tu śuśrūṣāṁ śūdraḥ kartuṁ dvijanmanām |
M10.99c/ putra.dārātyayaṁ prāpto jīvet kāruka.karmabhiḥ || 99 ||
M10.100a/ yaiḥ karmabhiḥ pracaritaiḥ śuśrūṣyante dvijātayaḥ |
M10.100c/ tāni kāruka.karmāṇi śilpāni vividhāni ca || 100 ||
10.1.3.5. 10.1.3.5. Further Occupations for Brahmins
[Note: [ O edn 830-832 :: O tr. 213]
M10.101a/ vaiśyavṛttim an.ātiṣṭhan brāhmaṇaḥ sve pathi sthitaḥ |
M10.101c/ avṛttikarṣitaḥ sīdann imaṁ dharmaṁ samācaret || 101 ||
M10.102a/ sarvataḥ pratigṛhṇīyād brāhmaṇas tv anayaṁ gataḥ |
M10.102c/ pavitraṁ duṣyati-ity etad dharmato na-upapadyate || 102 ||
M10.103a/ na-adhyāpanād yājanād vā garhitād vā pratigrahāt |
M10.103c/ doṣo bhavati viprāṇāṁ jvalana.ambu.samā hi te || 103 ||
M10.104a/ jīvitātyayam āpanno yo 'nnam atti tatas tataḥ |
M10.104c/ ākāśam iva paṅkena na sa pāpena lipyate || 104 ||
M10.105a/ ajīgartaḥ sutaṁ hantum upāsarpad bubhukṣitaḥ |
M10.105c/ na ca-ālipyata pāpena kṣutpratīkāram ācaran || 105 ||
M10.106a/ śvamāṁsam icchan ārto 'ttuṁ dharma.adharmavicakṣaṇaḥ |
M10.106c/ prāṇānāṁ parirakṣārthaṁ vāmadevo na liptavān || 106 ||
M10.107a/ bharadvājaḥ kṣudhārtas tu sa.putro vijane vane |
M10.107c/ bahvīr gāḥ pratijagrāha vṛdhos takṣṇo mahātapāḥ || 107 ||
[Page J 239 ]
M10.108a/ kṣudhārtaś ca-attum abhyāgād viśvāmitraḥ śvajāghanīm |
M10.108c/ caṇḍālahastād ādāya dharma.adharmavicakṣaṇaḥ || 108 ||
M10.109a/ pratigrahād yājanād vā tathā-eva-adhyāpanād api |
M10.109c/ pratigrahaḥ pratyavaraḥ pretya viprasya garhitaḥ || 109 ||
M10.110a/ yājana.adhyāpane nityaṁ kriyete saṁskṛta.ātmanām |
M10.110c/ pratigrahas tu kriyate śūdrād apy antya.janmanaḥ || 110 ||
M10.111a/ japa.homair apaity eno yājana.adhyāpanaiḥ kṛtam |
M10.111c/ pratigrahanimittaṁ tu tyāgena tapasā-eva ca || 111 ||
M10.112a/ śila.uñcham apy ādadīta vipro '.jīvan yatas tataḥ |
M10.112c/ pratigrahāt-śilaḥ śreyāṁs tato 'py uñchaḥ praśasyate || 112 ||
M10.113a/ sīdadbhiḥ kupyam icchadbhir dhane vā pṛthivīpatiḥ | [Note: M10.113av/ M: dhanaṁ vā]
M10.113c/ yācyaḥ syāt snātakair viprair aditsaṁs tyāgam arhati || 113 ||
M10.114a/ akṛtaṁ ca kṛtāt kṣetrād gaur ajāvikam eva ca |
M10.114c/ hiraṇyaṁ dhānyam annaṁ ca pūrvaṁ pūrvam adoṣavat || 114 ||
10.1.3.6. 10.1.3.6. Acquisition of Property
[Note: [ O edn 832-833 :: O tr. 214]
M10.115a/ sapta vittāgamā dharmyā dāyo lābhaḥ krayo jayaḥ |
M10.115c/ prayogaḥ karmayogaś ca satpratigraha eva ca || 115 ||
M10.116a/ vidyā śilpaṁ bhṛtiḥ sevā gorakṣyaṁ vipaṇiḥ kṛṣiḥ |
M10.116c/ dhṛtir bhaikṣaṁ kusīdaṁ ca daśa jīvanahetavaḥ || 116 ||
M10.117a/ brāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyo vā-api vṛddhiṁ na-eva prayojayet |
M10.117c/ kāmaṁ tu khalu dharmārthaṁ dadyāt pāpīyase 'lpikām || 117 ||
[Page J 240 ]
M10.118a/ caturtham ādadāno 'pi kṣatriyo bhāgam āpadi |
M10.118c/ prajā rakṣan paraṁ śaktyā kilbiṣāt pratimucyate || 118 ||
M10.119a/ svadharmo vijayas tasya na-āhave syāt parāṅ.mukhaḥ |
M10.119c/ śastreṇa vaiśyān rakṣitvā dharmyam āhārayed balim || 119 || [Note: M10.119cv/ M: vaiśyād rakṣitvā]
M10.120a/ dhānye 'ṣṭamaṁ viśāṁ śulkaṁ viṁśaṁ kārṣāpaṇa.avaram |
M10.120c/ karma.upakaraṇāḥ śūdrāḥ kāravaḥ śilpinas tathā || 120 ||
10.1.3.7. 10.1.3.7. Livelihood of Śūdras
[Note: [ O edn 834-835 :: O tr. 214]
M10.121a/ śūdras tu vṛttim ākāṅkṣan kṣatram ārādhayed yadi | [Note: M10.121av/ M: ārādhayed iti]
M10.121c/ dhaninaṁ vā-apy upārādhya vaiśyaṁ śūdro jijīviṣet || 121 ||
M10.122a/ svargārtham ubhayārthaṁ vā viprān ārādhayet tu saḥ |
M10.122c/ jātabrāhmaṇa.śabdasya sā hy asya kṛtakṛtyatā || 122 ||
M10.123a/ viprasevā-eva śūdrasya viśiṣṭaṁ karma kīrtyate |
M10.123c/ yad ato 'nyadd hi kurute tad bhavaty asya niṣphalam || 123 ||
M10.124a/ prakalpyā tasya tair vṛttiḥ svakuṭumbād yathārhataḥ |
M10.124c/ śaktiṁ ca-avekṣya dākṣyaṁ ca bhṛtyānāṁ ca parigraham || 124 ||
M10.125a/ ucchiṣṭam annaṁ dātavyaṁ jīrṇāni vasanāni ca |
M10.125c/ pulākāś ca-eva dhānyānāṁ jīrṇāś ca-eva paricchadāḥ || 125 ||
M10.126a/ na śūdre pātakaṁ kiṁ cin na ca saṁskāram arhati |
M10.126c/ na-asya-adhikāro dharme 'sti na dharmāt pratiṣedhanam || 126 ||
M10.127a/ dharma.ipsavas tu dharmajñāḥ satāṁ vṛttam anuṣṭhitāḥ | [Note: M10.127av/ M: satāṁ dharmam]
M10.127c/ mantravarjyaṁ na duṣyanti praśaṁsāṁ prāpnuvanti ca || 127 || [Note: M10.127cv/ M: mantravarjaṁ]
[Page J 241 ]
M10.128a/ yathā yathā hi sadvṛttam ātiṣṭhaty anasūyakaḥ |
M10.128c/ tathā tathā-imaṁ ca-amuṁ ca lokaṁ prāpnoty aninditaḥ || 128 ||
M10.129a/ śaktena-api hi śūdreṇa na kāryo dhanasañcayaḥ |
M10.129c/ śūdro hi dhanam āsādya brāhmaṇān eva bādhate || 129 ||

10.1.4. 10.1.4. Conclusion

[Note: [ O edn 835-836 :: O tr. 214]
M10.130a/ ete caturṇāṁ varṇānām āpaddharmāḥ prakīrtitāḥ |
M10.130c/ yān samyag anutiṣṭhanto vrajanti paramaṁ gatim || 130 ||
M10.131a/ eṣa dharmavidhiḥ kṛtsnaś cāturvarṇyasya kīrtitaḥ |
M10.131c/ ataḥ paraṁ pravakṣyāmi prāyaścittavidhiṁ śubham || 131 ||

11. Chapter 11

[Page J 242 ] [Note: [ O edn 837-888 :: O tr. 215-229]

11.1. 11.1. Penance

[Note: [ O edn 837-888 :: O tr. 215-229]

11.1.1. 11.1.1. Excursus: Occasions for Giving and Begging

[Note: [ O edn 837-841 :: O tr. 215-216]
M11.01a/ sāntānikaṁ yakṣyamāṇam adhvagaṁ sārvavedasam |
M11.01c/ guru.arthaṁ pitṛ.mātṛ.arthaṁ svādhyāyārthy upatāpinaḥ || 1 ||
M11.02a/ na vai tān snātakān vidyād brāhmaṇān dharmabhikṣukān |
M11.02c/ niḥsvebhyo deyam etebhyo dānaṁ vidyāviśeṣataḥ || 2 ||
M11.03a/ etebhyo hi dvijāgryebhyo deyam annaṁ sa.dakṣiṇam |
M11.03c/ itarebhyo bahirvedi kṛtānnaṁ deyam ucyate || 3 ||
M11.04a/ sarvaratnāni rājā tu yathārhaṁ pratipādayet |
M11.04c/ brāhmaṇān vedaviduṣo yajñārthaṁ ca-eva dakṣiṇām || 4 ||
M11.05a/ kṛta.dāro 'parān dārān bhikṣitvā yo 'dhigacchati |
M11.05c/ rati.mātraṁ phalaṁ tasya dravyadātus tu santatiḥ || 5 ||
M11.06a/ dhanāni tu yathāśakti vipreṣu pratipādayet | [Note: M11.06av/ not in M]
M11.06c/ vedavitsu vivikteṣu pretya svargaṁ samaśnute || 6 || [Note: M11.06cv/ not in M]
M11.07a[06Ma]/ yasya traivārṣikaṁ bhaktaṁ paryāptaṁ bhṛtyavṛttaye |
M11.07c[06Mc]/ adhikaṁ vā-api vidyeta sa somaṁ pātum arhati || 7 ||
[Page J 243 ]
M11.08a[07Ma]/ ataḥ svalpīyasi dravye yaḥ somaṁ pibati dvijaḥ |
M11.08c[07Mc]/ sa pītasoma.pūrvo 'pi na tasya-āpnoti tatphalam || 8 ||
M11.09a[08Ma]/ śaktaḥ parajane dātā svajane duḥkhajīvini |
M11.09c[08Mc]/ madhv.āpāto viṣa.āsvādaḥ sa dharma.pratirūpakaḥ || 9 ||
M11.10a[09Ma]/ bhṛtyānām uparodhena yat karoty aurdhvadehikam |
M11.10c[09Mc]/ tad bhavaty asukha.udarkaṁ jīvataś ca mṛtasya ca || 10 ||
M11.11a[10Ma]/ yajñaś cet pratiruddhaḥ syād ekena-aṅgena yajvanaḥ |
M11.11c[10Mc]/ brāhmaṇasya viśeṣena dhārmike sati rājani || 11 ||
M11.12a[11Ma]/ yo vaiśyaḥ syād bahupaśur hīna.kratur asomapaḥ |
M11.12c[11Mc]/ kuṭumbāt tasya tad dravyam āhared yajñasiddhaye || 12 ||
M11.13a[12Ma]/ āharet trīṇi vā dve vā kāmaṁ śūdrasya veśmanaḥ |
M11.13c[12Mc]/ na hi śūdrasya yajñeṣu kaś cid asti parigrahaḥ || 13 ||
M11.14a[13Ma]/ yo 'nāhita.agniḥ śatagur a.yajvā ca sahasraguḥ | [Note: M11.14a[13Ma]v/ K: ayajñaś]
M11.14c[13Mc]/ tayor api kuṭumbābhyām āhared a.vicārayan || 14 ||
M11.15a[14Ma]/ ādāna.nityāc ca-ādātur āhared a.prayacchataḥ |
M11.15c[14Mc]/ tathā yaśo 'sya prathate dharmaś ca-eva pravardhate || 15 ||
M11.16a[15Ma]/ tathāa-eva saptame bhakte bhaktāni ṣaḍ an.aśnatā |
M11.16c[15Mc]/ aśvastanavidhānena hartavyaṁ hīna.karmaṇaḥ || 16 ||
M11.17a[16Ma]/ khalāt kṣetrād agārād vā yato vā-apy upalabhyate |
M11.17c[16Mc]/ ākhyātavyaṁ tu tat tasmai pṛcchate yadi pṛcchati || 17 ||
[Page J 244 ]
M11.18a[17Ma]/ brāhmaṇasvaṁ na hartavyaṁ kṣatriyeṇa kadā cana |
M11.18c[17Mc]/ dasyu.niṣkriyayos tu svam a.jīvan hartum arhati || 18 ||
M11.19a[18Ma]/ yo 'sādhubhyo 'rtham ādāya sādhubhyaḥ samprayacchati |
M11.19c[18Mc]/ sa kṛtvā plavam ātmānaṁ santārayati tāv ubhau || 19 ||
M11.20a[19Ma]/ yad dhanaṁ yajñaśīlānāṁ devasvaṁ tad vidur budhāḥ |
M11.20c[19Mc]/ a.yajvanāṁ tu yad vittam āsurasvaṁ tad ucyate || 20 ||
M11.21a[20Ma]/ na tasmin dhārayed daṇḍaṁ dhārmikaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ |
M11.21c[20Mc]/ kṣatriyasya hi bāliśyād brāhmaṇaḥ sīdati kṣudhā || 21 ||
M11.22a[21Ma]/ tasya bhṛtyajanaṁ jñātvā svakuṭumbān mahīpatiḥ |
M11.22c[21Mc]/ śruta.śīle ca vijñāya vṛttiṁ dharmyāṁ prakalpayet || 22 ||
M11.23a[22Ma]/ kalpayitvā-asya vṛttiṁ ca rakṣed enaṁ samantataḥ |
M11.23c[22Mc]/ rājā hi dharmaṣaḍbhāgaṁ tasmāt prāpnoti rakṣitāt || 23 ||
M11.24a[23Ma]/ na yajñārthaṁ dhanaṁ śūdrād vipro bhikṣeta karhi cit |
M11.24c[23Mc]/ yajamāno hi bhikṣitvā caṇḍālaḥ pretya jāyate || 24 ||
M11.25a[24Ma]/ yājñārtham arthaṁ bhikṣitvā yo na sarvaṁ prayacchati |
M11.25c[24Mc]/ sa yāti bhāsatāṁ vipraḥ kākatāṁ vā śataṁ samāḥ || 25 ||
M11.26a[25Ma]/ devasvaṁ brāhmaṇasvaṁ vā lobhena-upahinasti yaḥ |
M11.26c[25Mc]/ sa pāpa.ātmā pare loke gṛdhra.ucchiṣṭena jīvati || 26 ||

11.1.2. 11.1.2. Excursus: Miscellaneous Topics

[Note: [ O edn 841-844 :: O tr. 216-217]
11.1.2.1. 11.1.2.1. Times of Adversity
[Note: [ O edn 841-842 :: O tr. 216]
M11.27a[26Ma]/ iṣṭiṁ vaiśvānarīṁ nityaṁ nirvaped abdaparyaye |
M11.27c[26Mc]/ kḷptānāṁ paśu.somānāṁ niṣkṛtyartham asambhave || 27 ||
[Page J 245 ]
M11.28a[27Ma]/ āpatkalpena yo dharmaṁ kurute 'nāpadi dvijaḥ |
M11.28c[27Mc]/ sa na-āpnoti phalaṁ tasya paratra-iti vicāritam || 28 ||
M11.29a[28Ma]/ viśvaiś ca devaiḥ sādhyaiś ca brāhmaṇaiś ca maharṣibhiḥ |
M11.29c[28Mc]/ āpatsu maraṇād bhītair vidheḥ pratinidhiḥ kṛtaḥ || 29 ||
M11.30a[29Ma]/ prabhuḥ prathamakalpasya yo 'nukalpena vartate |
M11.30c[29Mc]/ na sāmparāyikaṁ tasya dur.mater vidyate phalam || 30 ||
11.1.2.2. 11.1.2.2. Power of Brahmins
[Note: [ O edn 842-843 :: O tr. 216]
M11.31a[30Ma]/ na brāhmaṇo vedayeta kiṁ cid rājani dharmavit |
M11.31c[30Mc]/ svavīryeṇa-eva tān-śiṣyān mānavān apakāriṇaḥ || 31 ||
M11.32a[31Ma]/ svavīryād rājavīryāc ca svavīryaṁ balavattaram |
M11.32c[31Mc]/ tasmāt svena-eva vīryeṇa nigṛhṇīyād arīn dvijaḥ || 32 ||
M11.33a[32Ma]/ śrutīr atharvāṅgirasīḥ kuryād ity a.vicārayan |
M11.33c[32Mc]/ vākśastraṁ vai brāhmaṇasya tena hanyād arīn dvijaḥ || 33 ||
M11.34a[33Ma]/ kṣatriyo bāhuvīryeṇa tared āpadam ātmanaḥ |
M11.34c[33Mc]/ dhanena vaiśya.śūdrau tu japa.homair dvijottamaḥ || 34 ||
M11.35a[34Ma]/ vidhātā śāsitā vaktā maitro brāhmaṇa ucyate |
M11.35c[34Mc]/ tasmai na-akuśalaṁ brūyān na śuṣkāṁ giram īrayet || 35 ||
11.1.2.3. 11.1.2.3. Sacrifices
[Note: [ O edn 843-844 :: O tr. 216-217]
M11.36a[35Ma]/ na vai kanyā na yuvatir na-alpa.vidyo na bāliśaḥ |
M11.36c[35Mc]/ hotā syād agnihotrasya na-ārto na-asaṁskṛtas tathā || 36 ||
M11.37a[36Ma]/ narake hi patanty ete juhvantaḥ sa ca yasya tat | [Note: M11.37a[36Ma]v/ M: juhvataḥ]
M11.37c[36Mc]/ tasmād vaitānakuśalo hotā syād vedapāragaḥ || 37 ||
[Page J 246 ]
M11.38a[37Ma]/ prājāpatyam a.dattvā-aśvam agnyādheyasya dakṣiṇām |
M11.38c[37Mc]/ anāhitāgnir bhavati brāhmaṇo vibhave sati || 38 ||
M11.39a[38Ma]/ puṇyāny anyāni kurvīta śraddadhāno jita.indriyaḥ |
M11.39c[38Mc]/ na tv alpa.dakṣiṇair yajñair yajeta-iha kathaṁ cana || 39 ||
M11.40a[39Ma]/ indriyāṇi yaśaḥ svargam āyuḥ kīrtiṁ prajāḥ paśūn |
M11.40c[39Mc]/ hanty alpa.dakṣiṇo yajñas tasmān na-alpa.dhano yajet || 40 ||
M11.41a[40Ma]/ agnihotry apavidhya-agnīn brāhmaṇaḥ kāmakārataḥ |
M11.41c[40Mc]/ cāndrāyaṇaṁ caren māsaṁ vīrahatyāsamaṁ hi tat || 41 ||
M11.42a[41Ma]/ ye śūdrād adhigamya-artham agnihotram upāsate |
M11.42c[41Mc]/ ṛtvijas te hi śūdrāṇāṁ brahmavādiṣu garhitāḥ || 42 ||
M11.43a[42Ma]/ teṣāṁ satatam ajñānāṁ vṛṣalāgnyupasevinām |
M11.43c[42Mc]/ padā mastakam ākramya dātā durgāṇi santaret || 43 ||

11.1.3. 11.1.3. Justification for Penance

[Note: [ O edn 845-847 :: O tr. 217]
M11.44a[43Ma]/ a.kurvan vihitaṁ karma ninditaṁ ca samācaran |
M11.44c[43Mc]/ prasaktaś ca-indriyārtheṣu prāyaścittīyate naraḥ || 44 || [Note: M11.44c[43Mc]v/ M: prasajjan indriyārtheṣu]
M11.45a[44Ma]/ akāmataḥ kṛte pāpe prāyaścittaṁ vidur budhāḥ |
M11.45c[44Mc]/ kāmakārakṛte 'py āhur eke śrutinidarśanāt || 45 ||
M11.46a[45Ma]/ akāmataḥ kṛtaṁ pāpaṁ vedābhyāsena śudhyati |
M11.46c[45Mc]/ kāmatas tu kṛtaṁ mohāt prāyaścittaiḥ pṛthagvidhaiḥ || 46 ||
M11.47a[46Ma]/ prāyaścittīyatāṁ prāpya daivāt pūrvakṛtena vā |
M11.47c[46Mc]/ na saṁsargaṁ vrajet sadbhiḥ prāyaścitte 'kṛte dvijaḥ || 47 ||
[Page J 247 ]
M11.48a[47Ma]/ iha duścaritaiḥ ke cit ke cit pūrvakṛtais tathā |
M11.48c[47Mc]/ prāpnuvanti dur.ātmāno narā rūpaviparyayam || 48 ||
M11.49a[48Ma]/ suvarṇacauraḥ kaunakhyaṁ surāpaḥ śyāvadantatām |
M11.49c[48Mc]/ brahmahā kṣayarogitvaṁ dauścarmyaṁ gurutalpagaḥ || 49 ||
M11.50a[49Ma]/ piśunaḥ pautināsikyaṁ sūcakaḥ pūtivaktratām |
M11.50c[49Mc]/ dhānyacauro 'ṅgahīnatvam ātiraikyaṁ tu miśrakaḥ || 50 ||
M11.51a[50Ma]/ annahartā-āmayāvitvaṁ maukyaṁ vāgapahārakaḥ |
M11.51c[50Mc]/ vastrāpahārakaḥ śvaitryaṁ paṅgutām aśvahārakaḥ || 51 ||
M11.52a[51Ma]/ evaṁ karmaviśeṣeṇa jāyante sadvigarhitāḥ |
M11.52c[51Mc]/ jaḍa.mūka.andha.badhirā vikṛta.ākṛtayas tathā || 52 ||
M11.53a[52Ma]/ caritavyam ato nityaṁ prāyaścittaṁ viśuddhaye |
M11.53c[52Mc]/ nindyair hi lakṣaṇair yuktā jāyante 'niṣkṛta.enasaḥ || 53 ||
M11.54a[53Ma]/ brahmahatyā surāpānaṁ steyaṁ gurvaṅganāgamaḥ |
M11.54c[53Mc]/ mahānti pātakāny āhuḥ saṁsargaś ca-api taiḥ saha || 54 ||

11.1.4. 11.1.4. Categories of Sin

[Note: [ O edn 847-850 :: O tr. 217-218]
11.1.4.1. 11.1.4.1. Grievous Sins Causing Loss of Caste
[Note: [ O edn 847-848 :: O tr. 217-218]
M11.55a[54Ma]/ anṛtaṁ ca samutkarṣe rājagāmi ca paiśunam |
M11.55c[54Mc]/ guroś cālīka.nirbandhaḥ samāni brahmahatyayā || 55 ||
M11.56a[55Ma]/ brahma.ujjhatā vedanindā kauṭasākṣyaṁ suhṛdvadhaḥ |
M11.56c[55Mc]/ garhita.anādyayor jagdhiḥ surāpānasamāni ṣaṭ || 56 ||
[Page J 248 ]
M11.57a[56Ma]/ nikṣepasya-apaharaṇaṁ nara.aśva.rajatasya ca |
M11.57c[56Mc]/ bhūmi.vajra.maṇīnāṁ ca rukmasteyasamaṁ smṛtam || 57 ||
M11.58a[57Ma]/ retaḥsekaḥ svayonīṣu kumārīṣv antyajāsu ca |
M11.58c[57Mc]/ sakhyuḥ putrasya ca strīṣu gurutalpasamaṁ viduḥ || 58 ||
M11.59a[58Ma]/ govadho 'yājya.saṁyājyaṁ pāradārya.ātmavikrayaḥ |
M11.59c[58Mc]/ guru.mātṛ.pitṛ.tyāgaḥ svādhyāya.agnyoḥ sutasya ca || 59 ||
11.1.4.2. 11.1.4.2. Secondary Sins Causing Loss of Caste
[Note: [ O edn 848-849 :: O tr. 218]
M11.60a[59Ma]/ parivittitā-anuje 'nūḍhe parivedanam eva ca |
M11.60c[59Mc]/ tayor dānaṁ ca kanyāyās tayor eva ca yājanam || 60 ||
M11.61a[60Ma]/ kanyāyā dūṣaṇaṁ ca-eva vārdhuṣyaṁ vratalopanam |
M11.61c[60Mc]/ taḍāga.ārāma.dārāṇām apatyasya ca vikrayaḥ || 61 ||
M11.62a[61Ma]/ vrātyatā bāndhavatyāgo bhṛtyādhyāpanam eva ca |
M11.62c[61Mc]/ bhṛtyā ca-adhyayanādānam apaṇyānāṁ ca vikrayaḥ || 62 || [Note: M11.62c[61Mc]v/ M: bhṛtāc ca-adhyayanādānam]
M11.63a[62Ma]/ sarvākāreṣv adhīkāro mahāyantrapravartanam |
M11.63c[62Mc]/ hiṁsā-oṣadhīnāṁ stri.ājīvo 'bhicāro mūlakarma ca || 63 ||
M11.64a[63Ma]/ indhanārtham aśuṣkāṇāṁ drumāṇām avapātanam |
M11.64c[63Mc]/ ātmārthaṁ ca kriyārambho ninditānnādanaṁ tathā || 64 ||
M11.65a[64Ma]/ anāhitāgnitā steyam ṛṇānām anapakriyā |
M11.65c[64Mc]/ asat.śāṣtrādhigamanaṁ kauśīlavyasya ca kriyā || 65 ||
M11.66a[65Ma]/ dhānya.kupya.paśusteyaṁ madyapastrīniṣevaṇam |
M11.66c[65Mc]/ strī.śūdra.viś.kṣatravadho nāstikyaṁ ca-upapātakam || 66 ||
[Page J 249 ]
M11.67a[66Ma]/ brāhmaṇasya rujaḥ kṛtvā ghrātir aghreya.madyayoḥ | [Note: M11.67a[66Ma]v/ M: rujaḥkṛtyaṁ]
M11.67c[66Mc]/ jaihmyaṁ ca maithunaṁ puṁsi jātibhraṁśakaraṁ smṛtam || 67 ||
11.1.4.3. 11.1.4.3. Further Categories of Sin
[Note: [ O edn 849-850 :: O tr. 218]
M11.68a[67Ma]/ khara.aśva.uṣṭra.mṛga.ibhānām aja.āvikavadhas tathā |
M11.68c[67Mc]/ saṅkarīkaraṇaṁ jñeyaṁ mīna.ahi.mahiṣasya ca || 68 ||
M11.69a[68Ma]/ ninditebhyo dhanādānaṁ vāṇijyaṁ śūdrasevanam |
M11.69c[68Mc]/ apātrīkaraṇaṁ jñeyam asatyasya ca bhāṣaṇam || 69 ||
M11.70a[69Ma]/ kṛmi.kīṭa.vayo.hatyā madyānugatabhojanam |
M11.70c[69Mc]/ phala.edhaḥ.kusuma.steyam adhairyaṁ ca malāvaham || 70 ||
M11.71a[70Ma]/ etāny enāṁsi sarvāṇi yathā.uktāni pṛthak pṛthak |
M11.71c[70Mc]/ yair yair vratair apohyante tāni samyaṅ nibodhata || 71 ||
M11.72a[71Ma]/ brahmahā dvādaśa samāḥ kuṭīṁ kṛtvā vane vaset |
M11.72c[71Mc]/ bhaikṣāśy ātmaviśuddhyarthaṁ kṛtvā śavaśiro dhvajam || 72 ||

11.1.5. 11.1.5. Penances for Grievous Sins Causing Loss of Caste

[Note: [ O edn 850-857 :: O tr. 218-220]
11.1.5.1. 11.1.5.1. Killing a Brahmin
[Note: [ O edn 850-853 :: O tr. 218-219]
M11.73a[72Ma]/ lakṣyaṁ śastrabhṛtāṁ vā syād viduṣām icchayā-ātmanaḥ |
M11.73c[72Mc]/ prāsyed ātmānam agnau vā samiddhe trir avāk.śirāḥ || 73 ||
M11.74a[73Ma]/ yajeta vā-aśvamedhena svarjitā gosavena vā |
M11.74c[73Mc]/ abhijid.viśvajidbhyāṁ vā trivṛtā-agniṣṭutā-api vā || 74 ||
M11.75a[74Ma]/ japan vā-anyatamaṁ vedaṁ yojanānāṁ śataṁ vrajet |
M11.75c[74Mc]/ brahmahatyāpanodāya mitabhuj-niyata.indriyaḥ || 75 ||
M11.76a[75Ma]/ sarvasvaṁ vedaviduṣe brāhmaṇāya-upapādayet |
M11.76c[75Mc]/ dhanaṁ hi jīvanāya-alaṁ gṛhaṁ vā sa.paricchadam || 76 ||
[Page J 250 ]
M11.77a[76Ma]/ haviṣyabhug vā-anusaret pratisrotaḥ sarasvatīm |
M11.77c[76Mc]/ japed vā niyata.āhāras trir vai vedasya saṁhitām || 77 ||
M11.78a[77Ma]/ kṛta.vāpano nivased grāmānte govraje 'pi vā |
M11.78c[77Mc]/ āśrame vṛkṣamūle vā go.brāhmaṇahite rataḥ || 78 ||
M11.79a[78Ma]/ brāhmaṇārthe gavārthe vā sadyaḥ prāṇān parityajet | [Note: M11.79a[78Ma]v/ M: saṁyak prāṇān]
M11.79c[78Mc]/ mucyate brahmahatyāyā goptā gor brāhmaṇasya ca || 79 ||
M11.80a[79Ma]/ trivāraṁ pratiroddhā vā sarvasvam avajitya vā | [Note: M11.80a[79Ma]v/ M: tryavaraṁ]
M11.80c[79Mc]/ viprasya tannimitte vā prāṇālābhe vimucyate || 80 || [Note: M11.80c[79Mc]v/ M: prāṇālābhe 'pi mucyate]
M11.81a[80Ma]/ evaṁ dṛḍha.vrato nityaṁ brahmacārī samāhitaḥ |
M11.81c[80Mc]/ samāpte dvādaśe varṣe brahmahatyām vyapohati || 81 ||
M11.82a[81Ma]/ śiṣṭvā vā bhūmidevānāṁ naradevasamāgame |
M11.82c[81Mc]/ svam eno 'vabhṛthasnāto hayamedhe vimucyate || 82 ||
M11.83a[82Ma]/ dharmasya brāhmaṇo mūlam agraṁ rājanya ucyate |
M11.83c[82Mc]/ tasmāt samāgame teṣām eno vikhyāpya śudhyati || 83 ||
M11.84a[83Ma]/ brahmaṇaḥ sambhavena-eva devānām api daivatam |
M11.84c[83Mc]/ pramāṇaṁ ca-eva lokasya brahmātra-eva hi kāraṇam || 84 ||
M11.85a[84Ma]/ teṣāṁ vedavido brūyus trayo 'py enaḥ suniṣkṛtim |
M11.85c[84Mc]/ sā teṣāṁ pāvanāya syāt pavitrā viduṣāṁ hi vāk || 85 || [Note: M11.85c[84Mc]v/ M: pavitraṁ]
M11.86a[85Ma]/ ato 'nyatamam āsthāya vidhiṁ vipraḥ samāhitaḥ |
M11.86c[85Mc]/ brahmahatyākṛtaṁ pāpaṁ vyapohaty ātmavattayā || 86 ||
[Page J 251 ]
M11.87a[86Ma]/ hatvā garbham avijñātam etad eva vrataṁ caret |
M11.87c[86Mc]/ rājanya.vaiśyau ca-ījānāv ātreyīm eva ca striyam || 87 ||
M11.88a[87Ma]/ uktvā ca-eva-anṛtaṁ sākṣye pratirudhya guruṁ tathā | [Note: M11.88a[87Ma]v/ M: pratirabhya]
M11.88c[87Mc]/ apahṛtya ca niḥkṣepaṁ kṛtvā ca strī.suhṛt.vadham || 88 || [Note: M11.88c[87Mc]v/ M: nikṣepaṁ]
M11.89a[88Ma]/ iyaṁ viśuddhir uditā pramāpya-akāmato dvijam |
M11.89c[88Mc]/ kāmato brāhmaṇavadhe niṣkṛtir na vidhīyate || 89 ||
M11.90a[89Ma]/ surāṁ pītvā dvijo mohād agni.varṇāṁ surāṁ pibet |
M11.90c[89Mc]/ tayā sa kāye nirdagdhe mucyate kilbiṣāt tataḥ || 90 ||
11.1.5.2. 11.1.5.2. Drinking Liquor
[Note: [ O edn 854-855 :: O tr. 219-220]
M11.91a[90Ma]/ gomūtram agni.varṇaṁ vā pibed udakam eva vā |
M11.91c[90Mc]/ payo ghṛtaṁ vā-ā maraṇād gośakṛdrasam eva vā || 91 ||
M11.92a[91Ma]/ kaṇān vā bhakṣayed abdaṁ piṇyākaṁ vā sakṛt-niśi |
M11.92c[91Mc]/ surāpānāpanuttyarthaṁ vālavāsā jaṭī dhvajī || 92 ||
M11.93a[92Ma]/ surā vai malam annānāṁ pāpmā ca malam ucyate |
M11.93c[92Mc]/ tasmād brāhmaṇa.rājanyau vaiśyaś ca na surāṁ pibet || 93 ||
M11.94a[93Ma]/ gauḍī paiṣṭī ca mādhvī ca vijñeyā trividhā surā |
M11.94c[93Mc]/ yathā-eva-ekā tathā sarvā na pātavyā dvijottamaiḥ || 94 ||
M11.95a[94Ma]/ yakṣa.rakṣaḥ.piśāca.annaṁ madyaṁ māṁsaṁ surāsavam |
M11.95c[94Mc]/ tad brāhmaṇena na-attavyaṁ devānām aśnatā haviḥ || 95 ||
M11.96a[95Ma]/ amedhye vā paten matto vaidikaṁ vā-apy udāharet |
M11.96c[95Mc]/ akāryam anyat kuryād vā brāhmaṇo madamohitaḥ || 96 ||
[Page J 252 ]
M11.97a[96Ma]/ yasya kāyagataṁ brahma madyena-āplāvyate sakṛt |
M11.97c[96Mc]/ tasya vyapaiti brāhmaṇyaṁ śūdratvaṁ ca sa gacchati || 97 ||
M11.98a[97Ma]/ eṣā vicitrābhihitā surāpānasya niṣkṛtiḥ |
M11.98c[97Mc]/ ata ūrdhvaṁ pravakṣyāmi suvarṇasteyaniṣkṛtim || 98 ||
M11.99a[98Ma]/ suvarṇasteyakṛd vipro rājānam abhigamya tu |
M11.99c[98Mc]/ svakarma khyāpayan brūyāt-māṁ bhavān anuśāstv iti || 99 ||
11.1.5.3. 11.1.5.3. Stealing Gold
[Note: [ O edn 855-856 :: O tr. 220]
M11.100a[99Ma]/ gṛhītvā musalaṁ rājā sakṛdd hanyāt tu taṁ svayam |
M11.100c[99Mc]/ vadhena śudhyati steno brāhmaṇas tapasā-eva tu || 100 ||
M11.101a[100Ma]/ tapasāpanunutsus tu suvarṇasteyajaṁ malam |
M11.101c[100Mc]/ cīravāsā dvijo 'raṇye cared brahmahaṇo vratam || 101 ||
M11.102a[101Ma]/ etair vratair apoheta pāpaṁ steyakṛtaṁ dvijaḥ |
M11.102c[101Mc]/ gurustrīgamanī-iyaṁ tu vratair ebhir apānudet || 102 ||
M11.103a[102Ma]/ gurutalpy abhibhāṣya-enas tapte svapyād ayomaye | [Note: M11.103a[102Ma]v/ M: talpe svapyād]
M11.103c[102Mc]/ sūrmīṁ jvalantīṁ svāśliṣyen mṛtyunā sa viśudhyati || 103 || [Note: M11.103c[102Mc]v/ M: vā-āśliṣyen]
11.1.5.4. 11.1.5.4. Sex with an Elder's Wife
[Note: [ O edn 856-857 :: O tr. 220]
M11.104a[103Ma]/ svayaṁ vā śiṣṇa.vṛṣaṇāv utkṛtya-ādhāya ca-añjalau |
M11.104c[103Mc]/ nairṛtīṁ diśam ātiṣṭhed ā nipātād ajihmagaḥ || 104 ||
M11.105a[104Ma]/ khaṭvāṅgī cīra.vāsā vā śmaśrulo vijane vane |
M11.105c[104Mc]/ prājāpatyaṁ caret kṛcchram abdam ekaṁ samāhitaḥ || 105 ||
M11.106a[105Ma]/ cāndrāyaṇaṁ vā trīn māsān abhyasyen niyata.indriyaḥ |
M11.106c[105Mc]/ haviṣyeṇa yavāgvā vā gurutalpāpanuttaye || 106 ||
[Page J 253 ]
M11.107a[106Ma]/ etair vratair apoheyur mahāpātakino malam |
M11.107c[106Mc]/ upapātakinas tv evam ebhir nānāvidhair vrataiḥ || 107 ||
M11.108a[107Ma]/ upapātakasaṁyukto goghno māsaṁ yavān pibet |
M11.108c[107Mc]/ kṛta.vāpo vased goṣṭhe carmaṇā tena saṁvṛtaḥ || 108 ||

11.1.6. 11.1.6. Penances for Secondary Sins Causing Loss of Caste

[Note: [ O edn 857-860 :: O tr. 220-221]
11.1.6.1. 11.1.6.1. Killing a Cow
[Note: [ O edn 857-859 :: O tr. 220-221]
M11.109a[108Ma]/ caturthakālam aśnīyād a.kṣāra.lavaṇaṁ mitam |
M11.109c[108Mc]/ gomūtreṇa-ācaret snānaṁ dvau māsau niyata.indriyaḥ || 109 ||
M11.110a[109Ma]/ divā-anugacched gās tās tu tiṣṭhann ūrdhvaṁ rajaḥ pibet |
M11.110c[109Mc]/ śuśrūṣitvā namaskṛtya rātrau vīrāsanaṁ vaset || 110 || [Note: M11.110c[109Mc]v/ M: vīrāsano]
M11.111a[110Ma]/ tiṣṭhantīṣv anutiṣṭhet tu vrajantīṣv apy anuvrajet |
M11.111c[110Mc]/ āsīnāsu tathā-āsīno niyato vīta.matsaraḥ || 111 ||
M11.112a[111Ma]/ āturām abhiśastāṁ vā caura.vyāghrādibhir bhayaiḥ |
M11.112c[111Mc]/ patitāṁ paṅkalagnaṁ vā sarva.upāyair vimocayet || 112 || [Note: M11.112c[111Mc]v/ K: sarvaprāṇair]
M11.113a[112Ma]/ uṣṇe varṣati śīte vā mārute vāti vā bhṛśam |
M11.113c[112Mc]/ na kurvīta-ātmanas trāṇaṁ gor a.kṛtvā tu śaktitaḥ || 113 ||
M11.114a[113Ma]/ ātmano yadi vā-anyeṣāṁ gṛhe kṣetre 'tha vā khale |
M11.114c[113Mc]/ bhakṣayantīṁ na kathayet pibantaṁ ca-eva vatsakam || 114 ||
M11.115a[114Ma]/ anena vidhinā yas tu goghno gām anugacchati |
M11.115c[114Mc]/ sa gohatyākṛtaṁ pāpaṁ tribhir māsair vyapohati || 115 ||
M11.116a[115Ma]/ vṛṣabha.ekādaśā gāś ca dadyāt sucarita.vrataḥ |
M11.116c[115Mc]/ a.vidyamāne sarvasvaṁ vedavidbhyo nivedayet || 116 ||
[Page J 254 ]
M11.117a[116Ma]/ etad eva vrataṁ kuryur upapātakino dvijāḥ |
M11.117c[116Mc]/ avakīrṇivarjyaṁ śuddhyarthaṁ cāndrāyaṇam atha-api vā || 117 || [Note: M11.117c[116Mc]v/ M: avakīrṇivarjaṁ]
11.1.6.2. 11.1.6.2. Other Secondary Sins
[Note: [ O edn 859 :: O tr. 221]
M11.118a[117Ma]/ avakīrṇī tu kāṇena gardabhena catuṣpathe |
M11.118c[117Mc]/ pākayajñavidhānena yajeta nirṛtiṁ niśi || 118 ||
11.1.6.3. 11.1.6.3. Student Breaking the Vow of Chastity
[Note: [ O edn 859-860 :: O tr. 221]
M11.119a[118Ma]/ hutvā-agnau vidhivadd homān antataś ca sama-ity ṛcā |
M11.119c[118Mc]/ vāta.indra.guru.vahnīnāṁ juhuyāt sarpiṣā-āhutīḥ || 119 ||
M11.120a[119Ma]/ kāmato retasaḥ sekaṁ vratasthasya dvijanmanaḥ |
M11.120c[119Mc]/ atikramaṁ vratasya-āhur dharmajñā brahmavādinaḥ || 120 ||
M11.121a[120Ma]/ mārutaṁ puruhūtaṁ ca guruṁ pāvakam eva ca |
M11.121c[120Mc]/ caturo vratino 'bhyeti brāhmaṁ tejo 'vakīrṇinaḥ || 121 ||
M11.122a[121Ma]/ etasminn enasi prāpte vasitvā gardabhājinam |
M11.122c[121Mc]/ saptāgārāṁś cared bhaikṣaṁ svakarma parikīrtayan || 122 ||
M11.123a[122Ma]/ tebhyo labdhena bhaikṣeṇa vartayann ekakālikam |
M11.123c[122Mc]/ upaspṛśaṁs triṣavaṇaṁ tv abdena sa viśudhyati || 123 || [Note: M11.123c[122Mc]v/ M: triṣavaṇam abdena]
M11.124a[123Ma]/ jātibhraṁśakaraṁ karma kṛtvā-anyatamam icchayā |
M11.124c[123Mc]/ caret sāntapanaṁ kṛcchraṁ prājāpatyam anicchayā || 124 ||

11.1.7. 11.1.7. Penances for the Remaining Categories of Sins

[Note: [ O edn 860 :: O tr. 221]
M11.125a[124Ma]/ saṅkara.apātrakṛtyāsu māsaṁ śodhanam aindavam | [Note: M11.125a[124Ma]v/ M: aindavaḥ]
M11.125c[124Mc]/ malinīkaraṇīyeṣu taptaḥ syād yāvakais tryaham || 125 ||
M11.126a[125Ma]/ turīyo brahmahatyāyāḥ kṣatriyasya vadhe smṛtaḥ |
M11.126c[125Mc]/ vaiśye 'ṣṭamāṁśo vṛttasthe śūdre jñeyas tu ṣoḍaśaḥ || 126 ||

11.1.8. 11.1.8. Excursus: Penances for Injury to Living Beings

[Page J 255 ] [Note: [ O edn 860-864 :: O tr. 221-222]
11.1.8.1. 11.1.8.1. Homicide
[Note: [ O edn 860-861 :: O tr. 221-222]
M11.127a[126Ma]/ akāmatas tu rājanyaṁ vinipātya dvijottamaḥ |
M11.127c[126Mc]/ vṛṣabha.ekasahasrā gā dadyāt sucarita.vrataḥ || 127 ||
M11.128a[127Ma]/ tryabdaṁ cared vā niyato jaṭī brahmahaṇo vratam |
M11.128c[127Mc]/ vasan dūratare grāmād vṛkṣamūla.niketanaḥ || 128 ||
M11.129a[128Ma]/ etad eva cared abdaṁ prāyaścittaṁ dvijottamaḥ |
M11.129c[128Mc]/ pramāpya vaiśyaṁ vṛttasthaṁ dadyāc ca-ekaśataṁ || 129 || [Note: M11.129c[128Mc]v/ M: dadyād vā-ekaśataṁ gavām]
M11.130a[129Ma]/ etad eva vrataṁ kṛtsnaṁ ṣaṇmāsān-śūdrahā caret |
M11.130c[129Mc]/ vṛṣabha.ekādaśā vā-api dadyād viprāya gāḥ sitāḥ || 130 ||
M11.131a[130Ma]/ mārjāra.nakulau hatvā cāṣaṁ maṇḍūkam eva ca |
M11.131c[130Mc]/ śva.godhā.ulūka.kākāṁś ca śūdrahatyāvrataṁ caret || 131 ||
11.1.8.2. 11.1.8.2. Killing Animals
[Note: [ O edn 861-864 :: O tr. 222]
M11.132a[131Ma]/ payaḥ pibet trirātraṁ vā yojanaṁ vā-adhvano vrajet |
M11.132c[131Mc]/ upaspṛśet sravantyāṁ vā sūktaṁ vā-ab.daivataṁ japet || 132 ||
M11.133a[132Ma]/ abhriṁ kārṣṇāyasīṁ dadyāt sarpaṁ hatvā dvijottamaḥ |
M11.133c[132Mc]/ palālabhārakaṁ ṣaṇḍhe saisakaṁ ca-ekamāṣakam || 133 ||
M11.134a[133Ma]/ ghṛtakumbhaṁ varāhe tu tiladroṇaṁ tu tittirau |
M11.134c[133Mc]/ śuke dvihāyanaṁ vatsaṁ krauñcaṁ hatvā trihāyanam || 134 ||
M11.135a[134Ma]/ hatvā haṁsaṁ balākāṁ ca bakaṁ barhiṇam eva ca |
M11.135c[134Mc]/ vānaraṁ śyena.bhāsau ca sparśayed brāhmaṇāya gām || 135 ||
M11.136a[135Ma]/ vāso dadyādd hayaṁ hatvā pañca nīlān vṛṣān gajam |
M11.136c[135Mc]/ aja.meṣāv anaḍvāhaṁ kharaṁ hatvā-ekahāyanam || 136 ||
[Page J 256 ]
M11.137a[136Ma]/ kravyādāṁs tu mṛgān hatvā dhenuṁ dadyāt payasvinīm |
M11.137c[136Mc]/ akravyādān vatsatarīm uṣṭraṁ hatvā tu kṛṣṇalam || 137 ||
M11.138a[137Ma]/ jīna.kārmuka.basta.avīn pṛthag dadyād viśuddhaye |
M11.138c[137Mc]/ caturṇām api varṇānāṁ nārīr hatvā-an.avasthitāḥ || 138 ||
M11.139a[138Ma]/ dānena vadhanirṇekaṁ sarpādīnām a.śaknuvan |
M11.139c[138Mc]/ ekaikaśaś caret kṛcchraṁ dvijaḥ pāpāpanuttaye || 139 ||
M11.140a[139Ma]/ asthimatāṁ tu sattvānāṁ sahasrasya pramāpaṇe |
M11.140c[139Mc]/ pūrṇe ca-anasy an.asthnāṁ tu śūdrahatyāvrataṁ caret || 140 ||
M11.141a[140Ma]/ kiṁ cid eva tu viprāya dadyād asthimatāṁ vadhe |
M11.141c[140Mc]/ an.asthnāṁ ca-eva hiṁsāyāṁ prāṇāyāmena śudhyati || 141 ||
M11.142a[141Ma]/ phaladānāṁ tu vṛkṣāṇāṁ chedane japyam ṛc.śatam |
M11.142c[141Mc]/ gulma.vallī.latānāṁ ca puṣpitānāṁ ca vīrudhām || 142 ||
11.1.8.3. 11.1.8.3. Injuring Vegetation
[Note: [ O edn 864 :: O tr. 222]
M11.143a[142Ma]/ annādyajānāṁ sattvānāṁ rasajānāṁ ca sarvaśaḥ |
M11.143c[142Mc]/ phala.puṣpa.udbhavānāṁ ca ghṛtaprāśo viśodhanam || 143 ||
M11.144a[143Ma]/ kṛṣtajānām oṣadhīnāṁ jātānāṁ ca svayaṁ vane |
M11.144c[143Mc]/ vṛthālambhe 'nugacched gāṁ dinam ekaṁ payo.vrataḥ || 144 ||
M11.145a[144Ma]/ etair vratair apohyaṁ syād eno hiṁsā.samudbhavam |
M11.145c[144Mc]/ jñāna.ajñānakṛtaṁ kṛtsnaṁ śṛṇuta-anādyabhakṣaṇe || 145 ||
M11.146a[145Ma]/ ajñānād vāruṇīṁ pītvā saṁskāreṇa-eva śudhyati |
M11.146c[145Mc]/ matipūrvam anirdeśyaṁ prāṇāntikam iti sthitiḥ || 146 ||

11.1.9. 11.1.9. Excursus: Penances for Eating Forbidden Food

[Page J 257 ] [Note: [ O edn 864-867 :: O tr. 222-223]
M11.147a[146Ma]/ apaḥ surābhājanasthā madyabhāṇḍasthitās tathā |
M11.147c[146Mc]/ pañcarātraṁ pibet pītvā śaṅkhapuṣpīśṛtaṁ payaḥ || 147 ||
M11.148a[147Ma]/ spṛṣṭva dattvā ca madirāṁ vidhivat pratigṛhya ca |
M11.148c[147Mc]/ śūdra.ucchiṣṭāś ca pītvā-apaḥ kuśavāri pibet tryaham || 148 ||
M11.149a[148Ma]/ brāhmaṇas tu surāpasya gandham āghrāya somapaḥ |
M11.149c[148Mc]/ prāṇān apsu trir āyamya ghṛtaṁ prāśya viśudhyati || 149 ||
M11.150a[149Ma]/ ajñānāt prāśya viṣ.mūtraṁ surāsaṁspṛṣṭam eva ca |
M11.150c[149Mc]/ punaḥ saṁskāram arhanti trayo varṇā dvijātayaḥ || 150 ||
M11.151a[150Ma]/ vapanaṁ mekhalā daṇḍo bhaikṣacaryā vratāni ca | [Note: M11.151a[150Ma]v/ M: bhaikṣyacaryā]
M11.151c[150Mc]/ nivartante dvijātīnāṁ punaḥsaṁskārakarmaṇi || 151 ||
M11.152a[151Ma]/ abhojyānāṁ tu bhuktvā-annaṁ strī.śūdra.ucchiṣṭam eva ca |
M11.152c[151Mc]/ jagdhvā māṁsam abhakṣyaṁ ca saptarātraṁ yavān pibet || 152 ||
M11.153a[152Ma]/ śuktāni ca kaṣāyāṁś ca pītvā medhyāny api dvijaḥ |
M11.153c[152Mc]/ tāvad bhavaty a.prayato yāvat tan na vrajaty adhaḥ || 153 ||
M11.154a[153Ma]/ viḍvarāha.khara.uṣtrāṇāṁ gomāyoḥ kapi.kākayoḥ |
M11.154c[153Mc]/ prāśya mūtra.purīṣāṇi dvijaś cāndrāyaṇaṁ caret || 154 ||
M11.155a[154Ma]/ śuṣkāṇi bhuktvā māṁsāni bhaumāni kavakāni ca |
M11.155c[154Mc]/ ajñātaṁ ca-eva sūnāstham etad eva vrataṁ caret || 155 ||
M11.156a[155Ma]/ kravyāda.sūkara.uṣṭrāṇāṁ kukkuṭānāṁ ca bhakṣaṇe |
M11.156c[155Mc]/ nara.kāka.kharāṇāṁ ca taptakṛcchraṁ viśodhanam || 156 ||
[Page J 258 ]
M11.157a[156Ma]/ māsikānnaṁ tu yo 'śnīyād asamāvartako dvijaḥ |
M11.157c[156Mc]/ sa trīṇy ahāny upavased ekāhaṁ ca-udake vaset || 157 ||
M11.158a[157Ma]/ brahmacārī tu yo 'śnīyān madhu māṁsaṁ kathaṁ cana | [Note: M11.158a[157Ma]v/ M: vratacārī tu]
M11.158c[157Mc]/ sa kṛtvā prākṛtaṁ kṛcchraṁ vrataśeṣaṁ samāpayet || 158 ||
M11.159a[158Ma]/ biḍāla.kāka.ākhu.ucchiṣṭaṁ jagdhvā śva.nakulasya ca |
M11.159c[158Mc]/ keśa.kīṭāvapannaṁ ca pibed brahmasuvarcalām || 159 ||
M11.160a[159Ma]/ abhojyam annaṁ na-attavyam ātmanaḥ śuddhim icchatā |
M11.160c[159Mc]/ ajñānabhuktaṁ tu-uttāryaṁ śodhyaṁ vā-apy āśu śodhanaiḥ || 160 ||
M11.161a[160Ma]/ eṣo 'nādya.adanasya-ukto vratānāṁ vividho vidhiḥ |
M11.161c[160Mc]/ steyadoṣāpahartṝṇāṁ vratānāṁ śrūyatāṁ vidhiḥ || 161 ||
M11.162a[161Ma]/ dhānya.anna.dhanacauryāṇi kṛtvā kāmād dvijottamaḥ |
M11.162c[161Mc]/ svajātīyagṛhād eva kṛcchrābdena viśudhyati || 162 ||

11.1.10. 11.1.10. Excursus: Penances for Theft

[Note: [ O edn 867-869 :: O tr. 223-224]
M11.163a[162Ma]/ manuṣyāṇāṁ tu haraṇe strīṇāṁ kṣetra.gṛhasya ca |
M11.163c[162Mc]/ kūpa.vāpījalānāṁ ca śuddhiś cāndrāyaṇaṁ smṛtam || 163 ||
M11.164a[163Ma]/ dravyāṇām alpa.sārāṇāṁ steyaṁ kṛtvā-anyaveśmataḥ | [Note: M11.164a[163Ma]v/ M: kṛtvā-anyaveśmani]
M11.164c[163Mc]/ caret sāntapanaṁ kṛcchraṁ tan niryāty ātmaśuddhaye || 164 ||
M11.165a[164Ma]/ bhakṣya.bhojyāpaharaṇe yāna.śayyā.āsanasya ca |
M11.165c[164Mc]/ puṣpa.mūla.phalānāṁ ca pañcagavyaṁ viśodhanam || 165 ||
M11.166a[165Ma]/ tṛṇa.kāṣṭha.drumāṇāṁ ca śuṣkānnasya guḍasya ca |
M11.166c[165Mc]/ cela.carma.āmiṣāṇāṁ ca trirātraṁ syād abhojanam || 166 || [Note: M11.166c[165Mc]v/ M: caila.carma.āmikṣāṇāṁ]
[Page J 259 ]
M11.167a[166Ma]/ maṇi.muktā.pravālānāṁ tāmrasya rajatasya ca |
M11.167c[166Mc]/ ayaḥ.kāṁsya.upalānāṁ ca dvādaśāhaṁ kaṇānnatā || 167 ||
M11.168a[167Ma]/ kārpāsa.kīṭaja.ūrṇānāṁ dviśapha.ekaśaphasya ca | [Note: M11.168a[167Ma]v/ M: dveśapha.ekakhurasya ca]
M11.168c[167Mc]/ pakṣi.gandha.oṣadhīnāṁ ca rajjvāś ca-eva tryahaṁ payaḥ || 168 ||
M11.169a[168Ma]/ etair vratair apoheta pāpaṁ steyakṛtaṁ dvijaḥ |
M11.169c[168Mc]/ agamyāgamanīyaṁ tu vratair ebhir apānudet || 169 ||
M11.170a[169Ma]/ gurutalpavrataṁ kuryād retaḥ siktvā svayoniṣu |
M11.170c[169Mc]/ sakhyuḥ putrasya ca strīṣu kumārīṣv antyajāsu ca || 170 ||

11.1.11. 11.1.11. Excursus: Penances for Sexual Offences

[Note: [ O edn 869-871 :: O tr. 224]
M11.171a[170Ma]/ paitṛsvaseyīṁ bhaginīṁ svasrīyāṁ mātur eva ca |
M11.171c[170Mc]/ mātuś ca bhrātus tanayāṁ gatvā cāndrāyaṇaṁ caret || 171 || [Note: M11.171c[170Mc]v/ ?: bhrātur āptasya gatvā]
M11.172a[171Ma]/ etās tisras tu bhāryārthe na-upayacchet tu buddhimān |
M11.172c[171Mc]/ jñātitvena-an.upeyās tāḥ patati hy upayann adhaḥ || 172 ||
M11.173a[172Ma]/ amānuṣīṣū puruṣa udakyāyām ayoniṣu |
M11.173c[172Mc]/ retaḥ siktvā jale ca-eva kṛcchraṁ sāntapanaṁ caret || 173 ||
M11.174a[173Ma]/ maithunaṁ tu samāsevya puṁsi yoṣiti vā dvijaḥ |
M11.174c[173Mc]/ go.yāne 'psu divā ca-eva sa.vāsāḥ snānam ācaret || 174 ||
M11.175a[174Ma]/ caṇḍāla.antyastriyo gatvā bhuktvā ca pratigṛhya ca |
M11.175c[174Mc]/ pataty ajñānato vipro jñānāt sāmyaṁ tu gacchati || 175 ||
M11.176a[175Ma]/ vipraduṣṭāṁ striyaṁ bhartā nirundhyād ekaveśmani |
M11.176c[175Mc]/ yat puṁsaḥ paradāreṣu tac ca-enāṁ cārayed vratam || 176 ||
[Page J 260 ]
M11.177a[176Ma]/ sā cet punaḥ praduṣyet tu sadṛśena-upamantritā | [Note: M11.177a[176Ma]v/ K: sadṛśena-upayantritā?]
M11.177c[176Mc]/ kṛcchraṁ cāndrāyaṇaṁ ca-eva tad asyāḥ pāvanaṁ smṛtam || 177 ||
M11.178a[177Ma]/ yat karoty ekarātreṇa vṛṣalīsevanād dvijaḥ |
M11.178c[177Mc]/ tad bhaikṣabhuj-japan nityaṁ tribhir varṣair vyapohati || 178 ||
M11.179a[178Ma]/ eṣā pāpakṛtām uktā caturṇām api niṣkṛtiḥ |
M11.179c[178Mc]/ patitaiḥ samprayuktānām imāḥ śṛṇuta niṣkṛtīḥ || 179 ||
M11.180a[179Ma]/ saṁvatsareṇa patati patitena saha-ācaran |
M11.180c[179Mc]/ yājana.adhyāpanād yaunāt-na tu yāna.āsana.aśanāt || 180 ||

11.1.12. 11.1.12. Association with Outcastes

[Note: [ O edn 871-873 :: O tr. 224-225]
M11.181a[180Ma]/ yo yena patitena-eṣāṁ saṁsargaṁ yāti mānavaḥ |
M11.181c[180Mc]/ sa tasya-eva vrataṁ kuryāt tatsaṁsargaviśuddhaye || 181 ||
M11.182a[181Ma]/ patitasya-udakaṁ kāryaṁ sapiṇḍair bāndhavair bahiḥ |
M11.182c[181Mc]/ nindite 'hani sāyāhne jñāti.ṛtvij.gurusannidhau || 182 ||
11.1.12.1. 11.1.12.1. Excommunication
[Note: [ O edn 871-872 :: O tr. 225]
M11.183a[182Ma]/ dāsī ghaṭam apāṁ pūrṇaṁ paryasyet pretavat padā |
M11.183c[182Mc]/ ahorātram upāsīrann aśaucaṁ bāndhavaiḥ saha || 183 ||
M11.184a[183Ma]/ nivarteraṁś ca tasmāt tu sambhāṣaṇa.sahāsane |
M11.184c[183Mc]/ dāyādyasya pradānaṁ ca yātrā ca-eva hi laukikī || 184 ||
M11.185a[184Ma]/ jyeṣṭhatā ca nivarteta jyeṣṭhāvāpyaṁ ca yad dhanam | [Note: M11.185a[184Ma]v/ M: yad vasu]
M11.185c[184Mc]/ jyeṣṭhāṁśaṁ prāpnuyāc ca-asya yavīyān guṇato 'dhikaḥ || 185 ||
M11.186a[185Ma]/ prāyaścitte tu carite pūrṇakumbham apāṁ navam |
M11.186c[185Mc]/ tena-eva sārdhaṁ prāsyeyuḥ snātvā puṇye jalāśaye || 186 ||
11.1.12.2. 11.1.12.2. Re-admission
[Page J 261 ] [Note: [ O edn 872-873 :: O tr. 225]
M11.187a[186Ma]/ sa tv apsu taṁ ghaṭaṁ prāsya praviśya bhavanaṁ svakam |
M11.187c[186Mc]/ sarvāṇi jñātikāryāṇi yathāpūrvaṁ samācaret || 187 ||
M11.188a[187Ma]/ etad eva vidhiṁ kuryād yoṣitsu patitāsv api | [Note: M11.188a[187Ma]v/ M: etam eva vidhiṁ]
M11.188c[187Mc]/ vastra.anna.pānaṁ deyaṁ tu vaseyuś ca gṛhāntike || 188 ||
M11.189a[188Ma]/ enasvibhir a.nirṇiktair na-arthaṁ kiṁ cit saha-ācaret |
M11.189c[188Mc]/ kṛtanirṇejanāṁś ca-eva na jugupseta karhi cit || 189 || [Note: M11.189c[188Mc]v/ M: kṛtanirṇejanāṁś ca-etān]
M11.190a[189Ma]/ bālaghnāṁś ca kṛtaghnāṁś ca viśuddhān api dharmataḥ |
M11.190c[189Mc]/ śaraṇāgatahantṝṁś ca strīhantṝṁś ca na saṁvaset || 190 ||

11.1.13. 11.1.13. Excursus: Miscellanea on Sin and Penance

[Note: [ O edn 873-888 :: O tr. 225-229]
M11.191a[190Ma]/ yeṣāṁ dvijānāṁ sāvitrī na-anūcyeta yathāvidhi |
M11.191c[190Mc]/ tāṁś cārayitvā trīn kṛcchrān yathāvidhi-upanāyayet || 191 ||
M11.192a[191Ma]/ prāyaścittaṁ cikīrṣanti vikarmasthās tu ye dvijāḥ |
M11.192c[191Mc]/ brahmaṇā ca parityaktās teṣām apy etad ādiśet || 192 ||
M11.193a[192Ma]/ yad garhitena-arjayanti karmaṇā brāhmaṇā dhanam |
M11.193c[192Mc]/ tasya-utsargeṇa śudhyanti japyena tapasā-eva ca || 193 ||
M11.194a[193Ma]/ japitvā trīṇi sāvitryāḥ sahasrāṇi samāhitaḥ |
M11.194c[193Mc]/ māsaṁ goṣṭhe payaḥ pītvā mucyate 'satpratigrahāt || 194 ||
M11.195a[194Ma]/ upavāsakṛśaṁ taṁ tu govrajāt punar āgatam |
M11.195c[194Mc]/ praṇataṁ prati pṛccheyuḥ sāmyaṁ saumya-icchasi-iti kim || 195 ||
M11.196a[195Ma]/ satyam uktvā tu vipreṣu vikired yavasaṁ gavām |
M11.196c[195Mc]/ gobhiḥ pravartite tīrthe kuryus tasya parigraham || 196 ||
[Page J 262 ]
M11.197a[196Ma]/ vrātyānāṁ yājanaṁ kṛtvā pareṣām antyakarma ca |
M11.197c[196Mc]/ abhicāram ahīnaṁ ca tribhiḥ kṛcchrair vyapohati || 197 ||
M11.198a[197Ma]/ śaraṇāgataṁ parityajya vedaṁ viplāvya ca dvijaḥ |
M11.198c[197Mc]/ saṁvatsaraṁ yavāhāras tat pāpam apasedhati || 198 ||
M11.199a[198Ma]/ śva.śṛgāla.kharair daṣṭo grāmyaiḥ kravyādbhir eva ca |
M11.199c[198Mc]/ nara.aśva.uṣṭra.varāhaiś ca prāṇāyāmena śudhyati || 199 ||
M11.200a[199Ma]/ ṣaṣṭhānnakālatā māsaṁ saṁhitājapa eva vā |
M11.200c[199Mc]/ homāś ca sakalā nityam apāṅktyānāṁ viśodhanam || 200 || [Note: M11.200c[199Mc]v/ M: homāś ca śākalā]
M11.201a[200Ma]/ uṣṭrayānaṁ samāruhya kharayānaṁ tu kāmataḥ |
M11.201c[200Mc]/ snātvā tu vipro dig.vāsāḥ prāṇāyāmena śudhyati || 201 ||
M11.202a[201Ma]/ vinā-adbhir apsu vā-apy ārtaḥ śārīraṁ sanniṣevya ca |
M11.202c[201Mc]/ sa.cailo bahir āplutya gām ālabhya viśudhyati || 202 ||
M11.203a[202Ma]/ veda.uditānāṁ nityānāṁ karmaṇāṁ samatikrame |
M11.203c[202Mc]/ snātakavratalope ca prāyaścittam abhojanam || 203 ||
M11.204a[203Ma]/ huṅkāraṁ brāhmaṇasya-uktvā tvamkāraṁ ca garīyasaḥ |
M11.204c[203Mc]/ snātvā-an.aśnann ahaḥ śeṣam abhivādya prasādayet || 204 ||
M11.205a[204Ma]/ tāḍayitvā tṛṇena-api kaṇṭhe vā-ābadhya vāsasā |
M11.205c[204Mc]/ vivāde vā vinirjitya praṇipatya prasādayet || 205 ||
M11.206a[205Ma]/ avagūrya tv abdaśataṁ sahasram abhihatya ca |
M11.206c[205Mc]/ jighāṁsayā brāhmaṇasya narakaṁ pratipadyate || 206 ||
[Page J 263 ]
M11.207a[206Ma]/ śoṇitaṁ yāvataḥ pāṁsūn saṅgṛhṇāti mahītale |
M11.207c[206Mc]/ tāvanty abdasahasrāṇi tatkartā narake vaset || 207 || [Note: M11.207c[206Mc]v/ M: narake vrajet]
M11.208a[207Ma]/ avagūrya caret kṛcchram atikṛcchraṁ nipātane |
M11.208c[207Mc]/ kṛcchra.atikṛcchrau kurvīta viprasya-utpādya śoṇitam || 208 ||
M11.209a[208Ma]/ anuktaniṣkṛtīnāṁ tu pāpānām apanuttaye |
M11.209c[208Mc]/ śaktiṁ ca-avekṣya pāpaṁ ca prāyaścittaṁ prakalpayet || 209 ||
M11.210a[209Ma]/ yair abhyupāyair enāṁsi mānavo vyapakarṣati |
M11.210c[209Mc]/ tān vo 'bhyupāyān vakṣyāmi deva.ṛṣi.pitṛsevitān || 210 ||
M11.211a[210Ma]/ tryahaṁ prātas tryahaṁ sāyaṁ tryaham adyād ayācitam |
M11.211c[210Mc]/ tryahaṁ paraṁ ca na-aśnīyāt prājāpatyaṁ caran dvijaḥ || 211 ||
11.1.13.1. 11.1.13.1. Types of Generic Penance
[Note: [ O edn 877-879 :: O tr. 226-227]
M11.212a[211Ma]/ gomūtraṁ gomayaṁ kṣīraṁ dadhi sarpiḥ kuśa.udakam |
M11.212c[211Mc]/ ekarātra.upavāsaś ca kṛcchraṁ sāntapanaṁ smṛtam || 212 ||
M11.213a[212Ma]/ ekaikaṁ grāsam aśnīyāt tryahāṇi trīṇi pūrvavat |
M11.213c[212Mc]/ tryahaṁ ca-upavased antyam atikṛcchraṁ caran dvijaḥ || 213 ||
M11.214a[213Ma]/ taptakṛcchraṁ caran vipro jala.kṣīra.ghṛta.anilān |
M11.214c[213Mc]/ prati.tryahaṁ pibed uṣṇān sakṛtsnāyī samāhitaḥ || 214 ||
M11.215a[214Ma]/ yata.ātmano 'pramattasya dvādaśāham abhojanam |
M11.215c[214Mc]/ parāko nāma kṛcchro 'yaṁ sarvapāpa.apanodanaḥ || 215 ||
M11.216a[215Ma]/ ekaikaṁ hrāsayet piṇḍaṁ kṛṣṇe śukle ca vardhayet |
M11.216c[215Mc]/ upaspṛśaṁs triṣavaṇam etat-cāṇdrāyaṇaṁ smṛtam || 216 ||
[Page J 264 ]
M11.217a[216Ma]/ etam eva vidhiṁ kṛtsnam ācared yavamadhyame |
M11.217c[216Mc]/ śuklapakṣādiniyataś caraṁś cāndrāyaṇaṁ vratam || 217 ||
M11.218a[217Ma]/ aṣṭāv aṣṭau samaśnīyāt piṇḍān madhyandine sthite |
M11.218c[217Mc]/ niyata.ātmā haviṣyāśī yaticāndrāyaṇaṁ caran || 218 ||
M11.219a[218Ma]/ caturaḥ prātar aśnīyāt piṇḍān vipraḥ samāhitaḥ |
M11.219c[218Mc]/ caturo 'stam ite sūrye śiśucāndrāyaṇaṁ smṛtam || 219 ||
M11.220a[219Ma]/ yathā kathaṁ cit piṇḍānāṁ tisro 'śītīḥ samāhitaḥ |
M11.220c[219Mc]/ māsena-aśnan haviṣyasya candrasya-eti salokatām || 220 ||
M11.221a[220Ma]/ etad rudrās tathā-ādityā vasavaś ca-ācaran vratam |
M11.221c[220Mc]/ sarvākuśalamokṣāya marutaś ca maharṣibhiḥ || 221 ||
M11.222a[221Ma]/ mahāvyāhṛtibhir homaḥ kartavyaḥ svayam anvaham |
M11.222c[221Mc]/ ahiṁsā satyam akrodham ārjavaṁ ca samācaret || 222 ||
11.1.13.2. 11.1.13.2. Observances by the Penitent
[Note: [ O edn 879-880 :: O tr. 227]
M11.223a[222Ma]/ trir ahnas trir niśāyāṁ ca sa.vāsā jalam āviśet |
M11.223c[222Mc]/ strī.śūdra.patitāṁś ca-eva na-abhibhāṣeta karhi cit || 223 ||
M11.224a[223Ma]/ sthāna.āsanābhyāṁ vihared aśakto 'dhaḥ śayīta vā |
M11.224c[223Mc]/ brahmacārī vratī ca syād guru.deva.dvija.arcakaḥ || 224 ||
M11.225a[224Ma]/ sāvitrīṁ ca japen nityaṁ pavitrāṇi ca śaktitaḥ |
M11.225c[224Mc]/ sarveṣv eva vrateṣv evaṁ prāyaścittārtham ādṛtaḥ || 225 ||
M11.226a[225Ma]/ etair dvijātayaḥ śodhyā vratair āviṣkṛta.enasaḥ |
M11.226c[225Mc]/ anāviṣkṛta.pāpāṁs tu mantrair homaiś ca śodhayet || 226 ||
[Page J 265 ]
M11.227a[226Ma]/ khyāpanena.anutāpena tapasā-adhyayanena ca |
M11.227c[226Mc]/ pāpakṛt-mucyate pāpāt tathā dānena ca-āpadi || 227 ||
11.1.13.3. 11.1.13.3. Four Means of Expiation
[Note: [ O edn 880-883 :: O tr. 227-228]
M11.228a[227Ma]/ yathā yathā naro 'dharmaṁ svayaṁ kṛtvā-anubhāṣate |
M11.228c[227Mc]/ tathā tathā tvacā-iva-ahis tena-adharmeṇa mucyate || 228 ||
M11.229a[228Ma]/ yathā yathā manas tasya duṣkṛtaṁ karma garhati |
M11.229c[228Mc]/ tathā tathā śarīraṁ tat tena-adharmeṇa mucyate || 229 ||
M11.230a[229Ma]/ kṛtvā pāpaṁ hi santapya tasmāt pāpāt pramucyate |
M11.230c[229Mc]/ na-evaṁ kuryāṁ punar iti nivṛttyā pūyate tu saḥ || 230 ||
M11.231a[230Ma]/ evaṁ sañcintya manasā pretya karmaphala.udayam |
M11.231c[230Mc]/ mano.vāc.mūrtibhir nityaṁ śubhaṁ karma samācaret || 231 ||
M11.232a[231Ma]/ ajñānād yadi vā jñānāt kṛtvā karma vigarhitam |
M11.232c[231Mc]/ tasmād vimuktim anvicchan dvitīyaṁ na samācaret || 232 ||
M11.233a[232Ma]/ yasmin karmaṇy asya kṛte manasaḥ syād alāghavam |
M11.233c[232Mc]/ tasmiṁs tāvat tapaḥ kuryād yāvat tuṣṭikaraṁ bhavet || 233 ||
M11.234a[233Ma]/ tapomūlam idaṁ sarvaṁ daiva.mānuṣakaṁ sukham |
M11.234c[233Mc]/ tapomadhyaṁ budhaiḥ proktaṁ tapo.'ntaṁ vedadarśibhiḥ || 234 ||
M11.235a[234Ma]/ brāhmaṇasya tapo jñānaṁ tapaḥ kṣatrasya rakṣaṇam |
M11.235c[234Mc]/ vaiśyasya tu tapo vārtā tapaḥ śūdrasya sevanam || 235 ||
M11.236a[235Ma]/ ṛṣayaḥ saṁyata.ātmānaḥ phala.mūla.anila.aśanāḥ |
M11.236c[235Mc]/ tapasā-eva prapaśyanti trailokyaṁ sa.carācaram || 236 ||
[Page J 266 ]
M11.237a[236Ma]/ auṣadhāny agado vidyā daivī ca vividhā sthitiḥ |
M11.237c[236Mc]/ tapasā-eva prasidhyanti tapas teṣāṁ hi sādhanam || 237 ||
M11.238a[237Ma]/ yad dustaraṁ yad durāpaṁ yad durgaṁ yac ca duṣkaram |
M11.238c[237Mc]/ sarvaṁ tu tapasā sādhyaṁ tapo hi duratikramam || 238 || [Note: M11.238c[237Mc]v/ M: sarvaṁ tat tapasā]
M11.239a[238Ma]/ mahāpātakinaś ca-eva śeṣāś ca-akāryakāriṇaḥ |
M11.239c[238Mc]/ tapasā-eva sutaptena mucyante kilbiṣāt tataḥ || 239 ||
M11.240a[239Ma]/ kītāś ca-ahi.pataṅgāś ca paśavaś ca vayāṁsi ca |
M11.240c[239Mc]/ sthāvarāṇi ca bhūtāni divaṁ yānti tapobalāt || 240 ||
M11.241a[240Ma]/ yat kiṁ cid enaḥ kurvanti mano.vāc.mūrtibhir janāḥ | [Note: M11.241a[240Ma]v/ M: mano.vāc.karmabhir]
M11.241c[240Mc]/ tat sarvaṁ nirdahanty āśu tapasā-eva tapo.dhanāḥ || 241 ||
M11.242a[241Ma]/ tapasā-eva viśuddhasya brāhmaṇasya diva.okasaḥ |
M11.242c[241Mc]/ ijyāś ca pratigṛhṇanti kāmān saṁvardhayanti ca || 242 ||
M11.243a[242Ma]/ prajāpatir idaṁ śāstraṁ tapasā-eva-asṛjat prabhuḥ |
M11.243c[242Mc]/ tathā-eva vedān ṛṣayas tapasā pratipedire || 243 ||
M11.244a[243Ma]/ ity etat tapaso devā mahābhāgyaṁ pracakṣate | [Note: M11.244a[243Ma]v/ M: yad etat tapaso]
M11.244c[243Mc]/ sarvasya-asya prapaśyantas tapasaḥ puṇyam uttamam || 244 || [Note: M11.244c[243Mc]v/ M: puṇyaṁ udbhavam]
M11.245a[244Ma]/ vedābhyāso 'nvahaṁ śaktyā mahāyajñakriyā kṣamā |
M11.245c[244Mc]/ nāśayanty āśu pāpāni mahāpātakajāny api || 245 ||
[Page J 267 ]
M11.246a[245Ma]/ yathā-edhas tejasā vahniḥ prāptaṁ nirdahati kṣaṇāt |
M11.246c[245Mc]/ tathā jñānāgninā pāpaṁ sarvaṁ dahati vedavit || 246 ||
M11.247a[246Ma]/ ity etad enasām uktaṁ prāyaścittaṁ yathāvidhi |
M11.247c[246Mc]/ ata ūrdhvaṁ rahasya-anāṁ prāyaścittaṁ nibodhata || 247 ||
M11.248a[247Ma]/ sa.vyāhṛti.praṇavakāḥ prāṇāyāmās tu ṣoḍaśa |
M11.248c[247Mc]/ api bhrūṇahanaṁ māsāt punanty ahar ahaḥ kṛtāḥ || 248 ||
11.1.13.4. 11.1.13.4. Further Means of Expiation
[Note: [ O edn 884-888 :: O tr. 228-229]
M11.249a[248Ma]/ kautsaṁ japtvā-apa ity etad vasiṣṭhaṁ ca prati-ity ṛcam |
M11.249c[248Mc]/ māhitraṁ śuddhavatyaś ca surāpo 'pi viśudhyati || 249 ||
M11.250a[249Ma]/ sakṛt-japtvā-āsyavāmīyaṁ śivasaṅkalpam eva ca |
M11.250c[249Mc]/ apahṛtya suvarṇaṁ tu kṣaṇād bhavati nir.malaḥ || 250 ||
M11.251a[250Ma]/ haviṣpāntīyam abhyasya na tamaṁ ha iti-iti ca |
M11.251c[250Mc]/ japitvā pauruṣaṁ sūktaṁ mucyate gurutalpagaḥ || 251 ||
M11.252a[251Ma]/ enasāṁ sthūla.sūkṣmāṇāṁ cikīrṣann apanodanam |
M11.252c[251Mc]/ ava-ity ṛcaṁ japed abdaṁ yat kiṁ ca-idam iti-iti vā || 252 ||
M11.253a[252Ma]/ pratigṛhya-apratigrāhyaṁ bhuktvā ca-annaṁ vigarhitam |
M11.253c[252Mc]/ japaṁs taratsamandīyaṁ pūyate mānavas tryahāt || 253 ||
M11.254a[253Ma]/ somāraudram tu bahv.enāḥ māsam abhyasya śudhyati | [Note: M11.254a[253Ma]v/ M: samām abhyasya]
M11.254c[253Mc]/ sravantyām ācaran snānam aryamṇām iti ca tṛcam || 254 ||
[Page J 268 ]
M11.255a[254Ma]/ abdārdham indram ity etad enasvī saptakaṁ japet |
M11.255c[254Mc]/ apraśastaṁ tu kṛtvā-apsu māsam āsīta bhaikṣabhuk || 255 ||
M11.256a[255Ma]/ mantraiḥ śākalahomīyair abdaṁ hutvā ghṛtaṁ dvijaḥ |
M11.256c[255Mc]/ sugurv apy apahanty eno japtvā vā nama ity ṛcam || 256 ||
M11.257a[256Ma]/ mahāpātakasaṁyukto 'nugacched gāḥ samāhitaḥ |
M11.257c[256Mc]/ abhyasya-abdaṁ pāvamānīr bhaikṣa.āhāro viśudhyati || 257 ||
M11.258a[257Ma]/ araṇye vā trir abhyasya prayato vedasaṁhitām |
M11.258c[257Mc]/ mucyate pātakaiḥ sarvaiḥ parākaiḥ śodhitas tribhiḥ || 258 ||
M11.259a[258Ma]/ tryahaṁ tu-upavased yuktas trir ahno 'bhyupayann apaḥ |
M11.259c[258Mc]/ mucyate pātakaiḥ sarvais trir japitvā-aghamarṣaṇam || 259 ||
M11.260a[259Ma]/ yathā-aśvamedhaḥ kraturāj-sarvapāpāpa.nodanaḥ |
M11.260c[259Mc]/ tathā-aghamarṣaṇaṁ sūktaṁ sarvapāpāpa.nodanam || 260 ||
M11.261a[260Ma]/ hatvā lokān api-imāṁs trīn aśnann api yatas tataḥ |
M11.261c[260Mc]/ ṛgvedaṁ dhārayan vipro na-enaḥ prāpnoti kiṁ cana || 261 ||
M11.262a[261Ma]/ ṛksaṁhitāṁ trir abhyasya yajuṣāṁ vā samāhitaḥ |
M11.262c[261Mc]/ sāmnāṁ vā sa.rahasyānāṁ sarvapāpaiḥ pramucyate || 262 ||
M11.263a[262Ma]/ yathā mahāhradaṁ prāpya kṣiptaṁ loṣṭaṁ vinaśyati |
M11.263c[262Mc]/ tathā duścaritaṁ sarvaṁ vede trivṛti majjati || 263 ||
[Page J 269 ]
M11.264a[263Ma]/ ṛco yajūṁṣi ca-anyāni sāmāni vividhāni ca |
M11.264c[263Mc]/ eṣa jñeyas trivṛdvedo yo veda-enaṁ sa vedavit || 264 ||
M11.265a[264Ma]/ ādyaṁ yat tryakṣaraṁ brahma trayī yasmin pratiṣṭhitā |
M11.265c[264Mc]/ sa guhyo 'nyas trivṛdvedo yas taṁ veda sa vedavit || 265 ||

12. Chapter 12

[Page J 270 ] [Note: [ O edn 889-913 :: O tr. 230-236]
M12.01a/ cāturvarṇyasya kṛtsno 'yam ukto dharmas tvayā-anaghaḥ |
M12.01c/ karmaṇāṁ phalanirvṛttiṁ śaṁsa nas tattvataḥ parām || 1 ||
M12.02a/ sa tān uvāca dharma.ātmā maharṣīn mānavo bhṛguḥ |
M12.02c/ asya sarvasya śṛṇuta karmayogasya nirṇayam || 2 ||

12.1. 12.1. Action

[Note: [ O edn 889-911 :: O tr. 230-236]

12.1.1. 12.1.1. The Fruits of Action

[Note: [ O edn 889-904 :: O tr. 230-234]
M12.03a/ śubha.aśubha.phalaṁ karma mano.vāc.deha.sambhavam |
M12.03c/ karmajā gatayo nṝṇām uttama.adhama.madhyamaḥ || 3 ||
M12.04a/ tasya-iha trividhasya-api tryadhiṣṭhānasya dehinaḥ |
M12.04c/ daśalakṣaṇayuktasya mano vidyāt pravartakam || 4 ||
M12.05a/ paradravyeṣv abhidhyānaṁ manasā-aniṣṭacintanam |
M12.05c/ vitathābhiniveśaś ca trividhaṁ karma mānasam || 5 ||
M12.06a/ pāruṣyam anṛtaṁ ca-eva paiśunyaṁ ca-api sarvaśaḥ |
M12.06c/ asambaddhapralāpaś ca vāc.mayaṁ syāc caturvidham || 6 ||
M12.07a/ adattānām upādānaṁ hiṁsā ca-eva-avidhānataḥ |
M12.07c/ paradāra.upasevā ca śārīraṁ trividhaṁ smṛtam || 7 ||
[Page J 271 ]
M12.08a/ mānasaṁ manasā-eva-ayam upabhuṅkte śubha.aśubham |
M12.08c/ vācā vācā kṛtaṁ karma kāyena-eva ca kāyikam || 8 ||
M12.09a/ śarīrajaiḥ karmadoṣair yāti sthāvaratāṁ naraḥ |
M12.09c/ vācikaiḥ pakṣi.mṛgatāṁ mānasair antyajātitām || 9 ||
M12.10a/ vāgdaṇḍo 'tha manodaṇḍaḥ kāyadaṇḍas tathā-eva ca |
M12.10c/ yasya-ete nihitā buddhau tridaṇḍī-iti sa ucyate || 10 ||
M12.11a/ tridaṇḍam etan nikṣipya sarvabhūteṣu mānavaḥ |
M12.11c/ kāma.krodhau tu saṁyamya tataḥ siddhiṁ niyacchati || 11 || [Note: M12.11cv/ M: kāma.krodhau susaṁyamya tataḥ siddhiṁ nigacchati]
12.1.1.1. 12.1.1.1. The Inner Selves
[Note: [ O edn 891-892 :: O tr. 230-231]
M12.12a/ yo 'sya-ātmanaḥ kārayitā taṁ kṣetrajñaṁ pracakṣate |
M12.12c/ yaḥ karoti tu karmāṇi sa bhūtātmā-ucyate budhaiḥ || 12 ||
M12.13a/ jīvasañjño 'ntarātmā-anyaḥ sahajaḥ sarvadehinām |
M12.13c/ yena vedayate sarvaṁ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ ca janmasu || 13 ||
M12.14a/ tāv ubhau bhūtasampṛktau mahān kṣetrajña eva ca |
M12.14c/ uccāvaceṣu bhūteṣu sthitaṁ taṁ vyāpya tiṣṭhataḥ || 14 ||
M12.15a/ a.saṅkhyā mūrtayas tasya niṣpatanti śarīrataḥ |
M12.15c/ uccāvacāni bhūtāni satataṁ ceṣṭayanti yāḥ || 15 ||
12.1.1.2. 12.1.1.2. The Process of Rebirth
[Note: [ O edn 892-893 :: O tr. 231]
M12.16a/ pañcabhya eva mātrābhyaḥ pretya duṣkṛtināṁ nṛṇām | [Note: M12.16av/ M: pañcabhya eva bhūtebhyaḥ]
M12.16c/ śarīraṁ yātanārthīyam anyad utpadyate dhruvam || 16 ||
M12.17a/ tena-anubhūya tā yāmīḥ śarīreṇa-iha yātanāḥ |
M12.17c/ tāsv eva bhūtamātrāsu pralīyante vibhāgaśaḥ || 17 ||
[Page J 272 ]
M12.18a/ so 'nubhūya-asukha.udarkān doṣān viṣayasaṅgajān |
M12.18c/ vyapeta.kalmaṣo 'bhyeti tāv eva-ubhau mahā.ojasau || 18 ||
M12.19a/ tau dharmaṁ paśyatas tasya pāpaṁ ca-atandritau saha |
M12.19c/ yābhyāṁ prāpnoti sampṛktaḥ pretya-iha ca sukha.asukham || 19 ||
M12.20a/ yady ācarati dharmaṁ sa prāyaśo 'dharmam alpaśaḥ | [Note: M12.20av/ M: yatha-ācarati]
M12.20c/ tair eva ca-āvṛto bhūtaiḥ svarge sukham upāśnute || 20 ||
M12.21a/ yadi tu prāyaśo 'dharmaṁ sevate dharmam alpaśaḥ |
M12.21c/ tair bhūtaiḥ sa parityakto yāmīḥ prāpnoti yātanāḥ || 21 ||
M12.22a/ yāmīs tā yātanāḥ prāpya sa jīvo vīta.kalmaṣaḥ |
M12.22c/ tāny eva pañca bhūtāni punar apyeti bhāgaśaḥ || 22 ||
M12.23a/ etā dṛṣṭvā-asya jīvasya gatīḥ svena-eva cetasā |
M12.23c/ dharmato 'dharmataś ca-eva dharme dadhyāt sadā manaḥ || 23 ||
12.1.1.3. 12.1.1.3. The Three Attributes
[Note: [ O edn 893-899 :: O tr. 231-232]
M12.24a/ sattvaṁ rajas tamas-ca-eva trīn vidyād ātmano guṇān |
M12.24c/ yair vyāpya-imān sthito bhāvān mahān sarvān aśeṣataḥ || 24 ||
M12.25a/ yo yadā-eṣāṁ guṇo dehe sākalyena-atiricyate |
M12.25c/ sa tadā tadguṇaprāyaṁ taṁ karoti śarīriṇam || 25 ||
M12.26a/ sattvaṁ jñānaṁ tamo 'jñānaṁ rāga.dveṣau rajaḥ smṛtam |
M12.26c/ etad vyāptimad eteṣāṁ sarvabhūtāśritaṁ vapuḥ || 26 ||
M12.27a/ tatra yat prītisaṁyuktaṁ kiṁ cid ātmani lakṣayet |
M12.27c/ praśāntam iva śuddhābhaṁ sattvaṁ tad upadhārayet || 27 ||
[Page J 273 ]
M12.28a/ yat tu duḥkhasamāyuktam aprītikaram ātmanaḥ |
M12.28c/ tad rajo pratīpaṁ vidyāt satataṁ hāri dehinām || 28 || [Note: M12.28cv/ M: hartṛ]
M12.29a/ yat tu syān mohasaṁyuktam avyaktaṁ viṣayātmakam |
M12.29c/ apratarkyam avijñeyaṁ tamas tad upadhārayet || 29 ||
M12.30a/ trayāṇām api ca-eteṣāṁ guṇānāṁ yaḥ phala.udayaḥ |
M12.30c/ agryo madhyo jaghanyaś ca taṁ pravakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ || 30 ||
M12.31a/ vedābhyāsas tapo jñānaṁ śaucam indriyanigrahaḥ |
M12.31c/ dharmakriyā-ātmacintā ca sāttvikaṁ guṇalakṣaṇam || 31 ||
M12.32a/ ārambharucitā-adhairyam asatkārya.parigrahaḥ |
M12.32c/ viṣaya.upasevā ca-ajasraṁ rājasaṁ guṇalakṣaṇam || 32 ||
M12.33a/ lobhaḥ svapno 'dhṛtiḥ krauryaṁ nāstikyaṁ bhinnavṛttitā |
M12.33c/ yāciṣṇutā pramādaś ca tāmasaṁ guṇalakṣaṇam || 33 ||
M12.34a/ trayāṇām api ca-eteṣāṁ guṇānāṁ triṣu tiṣṭhatām |
M12.34c/ idaṁ sāmāsikaṁ jñeyaṁ kramaśo guṇalakṣaṇam || 34 ||
M12.35a/ yat karma kṛtvā kurvaṁś ca kariṣyaṁś ca-eva lajjati |
M12.35c/ taj jñeyaṁ viduṣā sarvaṁ tāmasaṁ guṇalakṣaṇam || 35 ||
M12.36a/ yena-asmin karmanā loke khyātim icchati puṣkalām |
M12.36c/ na ca śocaty asampattau tad vijñeyaṁ tu rājasam || 36 ||
M12.37a/ yat sarveṇa-icchati jñātuṁ yan na lajjati ca-ācaran |
M12.37c/ yena tuṣyati ca-ātmā-asya tat sattvaguṇalakṣaṇam || 37 ||
[Page J 274 ]
M12.38a/ tamaso lakṣaṇaṁ kāmo rajasas tv artha ucyate |
M12.38c/ sattvasya lakṣaṇaṁ dharmaḥ śraiṣṭhyam eṣāṁ yathā.uttaram || 38 ||
M12.39a/ yena yas tu guṇena-eṣāṁ saṁsarān pratipadyate | [Note: M12.39av/ M: yena yāṁs tu]
M12.39c/ tān samāsena vakṣyāmi sarvasya-asya yathākramam || 39 ||
M12.40a/ devatvaṁ sāttvikā yānti manuṣyatvaṁ ca rājasāḥ |
M12.40c/ tiryaktvaṁ tāmasā nityam ity eṣā trividhā gatiḥ || 40 ||
M12.41a/ trividhā trividhā-eṣā tu vijñeyā gauṇikī gatiḥ |
M12.41c/ adhamā madhyama.agryā ca karma.vidyā.viśeṣataḥ || 41 ||
M12.42a/ sthāvarāḥ kṛmi.kīṭāś ca matsyāḥ sarpāḥ sa.kacchapāḥ |
M12.42c/ paśavaś ca mṛgāś ca-eva jaghanyā tāmasī gatiḥ || 42 ||
M12.43a/ hastinaś ca turaṅgāś ca śūdrā mlecchāś ca garhitāḥ |
M12.43c/ siṁhā vyāghrā varāhāś ca madhyamā tāmasī gatiḥ || 43 ||
M12.44a/ cāraṇāś ca suparṇāś ca puruṣāś ca-eva dāmbhikāḥ |
M12.44c/ rakṣāṁsi ca piśācāś ca tāmasīṣu-uttamā gatiḥ || 44 ||
M12.45a/ jhallā mallā naṭāś ca-eva puruṣāḥ śastra.vṛttayaḥ |
M12.45c/ dyūta.pāna.prasaktāś ca jaghanyā rājasī gatiḥ || 45 ||
M12.46a/ rājānaḥ kṣatriyāś ca-eva rājñāṁ ca-eva purohitāḥ |
M12.46c/ vāda.yuddha.pradhānāś ca madhyamā rājasī gatiḥ || 46 ||
M12.47a/ gandharvā guhyakā yakṣā vibudhānucarāś ca ye |
M12.47c/ tathā-eva-apsarasaḥ sarvā rājasīṣu-uttamā gatiḥ || 47 ||
[Page J 275 ]
M12.48a/ tāpasā yatayo viprā ye ca vaimānikā gaṇāḥ |
M12.48c/ nakṣatrāṇi ca daityāś ca prathamā sāttvikī gatiḥ || 48 ||
M12.49a/ yajvāna ṛṣayo devā vedā jyotīṁṣi vatsarāḥ |
M12.49c/ pitaraś ca-eva sādhyāś ca dvitīyā sāttvikī gatiḥ || 49 ||
M12.50a/ brahmā viśvasṛjo dharmo mahān avyaktam eva ca |
M12.50c/ uttamāṁ sāttvikīm etāṁ gatim āhur manīṣiṇaḥ || 50 ||
M12.51a/ eṣa sarvaḥ samuddiṣṭas tri.prakārasya karmaṇaḥ | [Note: M12.51av/ M: triḥ.prakārasya]
M12.51c/ trividhas trividhaḥ kṛtsnaḥ saṁsāraḥ sārvabhautikaḥ || 51 ||
M12.52a/ indriyāṇāṁ prasaṅgena dharmasya-asevanena ca |
M12.52c/ pāpān saṁyānti saṁsārān avidvāṁso narādhamāḥ || 52 ||
M12.53a/ yāṁ yāṁ yoniṁ tu jīvo 'yaṁ yena yena-iha karmaṇā |
M12.53c/ kramaśo yāti loke 'smiṁs tat tat sarvaṁ nibodhata || 53 ||
12.1.1.4. 12.1.1.4. Sin and Rebirth
[Note: [ O edn 899-904 :: O tr. 233-234]
M12.54a/ bahūn varṣagaṇān ghorān narakān prāpya tatkṣayāt |
M12.54c/ saṁsārān pratipadyante mahāpātakinas tv imān || 54 ||
M12.55a/ śva.sūkara.khara.uṣṭrāṇāṁ go.'ja.avi.mṛga.pakṣiṇāṁ |
M12.55c/ caṇḍāla.pukkasānāṁ ca brahmahā yonim ṛcchati || 55 ||
M12.56a/ kṛmi.kīṭa.pataṅgānāṁ viṣ.bhujāṁ ca-eva pakṣiṇām |
M12.56c/ hiṁsrāṇāṁ ca-eva sattvānāṁ surāpo brāhmaṇo vrajet || 56 ||
M12.57a/ lūtā.ahi.saraṭānāṁ ca tiraścāṁ ca-ambucāriṇām |
M12.57c/ hiṁsrāṇāṁ ca piśācānāṁ steno vipraḥ sahasraśaḥ || 57 ||
[Page J 276 ]
M12.58a/ tṛṇa.gulma.latānāṁ ca kravyādāṁ daṁṣṭriṇām api |
M12.58c/ krūrakarmakṛtāṁ ca-eva śataśo gurutalpagaḥ || 58 ||
M12.59a/ hiṁsrā bhavanti kravyādāḥ kṛmayo 'medhyabhakṣiṇaḥ |
M12.59c/ parasparādinaḥ stenāḥ pretya-antyastrīniṣeviṇaḥ || 59 ||
M12.60a/ saṁyogaṁ patitair gatvā parasya-eva ca yoṣitam |
M12.60c/ apahṛtya ca viprasvaṁ bhavati brahmarākṣasaḥ || 60 ||
M12.61a/ maṇi.muktā.pravālāni hṛtvā lobhena mānavaḥ |
M12.61c/ vividhāṇi ca ratnāni jāyate hemakartṛṣu || 61 ||
M12.62a/ dhānyaṁ hṛtvā bhavaty ākhuḥ kāṁsyaṁ haṁso jalaṁ plavaḥ |
M12.62c/ madhu daṁśaḥ payaḥ kāko rasaṁ śvā nakulo ghṛtam || 62 ||
M12.63a/ māṁsaṁ gṛdhro vapāṁ madgus tailaṁ tailapakaḥ khagaḥ |
M12.63c/ cīrīvākas tu lavaṇaṁ balākā śakunir dadhi || 63 ||
M12.64a/ kauśeyaṁ tittirir hṛtvā kṣaumaṁ hṛtvā tu darduraḥ |
M12.64c/ kārpāsatāntavaṁ krauñco godhā gāṁ vāggudo guḍam || 64 ||
M12.65a/ chucchundariḥ śubhān gandhān patraśākaṁ tu barhiṇaḥ | [Note: M12.65av/ M: chucchundarīḥ]
M12.65c/ śvāvit kṛtānnaṁ vividham akṛtānnaṁ tu śalyakaḥ || 65 ||
M12.66a/ bako bhavati hṛtvā-agniṁ gṛhakārī hy upaskaram |
M12.66c/ raktāni hṛtvā vāsāṁsi jāyate jīvajīvakaḥ || 66 ||
M12.67a/ vṛko mṛga.ibhaṁ vyāghro 'śvaṁ phala.mūlaṁ tu markaṭaḥ |
M12.67c/ strīm ṛkṣaḥ stokako vāri yānāny uṣṭraḥ paśūn ajaḥ || 67 ||
[Page J 277 ]
M12.68a/ yad vā tad vā paradravyam apahṛtya balāt-naraḥ |
M12.68c/ avaśyaṁ yāti tiryaktvaṁ jagdhvā ca-eva-ahutaṁ haviḥ || 68 ||
M12.69a/ striyo 'py etena kalpena hṛtvā doṣam avāpnuyuḥ |
M12.69c/ eteṣām eva jantūnāṁ bhāryātvam upayānti tāḥ || 69 ||
M12.70a/ svebhyaḥ svebhyas tu karmabhyaś cyutā varṇā hy anāpadi |
M12.70c/ pāpān saṁsṛtya saṁsārān preṣyatāṁ yānti śatruṣu || 70 || [Note: M12.70cv/ M: yānti dasyuṣu]
M12.71a/ vāntāśy ulkāmukhaḥ preto vipro dharmāt svakāc cyutaḥ |
M12.71c/ amedhya.kuṇapāśī ca kṣatriyaḥ kaṭapūtanaḥ || 71 || [Note: M12.71cv/ M: kūṭapūtanaḥ]
M12.72a/ maitrākṣajyotikaḥ preto vaiśyo bhavati pūyabhuk | [Note: M12.72av/ M: maitrākṣijyotikaḥ]
M12.72c/ cailāśakaś ca bhavati śūdro dharmāt svakāc cyutaḥ || 72 ||
M12.73a/ yathā yathā niṣevante viṣayān viṣaya.ātmakāḥ |
M12.73c/ tathā tathā kuśalatā teṣāṁ teṣu-upajāyate || 73 ||
M12.74a/ te 'bhyāsāt karmaṇāṁ teṣāṁ pāpānām alpa.buddhayaḥ |
M12.74c/ samprāpnuvanti duḥkhāni tāsu tāsv iha yoniṣu || 74 ||
M12.75a/ tāmisrādiṣu ca-ugreṣu narakeṣu vivartanam |
M12.75c/ asipatravanādīni bandhana.chedanāni ca || 75 ||
M12.76a/ vividhāś ca-eva sampīḍāḥ kāka.ulūkaiś ca bhakṣaṇam |
M12.76c/ karambhavālukātāpān kumbhīpākāṁś ca dāruṇān || 76 ||
M12.77a/ sambhavāṁś ca viyonīṣu duḥkha.prāyāsu nityaśaḥ |
M12.77c/ śīta.ātapa.abhighātāṁś ca vividhāni bhayāni ca || 77 ||
[Page J 278 ]
M12.78a/ asakṛd garbhavāseṣu vāsaṁ janma ca dāruṇam |
M12.78c/ bandhanāni ca kāṣṭhāni parapreṣyatvam eva ca || 78 || [Note: M12.78cv/ M: kaṣṭāni]
M12.79a/ bandhu.priya.viyogāṁś ca saṁvāsaṁ ca-eva durjanaiḥ |
M12.79c/ dravyārjanaṁ ca nāśaṁ ca mitra.amitrasya ca-arjanam || 79 ||
M12.80a/ jarāṁ ca-eva-a.pratīkārāṁ vyādhibhiś ca-upapīḍanam |
M12.80c/ kleśāṁś ca vividhāṁs tāṁs tān mṛtyum eva ca dur.jayam || 80 ||
M12.81a/ yādṛśena tu bhāvena yad yat karma niṣevate |
M12.81c/ tādṛśena śarīreṇa tat tat phalam upāśnute || 81 ||
M12.82a/ eṣa sarvaḥ samuddiṣṭaḥ karmaṇāṁ vaḥ phala.udayaḥ |
M12.82c/ naiḥśreyasakaraṁ karma viprasya-idaṁ nibodhata || 82 ||

12.1.2. 12.1.2. Actions Leading to the Supreme Good

[Note: [ O edn 904-909 :: O tr. 234-235]
M12.83a/ vedābhyāsas tapo jñānam indriyāṇāṁ ca saṁyamaḥ |
M12.83c/ ahiṁsā gurusevā ca niḥśreyasakaraṁ param || 83 ||
M12.84a/ sarveṣām api ca-eteṣāṁ śubhānām iha karmaṇām |
M12.84c/ kiṁ cit-śreyaskarataraṁ karma-uktaṁ puruṣaṁ prati || 84 ||
M12.85a/ sarveṣām api ca-eteṣām ātmajñānaṁ paraṁ smṛtam |
M12.85c/ tadd hy agryaṁ sarvavidyānāṁ prāpyate hy amṛtaṁ tataḥ || 85 ||
M12.86a/ ṣaṇṇām eṣāṁ tu sarveṣāṁ karmaṇāṁ pretya ca-iha ca |
M12.86c/ śreyaskarataraṁ jñeyaṁ sarvadā karma vaidikam || 86 ||
M12.87a/ vaidike karmayoge tu sarvāṇy etāny aśeṣataḥ |
M12.87c/ antarbhavanti kramaśas tasmiṁs tasmin kriyāvidhau || 87 ||
[Page J 279 ]
M12.88a/ sukhābhyudayikaṁ ca-eva naiḥśreyasikam eva ca |
M12.88c/ pravṛttaṁ ca nivṛttaṁ ca dvividhaṁ karma vaidikam || 88 ||
M12.89a/ iha ca-amutra vā kāmyaṁ pravṛttaṁ karma kīrtyate |
M12.89c/ niṣ.kāmaṁ jñātapūrvaṁ tu nivṛttam upadiśyate || 89 ||
M12.90a/ pravṛttaṁ karma saṁsevyaṁ devānām eti sāmyatām |
M12.90c/ nivṛttaṁ sevamānas tu bhūtāny atyeti pañca vai || 90 ||
M12.91a/ sarvabhūteṣu ca-ātmānaṁ sarvabhūtāni ca-ātmani |
M12.91c/ samaṁ paśyann ātmayājī svārājyam adhigacchati || 91 ||
M12.92a/ yathā.uktāny api karmāṇi parihāya dvijottamaḥ |
M12.92c/ ātmajñāne śame ca syād vedābhyāse ca yatnavān || 92 ||
M12.93a/ etadd hi janmasāphalyaṁ brāhmaṇasya viśeṣataḥ |
M12.93c/ prāpya-etat kṛta.kṛtyo hi dvijo bhavati na-anyathā || 93 ||
M12.94a/ pitṛ.deva.manuṣyāṇāṁ vedaś cakṣuḥ sanātanam |
M12.94c/ aśakyaṁ ca-aprameyaṁ ca vedaśāstram iti sthitiḥ || 94 ||
M12.95a/ yā vedabāhyāḥ smṛtayo yāś ca kāś ca kudṛṣṭayaḥ | [Note: M12.95av/ M: śrutayo]
M12.95c/ sarvās tā niṣ.phalāḥ pretya tamo.niṣṭhā hi tāḥ smṛtāḥ || 95 ||
M12.96a/ utpadyante cyavante ca yāny ato 'nyāni kāni cit | [Note: M12.96av/ M: utpadyante vinaśyanti]
M12.96c/ tāny arvākkālikatayā niṣ.phalāny anṛtāni ca || 96 ||
M12.97a/ cāturvarṇyaṁ trayo lokāś catvāraś ca-āśramāḥ pṛthak |
M12.97c/ bhūtaṁ bhavyaṁ bhaviṣyaṁ ca sarvaṁ vedāt prasidhyati || 97 || [Note: M12.97cv/ M: bhūtaṁ bhavad bhaviṣyaṁ ca]
[Page J 280 ]
M12.98a/ śabdaḥ sparśaś ca rūpaṁ ca raso gandhaś ca pañcamaḥ |
M12.98c/ vedād eva prasūyante prasūtir guṇa.karmataḥ || 98 ||
M12.99a/ bibharti sarvabhūtāni vedaśāstraṁ sanātanam |
M12.99c/ tasmād etat paraṁ manye yat-jantor asya sādhanam || 99 ||
M12.100a/ senāpatyaṁ ca rājyaṁ ca daṇḍanetṛtvam eva ca | [Note: M12.100av/ M: saināpatyaṁ]
M12.100c/ sarvalokādhipatyaṁ ca vedaśāstravid arhati || 100 ||
M12.101a/ yathā jāta.balo vahnir dahaty ārdrān api drumān |
M12.101c/ tathā dahati vedajñaḥ karmajaṁ doṣam ātmanaḥ || 101 ||
M12.102a/ vedaśāstrārthatattvajño yatra tatra-āśrame vasan |
M12.102c/ iha-eva loke tiṣṭhan sa brahmabhūyāya kalpate || 102 ||
M12.103a/ ajñebhyo granthinaḥ śreṣṭhā granthibhyo dhāriṇo varāḥ |
M12.103c/ dhāribhyo jñāninaḥ śreṣṭhā jñānibhyo vyavasāyinaḥ || 103 ||
M12.104a/ tapo vidyā ca viprasya niḥśreyasakaraṁ param |
M12.104c/ tapasā kilbiṣaṁ hanti vidyayā-amṛtam aśnute || 104 ||
M12.105a/ pratyakṣaṁ ca-anumānaṁ ca śāstraṁ ca vividhā.āgamam |
M12.105c/ trayaṁ suviditaṁ kāryaṁ dharmaśuddhim abhīpsatā || 105 ||
M12.106a/ ārṣaṁ dharma.upadeśaṁ ca vedaśāstra.avirodhinā |
M12.106c/ yas tarkeṇa-anusandhatte sa dharmaṁ veda na-itaraḥ || 106 ||
[Page J 281 ]
M12.107a/ naiḥśreyasam idaṁ karma yathā.uditam aśeṣataḥ |
M12.107c/ mānavasya-asya śāstrasya rahasyam upadiśyate || 107 || [Note: M12.107cv/ M: upadekṣyate]

12.1.3. 12.1.3. Excursus: Secret Teaching

[Note: [ O edn 909-911 :: O tr. 235-236]
M12.108a/ an.āmnāteṣu dharmeṣu kathaṁ syād iti ced bhavet |
M12.108c/ yaṁ śiṣṭā brāhmaṇā brūyuḥ sa dharmaḥ syād aśaṅkitaḥ || 108 ||
M12.109a/ dharmeṇa-adhigato yais tu vedaḥ sa.paribṛṁhaṇaḥ |
M12.109c/ te śiṣṭā brāhmaṇā jñeyāḥ śruti.pratyakṣahetavaḥ || 109 ||
M12.110a/ daśa.avarā vā pariṣadyaṁ dharmaṁ parikalpayet |
M12.110c/ try.avarā vā-api vṛttasthā taṁ dharmaṁ na vicālayet || 110 ||
M12.111a/ traividyo hetukas tarkī nairukto dharmapāṭhakaḥ |
M12.111c/ trayaś ca-āśramiṇaḥ pūrve pariṣat syād daśa.avarā || 111 ||
M12.112a/ ṛgvedavid yajurvid-ca sāmavedavid eva ca |
M12.112c/ try.avarā pariṣad-jñeyā dharmasaṁśayanirṇaye || 112 ||
M12.113a/ eko 'pi vedavid dharmaṁ yaṁ vyavasyed dvijottamaḥ |
M12.113c/ sa vijñeyaḥ paro dharmo na-ajñānām udito 'yutaiḥ || 113 ||
M12.114a/ a.vratānām a.mantrāṇāṁ jātimātra.upajīvinām |
M12.114c/ sahasraśaḥ sametānāṁ pariṣattvaṁ na vidyate || 114 ||
M12.115a/ yaṁ vadanti tamobhūtā mūrkhā dharmam atadvidaḥ |
M12.115c/ tatpāpaṁ śatadhā bhūtvā tadvaktṝn anugacchati || 115 ||
[Page J 282 ]
M12.116a/ etad vo 'bhihitaṁ sarvaṁ niḥśreyasakaraṁ param |
M12.116c/ asmād apracyuto vipraḥ prāpnoti paramāṁ gatim || 116 ||

12.2. 12.2. Conclusion

[Note: [ O edn 911-913 :: O tr. 236]

12.2.1. 12.2.1. Excursus: Summation

[Note: [ O edn 911-913 :: O tr. 236]
M12.117a/ evaṁ sa bhagavān devo lokānāṁ hitakāmyayā |
M12.117c/ dharmasya paramaṁ guhyaṁ mama-idaṁ sarvam uktavān || 117 ||
M12.118a/ sarvam ātmani sampaśyet sat-ca-asat-ca samāhitaḥ |
M12.118c/ sarvaṁ hy ātmani sampaśyan na-adharme kurute manaḥ || 118 || [Note: M12.118cv/ M: matim]
M12.119a/ ātmā-eva devatāḥ sarvāḥ sarvam ātmany avasthitam |
M12.119c/ ātmā hi janayaty eṣāṁ karmayogaṁ śarīriṇām || 119 ||
M12.120a/ khaṁ sanniveśayet kheṣu ceṣṭana.sparśane 'nilam |
M12.120c/ pakti.dṛṣṭyoḥ paraṁ tejaḥ snehe 'po gāṁ ca mūrtiṣu || 120 ||
M12.121a/ manasi-induṁ diśaḥ śrotre krānte viṣṇuṁ bale haram |
M12.121c/ vācy agniṁ mitram utsarge prajane ca prajāpatim || 121 ||
M12.122a/ praśāsitāraṁ sarveṣām aṇīyāṁsam aṇor api |
M12.122c/ rukma.ābhaṁ svapnadhīgamyaṁ vidyāt taṁ puruṣaṁ param || 122 ||
M12.123a/ etam eke vadanty agniṁ manum anye prajāpatim |
M12.123c/ indram eke pare prāṇam apare brahma śāśvatam || 123 ||
M12.124a/ eṣa sarvāṇi bhūtāni pañcabhir vyāpya mūrtibhiḥ |
M12.124c/ janma.vṛddhi.kṣayair nityaṁ saṁsārayati cakravat || 124 ||
[Page J 283 ]
M12.125a/ evaṁ yaḥ sarvabhūteṣu paśyaty ātmānam ātmanā |
M12.125c/ sa sarvasamatām etya brahma-abhyeti paraṁ padam || 125 ||
M12.126a/ ity etan mānavaṁ śāstraṁ bhṛguproktaṁ paṭhan dvijaḥ |
M12.126c/ bhavaty ācāravān nityaṁ yathā.iṣṭāṁ prāpnuyād gatim || 126 ||

[samāptaṁ mānavaṁ dharmaśāstram]

Appendix A Appendix A: Bibliographic Notes

Author: Manu
Editor: Michio Yano and Yasuke Ikari ; Richard Mahoney
Title: The Mānavadharmaśāstra - SARIT transcript
Place: London
Publisher: SARIT: Search and Retrieval of Indic Texts
Year: 2009
Version: 0.1_005
Subject: Hindu law
Language: Sanskrit ; English
Citation: The Mānavadharmaśāstra - SARIT transcript, Yano, Micho and Ikari, Yasuke, compilation, data entry, proof correction, Mahoney, Richard, editing and conversion to TEI markup, (London: SARIT: Search and Retrieval of Indic Texts, 2009), Id. No. 0001-00000002.
Description: UTF-8 encoded XML file ; approx. 810000 bytes
Identifier: 0001-00000002
Remarks: The base e-text was: Yano, Michio and Ikari, Yasuke, editors, Manusmṛti - Kyoto Digital Version, (Kyoto: Joint Seminar on ``Law (dharma) and Society in Classical India'', Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University, 1996), ASCII text file; approx. 360000 bytes.

The source edition for the base e-text was: Shastri, J.L., editor, Manusmṛti: with the Sanskrit commentary Manvarthamuktāvalī of Kullūka Bhaṭṭa, (Dillī: Motīlāla Banārasīdāsa, 1983).

The SARIT transcript of the base e-text was correlated with: 1.) Jolly, J., editor, Mānava Dharma-śāstra: the code of Manu: original Sanskrit text, critically edited, according to the standard Sanskrit commentaries, with critical notes (London: Trübner, 1887); and 2.) Olivelle, P., editor, Manu's code of law: a critical edition and translation of the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra (Oxford; New York; Tokyo: Oxford University Press, 2005).
Funder: The British Association for South Asian Studies ; The British Academy
Rights: Copyright (C) 1991-1996 members of the Joint Seminar on ``Law (dharma) and Society in Classical India'', coordinated by Y. Ikari at the Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University. All rights reserved. ; Copyright (C) 2009 Dominik Wujastyk. All rights reserved. For more complete details please refer to the Availability Section of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Header.

Appendix B Appendix B: Text Input System

(1)
Sanskrit diacritics are entered using the Unicode Standard Encoding (utf-8):
vowels and diphthongs:
a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, ṛ, ṝ, ḷ, e, ai, o, au
gutturals:
k, kh, g, gh, ṅ
palatals:
c, ch, j, jh, ñ
cerebrals:
ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ
dentals:
t, th, d, dh, n
labials:
p, ph, b, bh, m
semivowels:
y, r, l, v
sibilants:
ś, ṣ, s
aspirate:
h
anusvāra:
visarga:
avagraha:
'
(2)
Anusvāra is transliterated by:
before gutturals
ñ
before palatals
before cerebrals
n
before dentals
m
before labials
(3)
Members of a compound are separated by periods.
(4)
External sandhi is decomposed with -.
(5)
K: Manusmrti with the Sanskrit Commentary Manvartha-Muktavali of Kulluka Bhatta, ed. J.L. Shastri, 1983. (Compared with the edition of Kashi Skt Series 114, ed., Haragovinda Sastri.) M: Manusmrti with the commentary of Medhatithi, 2 vols., Calcutta, 1967. M: Manu-smrti with the "Manubhasya" of Medhatithi, ed., Ganganatha Jha, GOI 1932, 1939, rep. 1992.

Text is based upon K, and M's variant is given at each pada-end. There are verses which are found only in K or M. Different numbering of verses between M and K is noted.

M: variants of Medhatithi's.

Appendix C Appendix C: References Declaration

(1)
References to each portion of the Sanskrit text have been placed at the start of each line: e.g., M9.19a/ refers to Shastri's edition of the Manusmṛti, Chapter 9, Verse 19, Line 1 - Shastri, J.L., op. cit..
(2)
Chapter and section headings are from: Olivelle, P., op. cit..
(3)
Page references to Jolly's edition of the Sanskrit text have been placed in the body of the text: e.g., -- J 6 -- refers to Jolly's 1887 edition, page 6 - Jolly, J., op. cit..
(4)
Page references to Olivelle's edition and English translation have been placed below and to the right of the section headings: e.g., [ O edn 390-391 :: O tr. 89 refers to Olivelle's 2005 edition, pages 390 to 391, and translation, page 89 - Olivelle, P., op. cit..


Manu. Date: Wed Aug 26 11:22:50 NZST 2009